International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 27069567 / 27069575
Published by: AkiNik Publications
Total articles ≅ 395

Latest articles in this journal

Ammar Abd El Majeed Abd Ali
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 06-08;

Background: The ABO blood types are linked to a number of serious chronic medical conditions. An link between the ABO blood group and risk for type 2 diabetes has been discovered in earlier investigations. The purpose of the research is to determine if type 2 diabetes and the ABO blood types are related in any way. Methods: A case control study that was carried out over the course of two years and eight months in the medical ward of Al-Khidhir General Hospital and a private clinic in the province of Al-Muthanna. There were 400 adults that took part, split into two groups as follows: 200 people with type 2 diabetes who were already getting treatment made up the case group, whereas 200 healthy people made up the control group. Each participant gave a blood sample, which was used for a blood group, Rh, and random blood sugar test. Results: Blood group O was shown to be the most likely to be protective against the development of type 2 DM (OR= 0.71) whereas blood group B was revealed to be a significant independent risk factor for increased chance of developing type 2 DM (OR= 2.07). As this research indicated, blood group B is associated with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes, while blood group O has the least relationship, blood group is thought to be a risk factor and may help in disease assessment. Since people with blood group B are more prone to develop type 2 diabetes, clinicians should exercise more caution and close supervision of these patients.
Nitesh P Thakare, Baba S Yelke, Rohit Salame, Tejas Madavi, Prashant Chipde
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 24-29;

Background: While several parameters have emerged as predictors of prognosis of COVID-19, a simple clinical NEWS2 score at baseline might help early risk stratification. Hence the present study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of NEWS-2 score on admission in COVID 19 positive patients and its use in assessing the mortality, also assessed COVID-19 patients based on CURB-65, NEWS-2 score and SIRS and which score among three is better in predicting outcome.Method: A total 155 patients who had SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled and screened on the basis of the NEW2 score, SIRS score and CURB 65 score on admission. Routine examination was carried out. RT-PCR/ RAT came to be positive, on admission based on score patient assessed and started on treatment. Patient was followed up till 28 days or discharge or death.Results: On NEWS score, 31.6% cases had medium clinical risk (NEWS2 score 5-6) and 46.5% cases had low clinical risk (NEWS2 score 1-4). On SIRS criteria, majority 87.1% had scores 2 and 12.9% had score > 2. On CURB 65 majority 52.9% had score 0, 8.4% had 1, 28.4% had score 2, 2.6% had 3 and 7.7% had score 4. On final outcome 87.1% were discharged and 12.9% died. On association between NEWS score and mortality rate it was seen those having NEWS score more than 5 i.e., 74 cases, among them majority 20 cases died, (p<0.01). On comparing all 3 scores i.e., NEWS, SIR and CURB 65, it was seen that among those who had raised scores had more mortality rate. Sensitivity for all 3 was 98.5%, 97% and 97.1% respectively.Conclusion: Thus, such scoring system can definitely help in detecting the prognosis of disease which will ultimately help the treating doctor for planning the management of such cases.
Abhishek Chandran R, Vishnumoorthy
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 34-37;

Aim: This study aimed to investigate echocardiographic features in patients with diagnosed T2DM.Material & Methods: A hospital‑based, cross‑sectional observational study included 100 patients with diagnosed type 2 diabetes, who presented to Medicine Department K S Hegde hospital for one year. This study included type 2 diabetes diagnosed as per American diabetes association 2018 criteria. Their ECG findings were noted and correlated with their blood sugar levels.Results: There were 55 males and 45 females. Out of 100 cases, 5 cases (5%) of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were in age group 31-40 years, 24 cases (24%) were in age group 41-50 years, 26 cases (26%) were in age group 51-60 years, 30 cases (30%) were in age group 61-70 years, 10 cases (10%) were in age group 71-80 years and 5 cases (5%) were above 81 years. Out of 100 cases of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, 54 cases (54%) were smokers and 46 (46%) were non-smokers, 20 (20%) consumed alcohol and 80 (80%) didn’t consume alcohol. Out of 100 cases of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, 50 cases (50%) had HTN, 25 (25%) had CAD and 75 (75%) did not have CAD. Out of 100 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, 40 cases (40%) had left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, 26 cases (26%) had left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), 15 cases (15%) had RWMA, 10 cases (10%) had RA/RV dilated, 6 cases (6%) had dilated LV and 3 cases (3%) had dilated LA.Conclusion: Type 2 diabetics without cardiovascular symptoms must be screened for cardiovascular abnormalities so that early interventions can be done to prevent further progression to symptomatic cardiovascular abnormalities. ECG should be done to predict cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetic patients without cardiovascular symptoms. Echocardiographic abnormalities are very common in outpatients with type 2 diabetes, but neither cardiac symptoms nor clinical characteristics are effective to identify patients with echocardiographic abnormalities.
Tirth Pareshbhai Patel, Patel Aditya Nitinkumar, Zeel Niralbhai Kodia, Madhuri Banoth, Sayantika Ghosh
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 30-33;

Background: Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by insulin resistance such as glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, and results in an increased predisposition to atherosclerotic vascular disease. The present study was conducted to evaluate fasting and postprandial lipid profile in diabetic patients. Materials & Methods: We put 80 type II diabetes patients in group I and 80 healthy subjects in group II. Parameters such as HbA1c, FBS, PBS, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein– cholesterol (HDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) were determined. Results: Group I had 35 males and 45 females and group II had 40 males and 40 females. The mean VLDL was 35.3 mg/dl and 29.6 mg/dl, LDL was 174.4 mg/dl and 82.2 mg/dl, TG was 180.2 mg/dl and 154.3 mg/dl, TC was 210.8 mg/dl and 172.4 mg/dl, HDL- C was 46.2 mg/dl and 56.2 mg/dl, PBS was 142.2 mg/dl and 130.4 mg/dl and HbA1c was 9.2% and 4.6% in group I and II respectively. The difference was significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: Postprandial lipid profile had higher values as compared to fasting lipid profile among type 2 DM patients.
Mohamed Ahmed Fouad El-Said Badawy, Mohamed Abo Freikha, Hisham Ahmed Eissa Elserogy, Mohamed Sarhan
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 38-42;

Background: One of the most prevalent chronic infections in the world, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), is the primary contributing factor to gastritis, peptic ulcers, and stomach cancer. Chronic infections frequently have an impact on diabetic patients. Numerous studies have assessed the incidence of H. pylori infection in diabetes individuals and its potential impact on the way their metabolism is regulated. While some studies found no association between glycemic control and H. pylori infection, some identified a greater incidence of the infection in diabetes individuals and worse glycaemic control. Aim and objectives: To investigate the impact treating Helicobacter pylori infection may have on individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus' ability to maintain glycemic control. Subjects and Methods: A 50-person type 2 diabetes mellitus randomised controlled trial was conducted at Tanta University Hospital's outpatient diabetes and endocrinology clinic. Each patient underwent a thorough clinical examination, extensive history taking, and investigations. Result: Before and after, there was a high significant difference in FBG and a significant difference in HbA1C. Conclusion: Finally, we found that the rate of H. pylori eradication with OCA or OMAB treatment is lower in patients with type 2 diabetes than in non-diabetics, and that H. pylori medication had no effect on glycemic control in people with type 2 DM.
Marwa Abd El-Rahman Zidan, Mohamed Hosny Nasef, Moataz Mohamed Sabry, Mohamed Abd Elfattah Shaheen
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 18-23;

Background: Herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK) is an immune-mediated disease due to primary infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). It is now known about Cyclosporine A (CSA) that it selectively inhibits T-helper cell production of growth factors essential for B cell and cytotoxic T-cell differentiation and proliferation, so that the immune response which is considered the main cause of stromal lesion and opacity will be formed masking the transparent cornea affecting vision of the patients. The aim of our study was to compare between topical CSA ED versus Prednisolone ED in the treatment of HSK.Methods: The study is prospective, randomized, non-invasive and comparative on 30 eyes with HSK. Participants were divided randomly in numeric manner into 2 groups, each group included 15 eyes: Group (A): treated by topical CSA ED 0.4% and Group (B): treated by topical prednisolone acetate 1%. Comparison between both groups regarding effect on visual acuity, stromal haze, corneal edema, duration of healing, complications, HSV recurrence, vascularization and opacity was done.Results: There was no statistically significant difference between both groups in VA before treatment however, it was statistically significant lower in group B after treatment. There was no statistically significant difference between both groups in grade of stromal infiltration before treatment but there was a statistically significant difference after treatment. Duration of healing was statistically significant lower in group B compared to group AConclusions: According to our study, CSA ED (0.4%) is effective and comparable to corticosteroid in management of HSK. It may be less tolerable and take longer duration of action but it is superior to steroids as regard the effect on corneal opacity. It has the advantage to decrease corneal vascularization as well. Using corticosteroids is associated with complications especially in more complicated cases like thin cornea and epithelial defects. It causes disease recurrence and IOP elevation so CSA ED is recommended to be used in these cases.
Mai Elsayed Ibrahim, Abeer Abd-El-Monem Shahba, Wesam Salah Mohamed, Sahar Mohey El Din Hazzaa
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 09-17;

Background: Rheusmatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic disease characterized by articular involvement and extra-articular manifestation. A cytokine with immunomodulatory properties, interleukin-21 (IL-21) influences both the innate and acquired immunity. The aim of this work was to detect IL-21 polymorphism (rs2221903) in cases with RA and determine its role in the pathogenesis and activity of the disease.Methods: This research was carried out on 60 cases with RA, cases were divided into three groups Group I: RA cases with an active form, group II: RA cases in inactive form, group III: apparently healthy individual who will be selected with matched age and sex.Results: There was statistically significant relationship between activity of RA and genotypes (P=0.04), three groups in the genotype distribution (p=0.016), reference (C) and variant allele (T) distribution (p=0.003) between the three groups and in genotype distribution between RA cases and control (P=0.003), this meaning that IL-21 is susceptibility locus for RA.Conclusions: Results indicate that IL-21(rs2221903) has a role in the pathogenesis and activity of RA. It is also susceptibility locus for RA.
Vivek D Patil, Baba S Yelke, Rohit Salame, Tejas Madavi
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 01-05;

Background: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide. The progression of CKD aetiology increases the probability of death, which lowers quality of life (QOL). Therefore, we studied complications encountered in CKD patient undergoing hemodialysis at tertiary health center. Methods: This is a cross sectional, observational study conducted among 100 patients for 24 months duration. All CKD patients who were undergoing maintenance hemodialysis at tertiary health care center in Vidharba, India. Patients with CKD (stages 3-5) who required hemodialysis, regardless of gender, were included, as were all patients older than 12 years old. Results: We studied 100 CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis in which 33 (33%) were females and 67 (67%) were males. Hypotension was the most common intradialytic complication (34.2%), followed by muscle cramps (19.5%) and rigors (17.5%). Other complications such as hypoglycemia, nausea, vomiting, chest pain, itching, arrhythmias, and pulmonary edema were reported at lower frequencies. The study found no significant association between age, gender and intradialytic complications. (P value= 0.072). Conclusion: Based on the outcomes of the study, we can conclude that hypotension is the most frequent intradialytic complications followed by, hypoglycemia, nausea/vomiting, muscle cramp, rigors, chest pain, itching, arrhythmias and pulmonary edema. Majority of patients were found to be comorbid having hypertension, diabetes which again are the factors responsible for worsening of disease.
Anureet Gill, Sukhinder Baidwan
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 106-108;

Aims: To investigate the clinical and characteristic differences of urinary tract infections between diabetic patients and non-diabetic patients.Methods: The current research is being carried out at a tertiary care center, for the period of 6 months. There are a total of 50 diabetics and 50 people who do not have diabetes in this study. An exhaustive inquiry and historical assessment were carried out. SPSS, a statistical tool, was used to do the final analysis on the data. The chi square test was used to compare the percentages of participants in the various groups, and the student t test was used to compare the means.Results: The mean age among diabetic and non-diabetic patients was 56.89±12.56 years and 51.36±11.53 years. The majority of patients will first come with a fever. In both diabetes and non-diabetes, BPH was the most prevalent predisposing factor, and indwelling catheterization was the second most common; however, there was no statistically significant difference between the two. The majority of diabetic patients diagnosed with UTI (87.14 percent) had HbA1C levels that were more than 6.5 percent, and this difference was statistically significant. In diabetics, the incidence of recurrent UTI is greater than in non-diabetic populations; nevertheless, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. In both diabetics and those without diabetes, the risk of recurrent UTI is greater in females. Conclusion: The presence of diabetes, inadequate glycaemic management, fever, and female genital sex were the host variables that were shown to be related with urinary tract infections (UTIs).
Kashif Bin Naeem, Ruchi Baraya, Pramod Chabrani
International Journal of Advanced Research in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 115-120;

Although primary PCI remains the preferred strategy for the treatment of STEMI, the lack of expanded PCI centers and prolonged transfer times have resulted in delayed reperfusion and thus increased mortality. A pharmacoinvasive strategy involving immediate fibrinolysis followed by transfer to a PCI center to perform angiography (and PCI of infarct-related arteries) within 2 and 24 hours after successful fibrinolysis offers immediate reperfusion and better outcomes in patients in whom primary PCI could not be achieved in a timely manner without an increase in bleeding complications. The article summarizes the evidence for this approach in terms of efficacy and safety.
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