E3s Web of Conferences
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E3s Web of Conferences, Volume 331; https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202133106003
Uncontrolled motorists’ movement behavior could trigger a disaster for road users. A deep understanding of the motorist’s movement behavior might improve our mitigation planning. This paper presents an observation of the movement of motorists from a minor road crossing a major road at an unsignalised intersection. The study’s objectives are to estimate the gap and lag of motorcyclists when crossing the intersection, observe the forced gap, and predict the effect of traffic volume on the variation of the gap and lag. The case study was located at the intersection between Ahmad Yani Road as a major road and Bandar Purus Road as a minor road in Padang, Indonesia. A drone was used and placed vertically above the center of the intersection to record the movement. The study found that the average lag is 2.4 seconds at off-peak, and the average gap is 4.3 seconds; at the peak hour are 2.0 seconds and 3.1 seconds, respectively. At peak hours, more than 80% of motorcyclists are committed to the force gap/lag.
E3s Web of Conferences, Volume 331; https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202133102021
Climate change has had an impact on the environment and society In Indonesia. Delay in adaptation efforts will result in direct and indirect economic losses in 2100 of 2.5% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Climate change indicators such as surface temperature, rainfall (CH), sea surface temperature (SPL), sea level (TML), extreme climate events (ENSO, IOD/DMI, PIO/IPO), and extreme weather events (heavy rains, strong winds), and storm surges) will have potential impacts on related fields in the national development system, both in terms of economy, livelihoods, ecosystems, and special areas. Another impact is the increasing frequency of hydrometereological disasters. This study focuses on the vulnerability of coastal areas using multiple decision-making methods and geographic information systems and remote sensing. The relationship between demography and climate change is carried out through literature review and observation. Observations were made in 19 sub-districts An appropriate strategy is needed to adapt to vulnerabilities, especially in coastal areas.
E3s Web of Conferences, Volume 331; https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202133108003
A river is a naturally occurring flow system that flows from upstream to downstream. Rivers have many benefits. Similarly, rivers have a negative impact if rainfall is high. It can lead to catastrophic flooding. Flooding often occurs along the central roads of Padang City when it rains, especially in the Maransi and Aie Pacah areas. The purpose of this study is to estimate the height of water level by using software HEC – RAS and estimate areas that have the potential for flooding in conditions before and after river normalization by using the software Arc-GIS. Data collection is carried out to achieve this goal, namely the maximum daily rainfall data, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data obtained from the processing of aerial photo data, and cross-sectional data of the river. Then, a numerical simulation is performed to estimate the height of the water level, and then a numerical simulation is performed to determine the extent of the flood area. The results of this study are in the form of flood areas in conditions before and after river normalization with a period of 25, 50, and 100 years that can be used to see the effectiveness of river normalization work in the river.
E3s Web of Conferences, Volume 331; https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202133108002
Changes in land use in the Air Dingin watershed (DAS) area in Padang City, Indonesia, lead to a decrease in rainwater infiltration volume to the ground. Some land use in the Latung sub-watershed decrease in infiltration capacity with an increase in surface runoff. This research aims to determine the effect of land-use changes on infiltration capacity and surface runoff. Purposive sampling method was used in this research. The infiltration capacity was measured directly in the field using a double-ring infiltrometer, and the data was processed using the Horton model. The obtained capacity was quantitatively classified using infiltration zoning. Meanwhile, the Hydrologic Engineering Center - Hydrology Modeling System with the Synthetic Unit Hydrograph- Soil Conservation Service -Curve Number method was used to analyze the runoff discharge. The results showed that from the 13 measurement points carried out, the infiltration capacity ranges from 0.082 - 0.70 cm/minute or an average of 0.398 cm/minute, while the rainwater volume is approximately 150,000 m3/hour/km2. Therefore, the soil infiltration capacity in the Latung sub-watershed is in zone VI-B or very low. This condition had an impact on changes in runoff discharge in this area, from 87.84 m3/second in 2010 to 112.8 m3/second in 2020 or a nail of 22.13%. Based on the results, it is concluded that changes in the land led to low soil infiltration capacity, thereby leading to an increase in surface runoff.
E3s Web of Conferences, Volume 331; https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202133102022
The waste generation of Padang City at the Final Processing Site (TPA) is 495.50 tons/day, and the amount of unmanaged waste is 62.42 tons/day, of which 40% is plastic waste. Efforts to reduce the use of plastic bags have begun in Padang, referring to Perwaliko number 36 of 2018. Shopping centers and modern stores must use plastic shopping bags that meet SNI no later than December 31, 2020, especially in various retail and contemporary shopping centers. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the effectiveness of plastic use policies and the decrease in the use of plastic bags in people who shop at modern retailers in Padang City. This type of research is quantitative with a cross-sectional design. The number of samples is 116 respondents who shop at modern shopping centers, namely Matahari Dept. Store, Food Mart Padang, Ramayana Padang and SPAR Padang. Data analysis used univariate and bivariate analysis. The results showed that 46.6% of respondents stated that the plastic bag policy was not adequate, and 46.6% of respondents stated that there was no reduction in plastic bags. There is a significant relationship between the effectiveness of the plastic bag policy and the decrease in the use of plastic bags in the people of Padang City (p=0,029). With this paid plastic bag policy, government, retailers, and the public will be more concerned with the environment.
E3s Web of Conferences, Volume 331; https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202133105012
A finite element study carried out using LS DYNA and aimed to simulate the monotonic pull-out test of deformed steel rebar embedded in concrete is presented in this paper. Three models of the interface between deformed steel rebar and well-confined concrete, i.e. perfect bond model and two bond-slip models are observed and compared. Bond stress-slip response and rebar stress-slip response obtained numerically are validated with experimental data and empirical equations available from the literature. The full bond model overestimates the response, providing higher rebar stress. In the bond-slip models, good agreement is observed between numerical and experimental bond stress and rebar Stress–slip responses. The empirical equation of bond-slip proposed by Murcia-Delso and Shing (2014) is found to overestimate the peak bond stress.
E3s Web of Conferences, Volume 331; https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202133103006
The earthquake has become one of the most lethal problems in Indonesia, especially across the ring of the fire zone. On September 30th, 2009, an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.6 SR occurred, triggering tsunami and liquefaction. The liquefaction potential and tsunami forces need to be mitigated when an earthquake happens to reduce the risk. This study designs the building foundation that can endure the loads from an earthquake, tsunami, and liquefaction in the Air Tawar estuary of Padang City. The soil profile and liquefaction potential can be identified with CPT (Cone Penetration Test) data. After identifying the liquefaction potential, the upper structure was designed to consider the earthquake load and tsunami waves according to FEMA P-464 (2012). Afterward, design the foundation dimensions based on the ultimate load from the upper structure, wherein the amount of the settlement should be smaller than the tolerable soil settlement. The method used in the paper is taking the CPT data in the Air Tawar Estuary. After analyzing the liquefaction potential, making an upper structure design with ETABS 2016, recapitulate the maximum joint reaction to design the foundation that can withstand the ultimate load, and calculate the amount of soil settlement. Thus the design of the upper structure and lower structure take into account liquefaction. The amount of soil settlement obtained in the building design is still within the tolerance range of 9.79 mm, where the maximum limit of reduction is 32m.
E3s Web of Conferences, Volume 331; https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202133107015
In the urban area, flooding becomes the most common disaster that has not been resolved until today. The utilization of river border area into housing and lack of absorption area becomes the trigger factor of urban flooding, as what is happening around Way Halim River on Seroja street. In this area, floods often happen during the rainy season, with the latest events recorded on January 21st, 2021. Analysis of flood intensities and discharges can be parameters for the decision-making of flood mitigation strategies. This study aims to analyze the flood discharges along Way Halim River, Seroja street by comparing the flood discharges resulting from three analysis methods of Synthetic Unit Hydrograph (SUH) including Gama I SUH, Nakayasu SUH, and Snyder SUH. Finally, suitable flood mitigation strategies were also proposed in this study based on the flood discharges and rain intensities. The results showed that Nakayasu SUH had the highest peak flood discharge than Snyder SUH and Gama I SUH. Based on the results of the investigation of land suitability; and analysis of rainfall intensities and flood discharges, the proposed flood mitigation in Seroja street is by installing biopore infiltration holes along Seroja street for storing water and reducing the risk of flooding in the area.
E3s Web of Conferences, Volume 332; https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202133203005
Beef has a high level of toughness that is not liked by consumers. The solution to increasing beef tenderness is to soften the beef. One method for tendering the beef is by marinating using local ingredients that are easily available, abundant, and inexpensive, namely pineapple. Pineapple peel is waste from pineapple that has not been utilized and is usually discarded. In pineapple peel, there is a bromelain enzyme thought to be able to hydrolyse protein so that it can tender beef. The purpose of this study was to find out the organoleptic properties of beef using the marination with various pineapple peel juice concentrations (Ananas comosus L. Merr) namely 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%. This study used an experimental method with a Completely Randomized Design consisting of 4 treatments and 4 replications. The parameters in this study were organoleptic properties namely colour, aroma, texture, tenderness, and taste. Results of the study showed that beef marination with various pineapple peel juice concentrations had a significant difference (P0.05)
E3s Web of Conferences, Volume 331; https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202133101010
As of June 30, 2021, Indonesia ranks third in Asia with the highest number of deaths due to COVID-19. One of the provinces in Indonesia, Central Java, is ranked third nationally in the accumulation of positive cases, recoveries, and deaths. Fulfilling the need for burial grounds for COVID-19 positive bodies needs attention because several countries and regions in Indonesia were experiencing a COVID-19 public cemetery land crisis. Sragen Regency is one area in Central Java designated as a red zone. The number of death cases is relatively high needs to ensure the availability of COVID-19 burial grounds. Therefore, this study aims to model the forecast for COVID-19 burial grounds. The approach used in this research is systems thinking, while the method used is system dynamics with Powersim software. Reference data for modeling is obtained from the http://corona.sragenkab.go.id page. The simulation results show the AME value of 4.7% or less than 5% so that the model is declared valid. Based on the Business as Usual (BAU) simulation, in the 20th week, it is estimated that there will be 320 deaths with a burial area of 961.13 m². Until the 20th week, the increase in COVID-19 Positive Population, Death, and Cemetery Land Needs on the graph of the BAU simulation results shows an exponential growth trend.