Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics

Journal Information
EISSN: 21971153
Published by: Springer Nature
Total articles ≅ 560

Latest articles in this journal

Max Seiter, Brenton W. Douglass, Alex W. Brady, Grant J. Dornan, Justin R. Brown,
Published: 26 January 2023
Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics, Volume 10, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40634-023-00572-5

Abstract:
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical effect of in-situ repair of posterior lateral meniscal root (PLMR) tear with segmental meniscal loss, with and without meniscofemoral ligament (MFL) imbrication, on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft force and knee joint kinematics. Methods: Ten fresh-frozen cadaveric knee specimens underwent kinematic evaluation in five states: 1) Native, 2) ACLR, 3) Segmental PLMR loss, 4) In-situ PLMR repair, and 5) MFL augmentation. Kinematic evaluation consisted of five tests, each performed at full extension and at 30° of flexion: 1) Anterior drawer, 2) Internal Rotation, 3) External Rotation, 4) Varus, and 5) Valgus. Additionally, a simulated pivot shift test was performed. Knee kinematics and ACL graft force were measured. Results: PLMR tear did not significantly increase ACL graft force in any test. However, PLMR repair significantly reduced ACL graft force compared to the ACLR alone (over constraint -26.6 N, p = 0.001). PLMR tear significantly increased ATT during the pivot shift test (+ 2.7 mm, p = 0.0001), and PLMR repair restored native laxity. MFL augmentation did not improve the mechanics. Conclusions: In-situ PLMR repair eliminated pivot shift laxity through ATT and reduced force on the ACL graft, indicating that this procedure may be ACL graft-protective. MFL augmentation was not shown to have any effect on graft force or knee kinematics and untreated PLMR tears may place an ACL graft at higher risk. This study suggests concomitant repair to minimize additional forces on the ACL graft.
Guillaume Soudé, Jean-Baptiste De Villeneuve Bargemon, Raghbir Khakha, Martine Pithioux, Jean-Noël Argenson, Matthieu Ollivier,
Published: 25 January 2023
Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics, Volume 10, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40634-023-00570-7

Abstract:
Purpose: The Pivot Shift (PS) test is a complex clinical sign that assesses the internal rotation and anterior tibial translation, which occurs abnormally in ACL deficient-knees. Because of the high inter-observer variability, different devices have been designed to characterize this complex movement in quantitative variables. The objective of this pilot study is to validate the reproducibility of intraoperative quantitative assessment of the PS with a smartphone accelerometer. Methods: Twelve ACL-injured knees were included and compared with the contralateral uninjured side. The PS was measured by two independent observers utilizing a smartphone accelerometer and graded according to the IKDC classification. Measurements were taken preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively. Intraoperative readings were taken during each stage of reconstruction or repair of meniscoligamentous lesions including meniscal lesions, ramp lesions, ACL reconstruction and lateral tenodesis. Reproducibility of the measurements were evaluated according to an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The intra-observer reliability was good for the first examiner and excellent for the second examiner, with the ICC 0.89 [0.67, 0.98] p < 0,001 and ICC 0.97 [0.91, 1.0] p < 0,001 respectively. The inter-observer reliability was excellent between the two observers with the ICC 0.99 [0.97, 1.0] p < 0,001. The mean tibial acceleration measured 3.45 m.s2 (SD = 1.71) preoperatively on the injured knees and 1.03 m.s2 (SD = 0.36) on the healthy knees, demonstrating a significant difference following univariate analysis p < 0.001. Postoperatively, no significant difference was observed between healthy and reconstructed knees The magnitudes of tibial acceleration values were correlated with the PS IKDC grade. Conclusion: The smartphone accelerometer is a reproducible device to quantitatively assess the internal rotation and anterior tibial translation during ACL reconstruction surgery. The measurements are influenced by the different surgical steps. Other larger cohort studies are needed to evaluate the specific impact of each step of the ACL reconstruction and meniscal repair on this measurement. An external validation using other technologies are needed to validate the reliability of this device to assess the PS test. Level of evidence: Level IV, case series, pilot study.
Wolf Petersen, Sebastian Bierke, Amelie Stöhr, Thomas Stoffels,
Published: 25 January 2023
Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics, Volume 10, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40634-023-00577-0

Abstract:
Purpose: Aim of this systematic review was to analyze the outcome after transphyseal ACL reconstruction in children and adolescents regarding the femoral drilling technique. Methods: A systematic literature search was carried out in various databases on studies on transphyseal ACL reconstruction in children and adolescents. The literature search was limited to the last 20 years. Primary outcome criterion was the failure rate. Secondary outcome criteria were growth disturbances such as leg length discrepancies or deformities and clinical scores. The present study was registered prospectively (www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO; CRD42022345964). Results: A total of 22 retrospective or prospective case series (level 4 evidence) were identified that reported on transphyseal ACL reconstruction in children and adolescents. The overall failure/rupture rate after transphyseal ACL reconstruction was 11.0%. The overall ACL rupture rate of the contralateral side was 9.7%. No statistical significant difference in the failure rates between independent and transtibial drilling techniques could be detected ((p = 0.76/p = 0.28)). Furthermore no statistical significant differences in the rate of reported growth disturbances between independent and transtibial drilling techniques were shown (p = 0.15). The reported clinical scores at follow-up (mean follow-up 5.05 years) revealed good to very good results. Conclusion: This systematic review demonstrates that children and adolescents have a relatively high failure rate after transpyseal ACL reconstruction without any statistically significant differences between independent or transtibial drilling techniques regarding reruptur rates or the rate of growth disturbances. The results of this systematic review warrant a comparison of both techniques for femoral tunnel drilling in a controlled randomized trial.
, Ryo Kanto, Shintaro Onishi, Kenta Amai, Ryosuke Ukon, Toshiya Tachibana, Shinichi Yoshiya, Takuya Iseki, Shota Morimoto, Tomoya Iseki
Published: 25 January 2023
Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics, Volume 10, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40634-023-00573-4

Abstract:
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between preoperative Ahlbäck radiographic classification grade and the clinical outcomes of double level osteotomy (DLO) performed for osteoarthritic knees with severe varus deformity. Methods: The study population comprised a consecutive series of 99 knees (68 patients) for which DLO was performed and follow-up results for a minimum of two years were available. The Ahlbäck radiographic classification system was used to determine the osteoarthritic grade. The following radiological parameters for alignment and bone geometry were measured: mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (mLDFA), mechanical medial proximal tibial angle (mMPTA), joint-line convergence angle (JLCA), and mechanical tibiofemoral angle (mTFA). Clinical results were assessed using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective score preoperatively and at 2 years after surgery. Difference between preoperative and postoperative measurements as well as relationship between Ahlbäck grade and radiological/clinical results were statistically assessed. Results: The average age of the study participants was 60.9 ± 6.2 years and the mean follow-up period was 45.4 ± 15.2 months. Each of the radiological parameters exhibited preoperative abnormal values. Knees with Ahlbäck grade 3 and 4 osteoarthritis exhibited significantly greater JLCA and mTFA than grade 1 knees. Two years post-surgery, all radiological parameter values measured within a normal range. Clinical evaluation showed significant improvement in KOOS after surgery. Analysis of the relationship between Ahlbäck grade and clinical score showed that the 2-year postoperative KOOS scores in grade 3 and 4 osteoarthritic knees were significantly lower than grade 1 knees (with the mean 2-year KOOS scores of 350.0 ± 79.9, 317.9 ± 78.3, and 420.2 ± 42.9, respectively). Conclusions: While DLO may produce significant radiological and clinical improvement in knees with joint space obliteration, Ahlbäck grade 3 and 4 osteoarthritic knees associated with larger JLCA and mTFA showed less satisfactory clinical results compared to grade 1 knees. Level of Evidence: IV case series.
Mohammad Movahedinia, Sajjadeh Movahedinia, SeyedReza Hosseini, Ali Motevallizadeh, Bentolhoda Salehi, Babak Shekarchi,
Published: 21 January 2023
Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics, Volume 10, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40634-023-00569-0

Abstract:
Purpose: Studies have suggested some predictors for hamstring tendon (HT) autograft diameter based on anthropometric factors and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with variable results. Some authors have attributed the variability to gender differences. This prospective cohort reports the sensitivity and specificity of anthropometric and MRI predictors in males and females separately to determine the difference. Methods: Forty-two eligible patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) and MRI in our center were included. ACLR was performed by the senior surgeon using a 4-stranded HT autograft for all patients. A blinded musculoskeletal radiologist measured the cross-sectional area (CSA) of gracilis and semitendinosus tendons using the free-hand region of interest tool for all patients. An orthopaedic resident (PGY4) collected anthropometric factors and measured intraoperative autograft diameter. Results: Mean intraoperative autograft diameter was 8.0 mm. Females had a significantly lower autograft diameter (7.4 vs. 8.2, P < 0.001), smaller gracilis (6.9 vs. 7.9, P = 0.003) and semitendinosus CSA (11.5 vs. 12.8, P = 0.014) compared to males. ROC curve analysis resulted different cut-off values with high sensitivity and specificity for semitendinosus and combined CSA regarding gender. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, CSA of either isolated or combined HTs on preoperative axial MRI, height, and weight are the strongest predictors of intraoperative autograft diameter. It is suggested to consider different cut-offs for males and females to have a better clinical guide for surgeons. Level of evidence: Level II.
, Ida Lindman, Arnar Sigurdsson, Louise Karlsson, Axel Öhlin, Eric Hamrin Senorski, Mikael Sansone
Published: 18 January 2023
Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics, Volume 10, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40634-023-00568-1

Abstract:
Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of arthroscopic treatment for iliopsoas impingement after total hip arthroplasty (THA) 2 years after surgery using patient reported outcomes (PROM). Methods: In this study 12 patients (13 hips) were included from a local hip arthroscopy registry. Patients completed web-based PROMs preoperatively and at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. The PROMs included the International Hip Outcome Tool short version (iHOT-12), the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS), the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions Questionnaire (EQ-5D), the Hip Sports Activity Scale (HSAS) for physical activity level, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for overall hip function and a single question regarding overall satisfaction with the surgery. Results: The mean age was 64.4 years (±15.1SD), mean body mass index (BMI) was 26.6 (±4.3SD), mean follow-up time was 49.8 months (±25SD). Comparing PROMs preoperatively with 2-year follow up showed an improvement for many of the PROMs used. The PROMs scores were iHOT-12 (24.9 vs 34.5, p = 0.13), HAGOS subscales (symptoms 38.2 vs 54.5, p = 0.05; pain 36 vs 53, p = 0.04; sport 14.1 vs 35.1, p = 0.03; daily activity 31 vs 47.5, p = 0.04; physical activity 21.8 vs 24, p = 0.76; quality of life 24 vs 35, p = 0.03), EQ-VAS (57.9 vs 58, p = 0.08), EQ-5D (0.34 vs 0.13, p = 0.07) and VAS for overall hip function (43.1 vs 46.2, p = 0.14). In total, 10 out of the 12 patients (83%) were satisfied with the intervention. Conclusion: Patients undergoing surgery for iliopsoas impingement after previous THA showed improved self-reported hip function where most patients were satisfied with treatment.
Alec Cikes, Fayssal Kadri, , Alexandre Lädermann
Published: 13 January 2023
Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics, Volume 10, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40634-022-00554-z

Abstract:
Purpose: To compare the clinical and functional outcomes of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair over a period of 2 years using three postoperative rehabilitation modalities: aquatic therapy, land-based therapy, and self-rehabilitation therapy. The null hypothesis was that aquatic therapy would provide no difference in Constant score compared to land-based therapy and self-rehabilitation therapy. Methods: A prospective study was performed on subjects scheduled for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair between 2012 and 2017 that complied with the following criteria: (i) small to medium sized symptomatic supraspinatus and/or infraspinatus tendon tears, (ii) low to moderate tendon retraction according to Patte, and (iii) fatty infiltration stage ≤2. Patients were allocated to perform either aquatic therapy, land-based therapy, or self-rehabilitation therapy for 2-4 months. Independent observers blinded to the study design collected Constant score, SSV, and patient satisfaction at 2 months, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years. Study design: Level III, cohort study Results: At 2 months follow-up, patients performing aquatic therapy had significantly higher Constant scores (p < 0.001) and SSV (p < 0.001) compared to those performing land-based therapy or self-rehabilitation therapy. At 3 months follow-up, patients performing aquatic therapy had significantly higher Constant scores (p < 0.001), and SSV (p < 0.001), both of which exceeded the respective minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) of 10.4 and 12. Patients performing aquatic therapy continued to have significantly higher Constant scores and SSV at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. Conclusion: Aquatic therapy has a very limited positive effect on clinical outcomes at 3 months after surgery, but yields no relevant improvements on function or satisfaction at 1 to 2 years follow-up.
Aoife M. R. Pucchio, Nikolas K. Knowles, Joan Miquel, George S. Athwal,
Published: 6 January 2023
Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics, Volume 10, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40634-022-00564-x

Abstract:
Purpose: This study aimed to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of four common segmentation techniques measuring subchondral bone cyst volume in clinical-CT scans of glenohumeral OA patients. Methods: Ten humeral head osteotomies collected from cystic OA patients, having undergone total shoulder arthroplasty, were scanned within a micro-CT scanner, and corresponding preoperative clinical-CT scans were gathered. Cyst volumes were measured manually in micro-CT and served as a reference standard (n = 13). Respective cyst volumes were measured on the clinical-CT scans by two independent graders using four segmentation techniques: Qualitative, Edge Detection, Region Growing, and Thresholding. Cyst volume measured in micro-CT was compared to the different clinical-CT techniques using linear regression and Bland–Altman analysis. Reproducibility of each technique was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: Each technique outputted lower volumes on average than the reference standard (-0.24 to -3.99 mm3). All linear regression slopes and intercepts were not significantly different than 1 and 0, respectively (p < 0.05). Cyst volumes measured using Qualitative and Edge Detection techniques had the highest overall agreement with reference micro-CT volumes (mean discrepancy: 0.24, 0.92 mm3). These techniques showed good to excellent reproducibility between graders. Conclusions: Qualitative and Edge Detection techniques were found to accurately and reproducibly measure subchondral cyst volume in clinical-CT. These findings provide evidence that clinical-CT may accurately gauge glenohumeral cystic presence, which may be useful for disease monitoring and preoperative planning. Level of evidence: Retrospective cohort Level 3 study.
, Sergi Gil-Gonzalez, Maximiliano Ibañez, Joan Leal-Blanquet, Andrés Combalia, Juan Carlos Monllau, Xavier Pelfort
Published: 29 December 2022
Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics, Volume 9, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40634-022-00562-z

Abstract:
Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects on the posterior tibial slope of different distances from the joint line to start the osteotomy and of varying the placement of the opening wedge in high tibial osteotomy. Starting the osteotomy more distally and an incorrect location for the tibial opening wedge were hypothesized to increase the posterior tibial slope. Methods: A cadaveric study was conducted using 12 knees divided into two groups based on the distance from the joint line to the start of the osteotomy: 3 and 4 cm. The preintervention posterior tibial slope was measured radiologically. Once the osteotomy was performed, the medial cortex of the tibia was divided into anteromedial, medial, and posteromedial thirds. A 10° opening wedge was sequentially placed in each third, and the effect on the posterior tibial slope was evaluated radiographically. Results: Significant changes were observed only in the 3-cm group (p = 0.02) when the wedge was placed in the anteromedial zone. In contrast, in the 4-cm group, significant differences were observed when the opening wedge was placed at both the medial (p = 0.04) and anteromedial (p = 0.012) zones. Conclusion: Correct control of the posterior tibial slope can be achieved by avoiding a low point when beginning the osteotomy and placing the opening wedge in the posteromedial third of the tibia when performing an opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy. Level of evidence: Controlled laboratory study.
Cheng Luo, Weike Su, Ying Song,
Published: 23 December 2022
Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics, Volume 9, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40634-022-00559-8

Abstract:
Purpose: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of clinical arthritis in middle-aged and older individuals. Undenatured or native type II (TII) collagen derived from the chicken sternum has a good therapeutic effect on relieving severe pain of OA. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of TII collagen (Native CT-II®) in individuals with knee OA. Methods: We conducted a 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study on 101 participants aged 40–65 years with knee OA. The participants were randomised to receive either TII collagen, glucosamine hydrochloride + chondroitin sulfate (G + C) or a placebo. The primary outcome was an improvement in the joint health of the participants assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) compared to G + C and placebo. Results: Compared with the placebo group (n = 27), the TII collagen group (n = 29) and G + C group (n = 29) significantly improved the overall joint health measured by the change in WOMAC total score (week 12: TII collagen = -32.47 ± 19.51 and G + C = -33.74 ± 24.64 vs. placebo = -13.84 ± 17.61; p < 0.05) and relieved knee joint pain (week 12: TII collagen = -5.69 ± 3.66 and G + C = -6.03 ± 4.72 vs. placebo = -2.71 ± 3.95; p < 0.05). The statistically significant effect was observed as early as 4 weeks after the investigational product administration. Additionally, the TII collagen was more effective in improving the quality of life than the G + C. Conclusion: TII collagen not only has a significantly better effect and high safety profile for OA but also improves the quality of life of patients. Level of Evidence: Level 1 – Randomized Controlled Trial. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04470336; First submitted date: July 08, 2020; First posted date: July 14, 2020.
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