International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
ISSN / EISSN: 03946320 / 20587384
Published by: SAGE Publications
Total articles ≅ 2,448
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 28 January 2022
International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1177/20587384211073397
Baicalin (BA) is a kind of flavonoid that is isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, which has been verified to have hepatoprotective effects in some diseases. However, the role of BA in acute hepatic injury induced by arsenic trioxide (ATO) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective action of BA on acute hepatic injury induced by ATO and to probe its possible mechanism. Mice were pretreated with BA (50, 100 mg/kg) by gavage. After 7 h, ATO (7.5 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally to induce liver injury. After 7 days of treatment, serum and hepatic specimens were collected and assayed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of BA. Pathological sections and the liver function index indicated that ATO caused significant liver injury. The fluorescence of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress indicators showed that ATO also increased oxidative stress. The inflammatory markers in ATO-induced mice also increased significantly. Staining of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and apoptotic factor assay showed that apoptosis increased. However, with BA pretreatment, these changes were significantly weakened. In addition, BA treatment promoted the expression of proteins related to the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. The results suggest that BA can ameliorate acute ATO-induced hepatic injury in mice, which is related to the inhibition of oxidative stress, thereby reducing inflammation and apoptosis. The mechanism of this protection is potentially related to the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.
Published: 18 January 2022
International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1177/20587384211069831
Objective: T cells orchestrate an inflammatory response that destroys pancreatic insulin-producing β cells during the development of autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D). Garcinia kola Heckel (GK) is a plant widely exploited in West African traditional medicine. Some of the therapeutic effects of GK nut’s extract (GKE) have been suggested to be due to its anti-inflammatory potential. Since GKE has never been investigated in a T1D experimental model, nor in the T cells’ context, we aimed to determine whether GKE exhibits antidiabetic properties and affects T cells by its anticipated anti-inflammatory action. Methods: The effect of aqueous GKE (aGKE) ingestion, 100 mg/kg daily by drinking water over the period of 6 weeks, has been tested in a low-dose streptozotocin-induced (LDSTZ) mouse model of autoimmune T1D. T cells were studied in vitro and in vivo in mice treated by aGKE. Results: The results showed that aGKE treatment, which started a week before induction of disease, neither delayed the development of T1D, nor reduced glycemia severity. Interestingly, aGKE treatment did affect T cells and their function, significantly decreasing the frequency of helper (TH) and cytotoxic (TC) T cells, while elevating the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ, and suppressing IL-2. Conclusion: In conclusion, our results did not confirm the antidiabetic property of GKE, while suggesting its therapeutic exploration in TH2-dependent pathologies that benefit from an aggravated TH1 response, such as allergies.
Published: 15 January 2022
International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1177/20587384211059673
Angiogenesis is the process of new vascular formation, which is derived from various factors. For suppressing cancer cell growth, targeting angiogenesis is one of the therapeutic approaches. Vascular endothelial growth factor family receptors, including Flt-1, Flk-1 and Flt-4, have been found to play an essential role in regulating angiogenesis. Rapamycin is a macrolide compound with anti-proliferative properties, while platelet factor-4 (PF-4) is an antiangiogenic ELR-negative chemokine. Rapamycin inhibits mTOR ligands activation, thus suppressing cell proliferation, while PF-4 inhibits cell proliferation through several mechanisms. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of rapamycin and platelet factor-4 toward breast carcinoma at the proteomic and genomic levels. A total of 60 N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea-induced rat breast carcinomas were treated with rapamycin, platelet factor-4 and rapamycin+platelet factor-4. The tumours were subsequently subjected to immunohistochemical protein analysis and polymerase chain reaction gene analysis. Protein analysis was performed using a semiquantitative scoring method, while the mRNA expression levels were analysed based on the relative expression ratio. There was a significant difference in the protein and mRNA expression levels for the selected markers. In the rapamycin+platelet factor-4-treated group, the Flt-4 marker was downregulated, whereas there were no differences in the expression levels of other markers, such as Flt-1 and Flk-1. On the other hand, platelet factor-4 did not exhibit a superior angiogenic inhibiting ability in this study. Rapamycin is a potent antiangiogenic drug; however, platelet factor-4 proved to be a less effective drug of anti-angiogenesis on rat breast carcinoma model.
Published: 12 January 2022
International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1177/20587384211051982
Objectives: To investigate the distinctive features of lymphocytes promoting inflammation in ulcerative colitis. Methods: We performed flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and colorectal mucosa lymphocytes in ulcerative colitis patients ( n = 13) and control patients ( n = 5). Results: CD62L+/CD3+CD4+ (35.7 ± 14.0% vs. 19.9 ± 6.4%) and CD62L+/CD3+CD4− cells (17.1 ± 17.4% vs. 2.4 ± 3.9%) were higher in the rectum of ulcerative colitis patients than in control patients. Subpopulation analysis revealed that CD45RA−CD62L+/CD3+CD4+, that is, central memory T cell fraction in CD4+ T cells, was significantly increased in the rectum of ulcerative colitis, compared to that in control patients (23.3 ± 10.5% vs. 8.2 ± 4.0%). Comparison of rectum and colon samples in ulcerative colitis patients indicated that CD56+/CD3+ was decreased in the rectum compared to that in the colon (11.3 ± 12.5% vs. 21.3 ± 16.5%). The ratio of CD56+/CD3+ was also decreased in the rectum of active ulcerative colitis patients compared to that in ulcerative colitis patients at the endoscopic remission stages (2.8 ± 1.7% vs. 18.5 ± 13.3%). Conclusion: We demonstrated that CD62L+ T lymphocytes, particularly the CD45RA−CD62L+ T cell subset that represents central memory T cells, were increased in the rectum of patients with ulcerative colitis. In addition, the CD56+/CD3+ subset (natural killer T cells) was decreased in the rectum compared to that of less inflamed colonic mucosa. These results suggest that the enrichment of central memory T lymphocytes and the reduction of natural killer T cells in the gut mucosa are involved in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.
Published: 10 January 2022
International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1177/20587384211048027
The objective of this study is to detect the number of different subsets of TFH and B cells in renal transplant recipients (RTR) with antibody-mediated acute rejection (AMR), acute rejection (AR), chronic rejection (CR), or transplant stable (TS). The present study was a prospective study. The numbers of ICOS +, PD-1+ and IL-21+ TFH, CD86+, CD38+, CD27+, and IgD- B cells in 21 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and post-transplant times were measured by flow cytometry. The level of serum IL-21 was detected by ELISA. The numbers of circulating CD4+CXCR5+, CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+, CD4+CXCR5+PD-1+, CD4+CXCR5+IL-21+ TFH, CD19+CD86+, and CD19 +CD86+CD38+ B cells as well as the level of serum IL-21 in the AMR, AR, and CR groups at post-transplantation were significantly higher than those at pre-transplantation. In contrast, the number of circulating CD19+CD27+IgD B cells was significantly increased in the TS groups in respect to the other groups. Moreover, the numbers of circulating CD4+CXCR5+IL-21+ TFH cells, CD19+CD86+CD38+ B cells as well as the level of serum IL-21 were positive related to the level of serum Cr while showing negative correlated with the values of eGFR in the AMR groups at post-transplantation for 4 and 12 weeks. Circulating TFH cells may be a biomarker in RTR with AMR, which can promote the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells by activating B cells, thereby promoting disease progression.
Published: 10 January 2022
International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1177/20587384211021218
Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) is a mucocutaneous autoimmune blistering disease affecting both adults and children. It is caused by IgA antibodies targeting multiple antigens along the basement membrane zone, leading to disruption of dermoepidermal junction and development of bullous lesions which often presents in characteristic arrangement. Although most LABD cases have been reported to be idiopathic, different triggers have been described, including several drugs and infection. However, the occurrence of vaccine-induced cases of LABD is not widely known and accepted due to the few reports available. We present two cases of LABD occurred following different triggers, rising the suspicion for a possible pathogenetic role of vaccines.
Published: 6 January 2022
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1177/20587384211051993
Objectives: Alantolactone (AL) is a compound extracted from the roots of Inula Racemosa that has shown beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease. However, the cardioprotective mechanism of AL against hypoxic/ischemic (H/I) injury is still unclear. This research aimed to determine AL’s ability to protect the heart against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced MI injury in vivo and cobalt chloride (CoCl2) induced H/I injury in vitro. Methods: Electrocardiography (ECG), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) assays in addition to histological analysis of the myocardium were used to investigate the effects of AL in vivo. Influences of AL on L-type Ca2+ current (ICa-L) in isolated rat myocytes were observed by the patch-clamp technique. Furthermore, cell viability, apoptosis, oxidative stress injury, mitochondrial membrane potential, and intracellular Ca2+ concentration were examined in vitro. Results: The results indicated that AL treatment ameliorated the morphological and ECG changes associated with MI, and decreased levels of LDH, CK, and cTnI. Furthermore, pretreatment with AL elevated antioxidant enzyme activity and suppressed ROS production. AL prevented H/I-induced apoptosis, mitochondria damage, and calcium overload while reducing ICa-L in a concentration and time dependent fashion. The 50% inhibiting concentration (IC50) and maximal inhibitory effect (Emax) of AL were 17.29 μmol/L and 57.73 ± 1.05%, respectively. Conclusion: AL attenuated MI-related injury by reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis, calcium overload, and mitochondria damage. These cardioprotective effects may be related to the direct inhibition of ICa-L.
Published: 5 January 2022
International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1177/20587384211058642
Introduction: MicroRNAs (miRs) exhibit the potential to act as therapeutic targets for the management of human cancers including ovarian cancer. The role of microRNA-30 (miR-30) via modulation of RAB32 expression has not been studied in ovarian cancer. Consistently, the present study was designed to characterize the molecular role of miR-30/RAB32 axis in human ovarian cancer. Methods: Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Expression analysis was carried out by qRT-PCR. Dual luciferase assay was used to confirm the interaction between miR-30 and RAB32. Scratch-heal and transwell chamber assays were used to monitor the cell migration and invasion. Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays were used to determine the protein expression. Results: The results revealed significant ( p < 0.05) downregulation of miR-30 in human ovarian cancer cell lines. Overexpression of miR-30 in ovarian SK-OV-3 and A2780 cancer cells significantly ( p < 0.05) inhibited their proliferation. Besides, ovarian cancer cells overexpressing miR-30 showed significantly ( p < 0.05) lower migration and invasion. The miR-30 upregulation also altered the expression pattern of marker proteins of epithelial–mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer cells. In silico analysis predicted RAB32 as the molecular target of miR-30 at post-transcriptional level. The silencing of RAB32 mimicked the tumor-suppressive effects of miR-30 overexpression in ovarian cancer cells. Nonetheless, overexpression of RAB32 could prevent the tumor-suppressive effects of miR-30 on SK-OV-3 and A2780 cancer cells. Conclusion: Taken together, the results suggest the tumor-suppressive role of miR-30 and point towards the therapeutic utility of miR-30/RAB32 molecular axis in the management of ovarian cancer
Published: 5 January 2022
International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1177/20587384211066718
Background: Allergy is associated with the loss of tolerance of environmental antigens, combined with a pathological immune response. There were no studies up to date that would show whether the quality of semen decreases in people with allergic diseases. Material and methods: The research included men who reported to the Gynecological Outpatient Clinic due to reproductive difficulties, defined as the lack of pregnancy after one year of regular intercourse. Semen quality was assessed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) standard. All patients underwent skin prick tests with the most important inhalation allergens (such as hazel, silver birch, mugwort, rye, dog, cat, Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, alder, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium herbarum, and grass mix). The data was statistically analyzed. Results: Results of 52 patients aged 25–52 years (34.62 ± 4.96) were analyzed. The mean BMI (Body mass index) was 28.25 (+ −3.77). It was found that 38 men (73%) had increased body weight, and 14 men (26.9%) were obese (BMI > = 30). 13 patients were smokers (25%), and 24 patients (46%) had skin tests positive for at least one inhaled allergen. Sperm tail defects were statistically more significant in patients allergic to birch, rye, cat, alder, and grass. In patients allergic to Alternaria alternata, head defects were statistically more significant ( p < .05). No association was found between allergy to house dust mites, mugwort, hazel, and dogs and the deterioration of semen. Conclusion: Allergy due to inhalation allergens had an influence on the quality of male semen. Further research is necessary to establish the immunological bases of this phenomenon.
Published: 5 January 2022
International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1177/20587384211063962
Background: Modern pharmacological studies have shown that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Taraxacum mongolicum possesses anti-cancer activity. Taraxerol (TRX) is a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from T. mongolicum, which is widely used in clinical treatment, and its anti-cancer effects have been extensively studied. However, the effects and molecular mechanism of TRX in gastric cancer (GC) have not been fully explicated. Methods: We used public databases to derive information on potential targets of TRX and proteins related to GC. Also, STRING and R3.6.2 software were used to analyze the protein–protein interaction (PPI). The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were done to explain the potential mechanism underlying the regulatory role of TRX in GC. The role of TRX in GC was verified by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-di- phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay, apoptosis analysis, Transwell assay, and wound healing assay, and the key signaling pathways were verified. Results: We identified 135 potential targets for the treatment of GC via network pharmacological analysis. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that steroid hormone receptor activity and the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway were the biological processes and pathways with the highest degree of enrichment. Additionally, cellular experiments revealed that TRX inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of GC cells as well as induced G1 phase arrest and apoptosis in GC cells. Conclusion: Here, we used multi-target and multi-pathway network pharmacological analysis to verify the anti-cancer activity of TRX in GC. Also, in vitro experimental data were used to derive the potential molecular mechanism.