Annals of Psychiatry and Treatment
Published by: Peertechz Publications Private Limited
Total articles ≅ 48
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 4 May 2023
Annals of Psychiatry and Treatment, Volume 7, pp 010-017; https://doi.org/10.17352/apt.000048
Introduction: Surviving a stroke and caring for a survivor, impacts individuals’ psychological health and quality of life, which may impose substantial costs on healthcare and social systems. This study aims to understand and explore the psychological health, experiences, needs and quality of life of Portuguese stroke survivors and their informal carers. Methods and analysis: This is a mixed-methods, observational study. The methodological strategy relies on 1) scoping review; 2) questionnaires to stroke survivors hospitalized between September 2018 and August 2019 in one of the 12 Stroke Units of the Northern Region Health Administration of Portugal and their informal carers, 18-24 months after the event (1775 survivors and 443 carers); and 3) semi-structured interviews to a subsample of stroke survivors (n = 49) and informal carers (n = 37); and 4) think tanks with stakeholders involved in the stroke rehabilitation process, namely stroke survivors, informal carers, researchers, and health and social professionals (n = 45). Descriptive and inferential statistics will be used to analyze the quantitative data, and content and interpretational analysis will be implemented to assess qualitative data. Ethics and dissemination: The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committees of all the hospitals involved. The expected dissemination actions are effective tools in designing strategies that aim to promote knowledge on a needs-driven, socioethical sensitive basis, which will contribute to the implementation of a model of coproduction of health in the context of post-stroke care.
Published: 31 March 2023
Annals of Psychiatry and Treatment, Volume 7, pp 001-009; https://doi.org/10.17352/apt.000047
Background: In popular culture, the medium is a subject of seemingly controversial psychic abilities, as he or she seems to be able to communicate telepathically and physically with the various spirit entities present on the astral plane, i.e., a plane parallel to the physical one that can interact with it. In the literature, such assumptions rise to mere speculation, the result of superstition and personal beliefs, using the abilities of mental manipulation; however, some research has challenged these beliefs. Objectives: To demonstrate whether the personality profile of the psychic mediums analyzed exhibits pathological personality traits and whether such is sufficient to confirm a clinical diagnosis. Materials and methods: Clinical interview, based on narrative-anamnestic and documentary evidence, and battery of psychometric tests. Results: The totality of the clinical group (CG) is found to be pathological, with at least 5 dysfunctional traits, and a corollary of secondary traits reinforcing the primary condition; the pathological differential from the control group (Cg) is +70.7%. At the individual sexual matrix questionnaires, just over 1/4 of the CG show a dysfunctional tendency to sexual behavior with a differential from the Cg of +42.8%. Slightly more than one-fifth of the CG also exhibit affective dependence, with a pathological differential with the Cg of +17%, while the CG sample concerning ego defense mechanisms exhibits the pathological totality of the sample, with a differential for the Cg of +45.7%. Conclusion: This research confirms the psychopathological nature of the personality profiles of mediums, with a higher prevalence of delusional, dissociative, and narcissistic disorders of the overt type, although these results do not prove the fraudulent nature of the mediumistic activity boasted by the subjects, and therefore what has been obtained should be read more generally, subjecting psychic mediums (in mediumistic activity) to technical instrumentation (electroencephalogram, functional magnetic resonance imaging and signal potential and audio-video) in the future to verify the outcomes.
Published: 30 December 2022
Annals of Psychiatry and Treatment, Volume 6, pp 062-068; https://doi.org/10.17352/apt.000046
Background and aims: In the last decade, a musical strand has emerged in the Italian national scene that has international roots since the 1990s of the last century: “Trap Music” and younger generations are increasingly fascinated by this genre, for various reasons. The present research hypothesizes the existence of a link between the choice of preference of this musical genre and the psychopathological profile of those who choose their first preference, hypothesizing that such individuals have on average a higher level of dysfunctional traits typical of cluster B (borderline, narcissistic, histrionic and antisocial), according to the PICI model and compared to the population. Materials and methods: Clinical interview, and administration of the battery of psychometric tests. The population sample was selected based on previous clinical contacts and voluntary participation through recruitment in major social networks (Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, TikTok), a total of 4,368 participants, divided into three age groups (18-25, 26-37, 38-46) and two groups (the first “clinical” and the second “control”). SPSS, Anova test (with Bonferroni). Results and discussion: On average, the users selected in the clinical group population sample presented 81% of cases with a psychopathological personality profile (PICI-2) with at least 5 dysfunctional traits afferent to cluster B (bipolar, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, antisocial, and psychopathic) and at least 4 dysfunctional traits afferent to cluster C (paranoid, delusional, schizophrenic spectrum, dissociative), according to the PICI model, compared to 23.1% of the cases in the control group, which, however, shows traits more oriented toward neurotic tendencies (anxious, phobic-avoidant, obsessive, somatic). The investigation of dysfunctional sexual behaviors then showed, in the clinical group, the marked presence of the clinical condition of the users, with an average of 96.8% compared to 24% in the control group; in particular, the presence of a tendency toward pedophilic (under 13 years old) and pederastic (13-17 years old) paraphilia is noted for the average value between only the markings of the second and third clinical groups equal to 54.3% (with an overall phenomenon slightly more inclined toward the male group). Conclusion: It is concluded, therefore, that the starting hypothesis can be confirmed, as the hypothesized link between the primary preference choice of “Trap Music” and the psychopathological profile afferent to the dysfunctional traits of Cluster B (borderline, narcissistic, histrionic, antisocial and psychopathic), according to the PICI model and compared with the control group (CG) population, which has significantly lower pathological values (57.9% - 72.8%) than the clinical group (CG), appears credible and non-random.
Published: 24 December 2022
Annals of Psychiatry and Treatment, Volume 6, pp 053-061; https://doi.org/10.17352/apt.000045
Background and aims: With the advent of the Internet and social networks, mass communication has become more interactive and geo-dislocated. The present research hypothesizes the existence of a link between the choice of the use of a specific social network by the subject user of the telematics service and his or her eventual psychopathological profile, hypothesizing that: the users of Facebook (FB) have a higher level of neurotic (cluster A) and psychotic (cluster C) dysfunctional traits, while users of Instagram (IG), Twitter (TW) and TikTok (TT) have a higher level of borderline dysfunctional traits (cluster B), according to the PICI model. Materials and methods: Clinical interview, and administration of the battery of psychometric tests. SPSS, Anova test (with Bonferroni). Results and discussion: The population sample was selected based on past clinical contacts and voluntary participation through social recruitment, totaling 5.581 participants, divided into four age groups (18-25, 26-37, 38-46, 47-60) and by four different social networks (Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, TikTok). The present research showed that, on average, the selected users in the studied population sample, divided into sixteen subgroups, present in 79.9% of cases a psychopathological personality profile with at least 5 dysfunctional traits among the first three social networks analyzed (Facebook and Twitter with a lower frequency than Instagram, while TikTok users present an average value of 95.5% of cases). Equally distributed are also the hypotheses of affective addiction among users of the four social networks, with an average of 41.7% of cases, although always with higher pathological peaks in the case of Instagram, and even more for Tiktok, which varies with a much higher average of 69.2%. The pronounced dysfunctional tendency found is also confirmed by the tests related to the study of ego defense mechanisms, which in 100% of the psychopathological cases detected with the PICI (Perrotta Integrative Clinical Interviews) model turn out to be markedly dysfunctional, especially concerning the mechanisms of isolation, fixation, identification, denial, repression, regression, omnipotence, idealization and devaluation. The survey on dysfunctional sexual behaviors also found the marked presence of the clinical condition of users, with a mean value of 21.3% for Twitter, 55.9% for Facebook, 57.8% for Instagram, and 81.0% for TikTok; in particular, the presence of pedophilic paraphilia/pederasty is found in Instagram users with a mean value of 28.5% and for TikTok with a mean value of 43.0%. Conclusion: There is a correlation between the preferred profile choice on a specific social network and one’s psychopathological personality profile: Facebook users are found to be more oriented on the neurotic (anxious-phobic, somatic and obsessive) and border (borderline and depressive) area, Twitter users are oriented on the border (bipolar, borderline and narcissistic) area, Instagram and TikTok users on the border (bipolar, borderline, histrionic, antisocial, psychopathic and narcissistic) and psychotic (delusional, paranoid and dissociative) area.
Published: 17 December 2022
Annals of Psychiatry and Treatment, Volume 6, pp 049-052; https://doi.org/10.17352/apt.000044
Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a common psychiatric condition. There is an overall agreement across treatment guidelines of BD type I and BD type II however, there is far less certainty regarding the treatment of subthreshold presentations including Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder. We present a patient with treatment-resistant rapid cycling Bipolar Disorder type I who deteriorated on Ketamine treatment but reached full remission with repetitive Transcranial magnetic stimulation, High Dose Levothyroxine, Lurasidone and Lithium Carbonate. This case highlights the previously demonstrated safety and effectiveness of the combined protocol of High Dose Levothyroxine and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for this population.
Published: 10 November 2022
Annals of Psychiatry and Treatment, Volume 6, pp 033-048; https://doi.org/10.17352/apt.000043
Sleep medicine and psychology has a relatively long story to share. The multidisciplinary nature of sleep medicine requires that different specialists work together to diagnose and treat sleep disorders and improve subspecialty areas. In the last decades, various non-pharmacological therapies have been developed and demonstrated their efficacy. There are many non-pharmacological therapeutic available options for sleep disorders, including cognitive, behavioral, psycho-educational, and psychosocial interventions that could help clinicians to improve the quality of life of adult patients. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, insomnias, hypersomnias, circadian rhythm disorders, restless leg syndrome and parasomnias can be effectively taken care of, by an integrated approach with the support of sleep medicine psychologists. The paper aims to give a comprehensive view of psychological interventions for adults, in behavioral sleep medicine.
Published: 14 October 2022
Annals of Psychiatry and Treatment, Volume 6, pp 028-032; https://doi.org/10.17352/apt.000042
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a debilitating disorder, which tremendously impacts the psychological, social, and financial aspects of a patient’s life. Frequently, SZ patients present with poor insight, which can even worsen the symptomatology. Antipsychotic medications frequently result in suboptimal outcomes, especially the ones concerning negative and cognitive symptoms. Accordingly, new therapeutic options are warranted. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) has been adopted in SZ with promising results. Continuous Theta burst stimulation (cTBS) is a particular brief and effective form of TMS. It has been successfully applied in patients with poor cognitive control (e.g., gambling disorder patients) targeting the pre-Supplementary Motor Area (pre-SMA). Given that poor cognitive control has been regarded as a core deficit in SZ, 11 patients with SZ were included in this study and treated with cTBS for a total of 10 sessions during a two-week period. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with a diagnosis of SZ in comorbidity with Substance Use Disorder (SZ + SUD) vs SZ. Patients were evaluated before and after treatment, assessing executive functions, awareness, and nicotine craving. Within-group comparisons showed a significant reduction in the Scale to assess Unawareness in Mental Disorders (SUMD) scores (p < 0.05) and in the test of Fagerstrom (to assess nicotine dependence) scores (p < 0.001) before and after treatment in the SZ + SUD group. These results showed the efficacy of cTBS for craving reduction as well as in improving awareness of the illness and of treatment. This can be considered a remarkable result since better insight has been previously associated with an improved quality of life in SZ.
The clinical boundary between deviant behavior and criminal conduct: From maladaptive positions to pathological dysfunctionality using the “Graded Antisociality Model” (GA-M), the “Antisocial Severity Scale” (AS-S) and “Perrotta-Marciano questionnaire on the grade of awareness of one’s deviant and criminal behaviors” (ADCB-Q)
Published: 7 October 2022
Annals of Psychiatry and Treatment, Volume 6, pp 023-027; https://doi.org/10.17352/apt.000041
The concepts of deviance and criminality are often confused or grouped, following a sociological logic. In the clinic, there is a need to distinguish them, speaking of “deviant behaviors” as active human acts that result in a violation of a social norm determined by the community and that do not provide a sanction of a legal nature (e.g., personal use of drugs)”, while from “criminal behaviors” as active human acts that result in a violation of an exclusively legal norm and that provides a sanction of a civil-administrative nature (compensation for damages, restitution, demolition, suspension, disbarment, and administrative detention) or criminal (fine, fine, imprisonment and arrest)”. Even more succinctly, we can consider “deviant and criminal behavior” (DCB) as all those active human acts that constitute a violation of a social and/or legal rule, and their transgression provides for the application of a punitive sanction. Based on this assumption, we propose a) the Graded Antisocial Model (GA-M), which considers antisociality as a graded phenomenon that is reinforced over time through active behaviors that are not limited by the social context of reference, becoming then a structured personality disorder only when the individual’s self-centeredness becomes rigid and dysfunctional; b) the Antisocial Severity Scale (AS-S), which draws the pathological and dysfunctional evolution of antisociality, in five levels (yellow for emotional dysfunctionality, orange for self-centeredness, red for violation of social rules and violence to property, animals, and people, purple for severe violation of legal rules and black for structured psychopathology); c) the Perrotta-Marciano Questionnaire on the state of awareness of one’s deviant and criminal behaviors (ADCB-Q), in 30 items on L1-6 scale, which defines both deviant and criminal tendency and the grade of awareness of one’s pathological state.
Published: 28 July 2022
Annals of Psychiatry and Treatment, Volume 6, pp 017-022; https://doi.org/10.17352/apt.000040
Background and aims: Starting from the concept of “affective addiction”, then reworked and critiqued according to a clinical key, it was hypothesized that it is not a behavioral addiction, as erroneously determined by modern psychiatry, but is a symptom of a well-identified personality disorder. The purpose of this research is to test the correctness of this hypothesis. Materials and methods: Clinical interview, based on narrative-anamnestic and documentary evidence and the basis of the Perrotta Human Emotions Model (PHEM) concerning their emotional and perceptual-reactive experience, and administration of the battery of psychometric tests published in international scientific journals by the author of this work: 1) Perrotta Integrative Clinical Interviews (PICI-2), to investigate functional and dysfunctional personality traits; 2) Perrotta Individual Sexual Matrix Questionnaire (PSM-Q), to investigate the individual sexual matrix; 3) Perrotta Affective Dependence Questionnaire (PAD-Q), to investigate the profiles of affective and relational dependence; 4) Perrotta Human Defense Mechanisms Questionnaire (PDM-Q), to investigate the defense mechanisms of the Ego. Results: In a population sample of 206 subjects (103 m/f couples, in a stable relationship for at least 1 year and heterosexual), it was found that the totality exhibited at least 5 dysfunctional personality traits of the borderline, dependent, and masochistic types, with secondary traits of the neurotic, narcissistic covert, psychotic and histrionic types. Almost the totality of the sample also showed marked dysfunctionality of a sexual nature and activation of defense mechanisms typical of psychopathological processes. Conclusions: The data obtained confirmed the study hypothesis, and it is, therefore, plausible to think that affective addiction is not a behavioral addiction but a manifested symptom of a broader framework of personality disorder and that it is established in subjects with the same dysfunctional personality traits. Such subjects, in close relational contact, hyperactivate themselves, according to a logic of pathological determinism. The maintenance of hyperactivation then facilitates the decompensation of the subject’s psychopathological picture, reinforcing dysfunctionality and feeding the pathological circle that keeps one’s personality structure alive, in a continuous feeding determined by the similar or same-natured traits present in the partner. This also explains why, once affective dependence is established, it is so complicated to succeed in breaking the chain of events that keeps the dysfunctional relationship alive, since overactivation prevents a correct, conscious, and rational assessment of the factors at play in relationships between elements and people. To summarize: the more the hyperactivation persists, the more it reinforces the psychopathological decompensation that keeps alive both the toxic relationship and the bond between the two individuals who, while tending toward destruction or self-destruction, fail to break the affective, sentimental, and sexual bond, maintaining over time an increasingly toxic dysfunctional attachment.
Published: 26 July 2022
Annals of Psychiatry and Treatment, Volume 6, pp 013-016; https://doi.org/10.17352/apt.000039
Psycho-social support lies at the core of Patient and Family-Centered Care (PFCC) that health care systems aim to transform. The objective is to comprehensively inform patients and families of their health issues, empower them to take charge of their illness, and participate in making choices about managing their health and wellbeing .