International Journal Bioautomation

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 13141902 / 13142321
Total articles ≅ 145

Latest articles in this journal

Irina Angelova, Galina Yotova, Veronika Mihaylova,
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 241-254; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.3.000833

Abstract:
Elevated concentrations of aluminium have been found at the outlets of the Drinking Water Treatment Plants (DWTPs) of Sofia city, Bulgaria and in separate sampling points in the water supply network. Cluster analysis is performed for multivariate data interpretation of the distribution of aluminium (Al) concentrations during 2019 at 19 water sampling points (2 DWTPs outlets and 17 points within the city water supply system). Although the concentration of aluminium in the outlet of the treatment plants differ significantly, both of them fall into the same cluster, as the concentrations during the year change in the same manner. The formed cluster of both the treatment plants and most of the studied sampling points indicate the mixed origin of the purified water and proves that the concentration of Al in tap water is dominated by the qualities and quantities from the different sources of the supplied water, rather than by the secondary processes in the network for areas with predominant steel and polyethylene pipes. A distinct exception are the areas with old asbestos cement pipelines where potential release of the metal from the cement affects the Al distribution in the water supply system.
Liyuan Huang, Jie Liu
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 213-224; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.3.000885

Abstract:
Targeting 16 varieties of Camellia oleifera planted in different regions, this paper explores the influence of aluminum (Al) stress over several physiological indices, namely, root activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, proline content, and soluble sugar content and evaluates the overall Al tolerance of each variety. The purpose is to identify the difference between different C. oleifera varieties in physiological indices under Al stress, and to screen the varieties with relatively strong Al tolerance. The results show that: Al stress lowered the root activity and SOD activity, while enhancing MDA content, H2O2 content, proline content, soluble sugar content, and Al content. But the physiological indices of different C. oleifera varieties changed by vastly different amplitudes under Al stress. The variation amplitudes of root activity, MDA content, SOD activity, H2O2 content, proline content, soluble sugar content, and Al content were -47.06%-42.86%, 12.50%-133.33%,-8.33%%-26.28%, 11.11%-71.88%, 76.47%-420.00%, 4.97%-56.41%, and 23.43%-101.12%, respectively. Furthermore, the Al tolerance coefficients of the 16 C. oleifera varieties were analyzed comprehensively by membership functions. The results show that C. oleifera ‘Huajin’, C. oleifera ‘Huashuo’, and C. oleifera ‘Huaxin’ have relatively strong Al tolerance, while C. oleifera ‘Ganyou No.2’, C. oleifera ‘Ganxing No.48’, and C. oleifera ‘Ganzhou No.70’ have relatively weak Al tolerance.
Paulchamy Chellapandi, Jayachandrabal Balachandramohan
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 297-310; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.3.000553

Abstract:
The ability to design efficient enzymes for a broad class of different reactions would be of tremendous practical interest in both science and industry. Computer-assisted designing is a novel approach to generating industrial enzymes for biotechnological applications. Objectives: The main aim of this study was to design an enzyme construct with diverse substrate-binding specificity based on the evolutionary conservation of archaeal vanadium-dependent phosphatases. Materials and methods: A rational 3D structural model of enzyme construct was developed from conserved sequence scratch encompassing a vanadium-binding site and functional domain. Substrate-binding specificity of the designed enzyme was computed with different myo-inositol polyphosphate analogous by a molecular docking program. Results: A designed enzyme has shown more substrate-binding specificity with 1D-myo-inositol 3, 4, 5, 6-tetrakisphosphate. Its catalytic function closely resembled myo-inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase and multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatases. Moreover, the enzyme construct was energetically stable with a low degree of conformational changes upon substrate-binding. Conclusion: Substrate specificity and catalytic competence of designed enzymes were computationally evaluated for further biotechnological applications.
Svetozar Stoichev, Avgustina Danailova, Ivan Iliev, Inna Sulikovska, Velichka Strijkova, Kirilka Mladenova, Tonya Andreeva
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 225-240; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.3.000843

Abstract:
The present study is focused on the construction and characterization of the morphology and biocompatibility of polysaccharide multilayered microcapsules (PMC) composed of natural polyelectrolytes (chitosan/alginate/hyaluronic acid), and on the effect of graphene oxide (GO) incorporation in the polymer matrix. The insertion of GO in the polymer matrix is an innovative and still evolving strategy used to modify the properties of the polyelectrolyte microcapsules. We have fabricated a number of hybrid GO-polysaccharide multilayered capsules by layer-by-layer assembling technique onto a CaCO3 core, followed by core decomposition in mild conditions. Hybrid microcapsules with different composition were constructed by varying the number or localization of the incorporated GO-layers. It was found that the thickness of the hybrid microcapsules, evaluated by atomic force microscopy, decreases after incorporation of GO nanosheets in the polymer matrix. Analysis of the viability and proliferation of fibroblasts after incubation with hybrid PMC revealed pronounced concentration-dependent cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect. Based on the results, we can conclude that the hybrid multilayered microcapsules made of natural polysaccharides and graphene oxide could be used for biomedical applications.
Muhamad H. N. Aziz, Radostin D. Simitev
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 255-272; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.3.000832

Abstract:
Contemporary realistic mathematical models of single-cell cardiac electrical excitation are immensely detailed. Model complexity leads to parameter uncertainty, high computational cost and barriers to mechanistic understanding. There is a need for reduced models that are conceptually and mathematically simple but physiologically accurate. To this end, we consider an archetypal model of single-cell cardiac excitation that replicates the phase-space geometry of detailed cardiac models, but at the same time has a simple piecewise-linear form and a relatively low-dimensional configuration space. In order to make this archetypal model practically applicable, we develop and report a robust method for estimation of its parameter values from the morphology of single-stimulus action potentials derived from detailed ionic current models and from experimental myocyte measurements. The procedure is applied to five significant test cases and an excellent agreement with target biomarkers is achieved. Action potential duration restitution curves are also computed and compared to those of the target test models and data, demonstrating conservation of dynamical pacing behaviour by the fine-tuned archetypal model. An archetypal model that accurately reproduces a variety of wet-lab and synthetic electrophysiology data offers a number of specific advantages such as computational efficiency, as also demonstrated in the study. Open-source numerical code of the models and methods used is provided.
Ram Sewak Singh, Demissie Jobir Gelmecha, Satyasis Mishra, Gemechu Dengia, Devendra Kumar Sinha
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 273-296; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.3.000786

Abstract:
In this research paper, authors present an automated system in this paper that integrates a ranking technique with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Generalized Discriminant Analysis (GDA) and a 1-Norm Bidirectional Extreme Learning Machine (1-NBELM) to reliably classify normal and coronary artery disease groups. Twenty chaotic and non-linear attributes were hauling out from the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) signal to detect coronary artery disease groups. The HRV data for this study derived from a typical database of Normal Old (ELY), Young (YNG), and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) people. Fisher, Wilcoxon and Bhattacharya were used to compute the rankings of attributes. GDA then turned the ranking features into a new feature. The Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel was used to transfer original features to a high-dimensional feature space in GDA and PCA, and then it was deployed to 1-NBELM, which utilized the sigmoidal or multiquadric non-linear activation. Numerical experiments were performed on the combination of database sets as Young-ELY, Healthy-CAD, and Healthy ELY-CAD subjects. The numerical results show that ROC with GDA and 1-NBELM approach achieved an accuracy of 98.12±0.14, 96.21±0.12 and 99.87±0.28 for Young-CAD, Young-ELY and Healthy ELY-CAD groups with the use of sigmoidal and multiquadric activation function. The Fisher with GDA and 1-NBELM and Bhattacharya with GDA and 1-Norm Extreme Learning Machine (1-NELM) approach achieved an accuracy of 99.98±0.21 for all databases.
Mariya Zaharinova
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 153-160; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.2.000859

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of alertness with reaction time test in Bulgarian sport students. Materials and methods: Our sample includes 25 sports student, mean age 19.92, recruited from different disciplines from National Sports Academy “Vassil Levski”, Sofia, Bulgaria. Reaction time has been assessed twice a day (once in the morning and once in the afternoon) to check if reaction time has a relationship with the level of alertness based on chronotype according to Morningness-eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Outcome measures include Vienna Test System (test form S7) and MEQ. Results: The moderate morning type had a faster reaction time both, in the morning and in the afternoon as compared to the intermediate and moderate evening type (reaction time with and without cue). Intermediate type had the worst reaction time and moderate evening type were in the middle. Conclusions: The main objective of this study is to find out if the reaction time depends on the level of alertness. It has been found that the participants, which are moderate morning type, indicating high alertness in the morning, have faster reaction time in the morning and in the evening (with or without cue).
Silvija Angelova, Emil Petrov, Plamen Raykov, Rositsa Raikova
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 161-174; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.2.000865

Abstract:
Many people have problems with elbow joint driving because of different diseases, sport trauma, road traffic injuries, etc. A good way for restoring elbow motions is a self-rehabilitation using an active orthosis. It has to be light, convenient for daily use, active, easy to control by patients, and safe. The paper presents a prototype of an active elbow orthosis. The plastic details were designed using a CAD system and were 3D printed. The joint was driven by a Dynamixel actuator. To increase the joint moment, a reduction gear-belt drive was constructed and applied. Experiments with six healthy subjects were performed using a Noraxon measuring system, aiming to investigate elbow joint angles in natural movements with four different velocities of elbow flexion and extension without and with a load of 0.5 kg in the hand. The four velocities (from very slow to very fast) were controlled by a specialized PC application. In order to achieve similar motions of the orthosis, the angle profiles were approximated so that the motion was between 10° and 120° because of electro/mechanical and software safety stoppers. Experiments were performed with the orthosis following the given angle profile without load and with a load of 0.5 kg. The results show that the orthosis’ forearm performs the given angle and angular speed profiles with enough precision.
Ivan Iliev, Inna Sulikovska, Elena Ivanova, Mashenka Dimitrova, Biliana Nikolova, Christina Andreeva
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 141-152; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.2.000837

Abstract:
Phototoxicity is a chemically induced skin irritation in the presence of sunlight. Phototoxic substances after irradiation with sunlight absorb and convert light energy into chemical energy, leading to the formation of highly reactive oxygen species with toxic effects. Recently LED technologies made possible their application for novel effective solar simulators, to be used in biology and medicine. We study the possibilities of application of LED sunlight simulator (Helios-iO, model LE-9ND55-H – 5500K) for in vitro testing of synthetic and natural products for phototoxicity. Cytotoxicity/phototoxicity was assessed by validated BALB/3T3 clone A31 Neutral Red Uptake Assay. The morphological alterations in BALB/3T3 cells induced by the Radachlorin® and irradiated with dose 2.4 J, were analyzed by fluorescent microscopy. The physical characteristics of the lamp were determined and the intensity distribution of the LED light over a model of a 96-well plate at a distance of 25 cm from the lamp diode matrix center was estimated. The obtained results show that the light emitted by the solar simulator used is similar to the natural sun light. The biological testing results reveal the high efficiency of the solar simulator in an in vitro experimental system for phototoxicity testing.
Wei Wang, Bo Gao
International Journal Bioautomation, Volume 26, pp 175-192; https://doi.org/10.7546/ijba.2022.26.2.000872

Abstract:
Cluster analysis is a principal approach to discover unknown tumor subtypes. Innovative and effective cluster analysis methods are of great significance for tumor diagnosis and malignant tumor treatment. Existing studies on the cluster analysis of tumor gene data generally have defects in aspects such as unsatisfactory performance in clustering high-dimensional and high-noise data, and insufficient accuracy in selecting cluster centers. To overcome these defects, this paper performed cluster analysis on tumor gene data based on an improved Density peaks clustering (DPC) algorithm. At first, this paper elaborated on the composition and storage format of tumor tissue samples used in the experiment, gave the tumor gene expression profile data in the matrix format, and introduced the preprocessing process of gene expression profile data. Then, this paper carried out feature selection of tumor gene expression profile data. At last, this paper innovatively divided the target gene density into two parts of K-nearest neighbor local density and neighborhood density, thereby completing the improvement of conventional DPC algorithm and expanding its application scenarios. Combining with experiment, the clustering results of the algorithm before and after introducing the idea of Approximate Nearest Neighbor (ANN) were given, which had verified the effectiveness of the algorithm proposed in this paper.
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