International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 23946032 / 23946040
Published by: Medip Academy
Total articles ≅ 6,267

Latest articles in this journal

Nova Hellen Kapantow, Ralph Kairupan, Yulianty Sanggelorang
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health, Volume 9, pp 4363-4367;

Background: Wasting prevalence in Indonesian toddler has been decreasing from 2013 to 2018 (12.12-10.19%), but this number remains in medium category according to WHO. Identification of risk factors by looking at infectious disease history as the cause of wasting can provide information to appropriate intervention. This research aimed to analyze the association between infectious disease history with wasting in toddler. Methods: This research was an observational analytic study with cross sectional approach, which was carried out for 6 months, from April to October 2021. The sample population was children aged 36-59 months, who lived with their mothers in the coastal areas of the Siau Tagulandang Biaro Regency, North Sulawesi Province. Sampling was done by purposive sampling to get 221 samples. Data collection using questionnaires by interview, secondary data in the maternal and child health (MCH) book, and anthropometric measurements namely body mass index by age, for wasting variables. Results: The results showed the history of infectious disease (p value =0.045; OR=3.491) and mother’s education (p value =0.025) have significant relationship with wasting among Indonesian toddler. The results of the analysis on history of exclusive breast feeding, birthweight, immunization status and father’s education, showed no significant relationship with wasting (p>0.05). Conclusions: Wasting among toddler can be prevent by controlling many factors, such as keeping them safe from infectious diseases, also ensure that every mother and mother-to-be gets a proper education.
, Ansuman Kar, Snigdha Singh
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health, Volume 9, pp 4742-4748;

Schools are educational hubs, which in developed countries have been very aptly used for the health promotion of simple endemic diseases and advocating levels of prevention. The infrastructure and in-depth curriculum are often instrumental in targeting good knowledge of health and disease, which can be achieved at an early age. Thus, this helps in curbing the transmission and addresses preventive strategies. In India, which strongly represents the developing world; even though the schools do not impress in terms of infrastructure, the integration with the health sector is remarkable at the programmatic and health policy level. The article essays the roles for which schools have been used appreciably, more in the context of safety during trying conditions, and takes a sneak peek into the newer roles and challenges poised during the pandemic of COVID-19.
Priyanka Singh, Pranita Somani
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health, Volume 9, pp 4617-4621;

Background: The consequences of GDM to the fetus are more serious than those to mother. Amongst fetal effects, incidence of fetal macrosomia is increased in women with GDM and DM type 2. Study was conducted to study prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus using diabetes in pregnancy study group India (DIPSI) criteria in our hospital and to study fetal outcome in pregnancy with Gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods: Case control study was conducted on 500 females between 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. 31 (6.2%) were diagnosed as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). 31 other pregnant females between 24-28 not having diabetes were taken in control group. Follow up of all pregnant females was done. Babies were evaluated for any gross anomaly, birthweight of babies were taken, APGAR score was noted. Results: Maximum females (38.7%) with GDM were in age group of 25-29 years. Mean Basal Metabolic Index in GDM was 26.74 while in NGDM it was 22.48. Perinatal loss in GDM was 90.3%. Post-partum haemorrhage was seen in 9.7%. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in GDM was seen in 12.9%. Macrosomia was seen in 16.1%, preterm delivery in 9.7%, APGAR score <7 at 5 min in 6.5%, birth injury in 3.2%GDM. Mean weight in GDM was seen in 2.944 kgs and NGDM in 2.726 kgs. Conclusions: Postpartum screening should be at regular interval to detect recurrence of future diabetes. With effective screening and management of GDM, from “diabetes capital of the world,” we (INDIA) can lay claim to be “diabetes care capital of world.”
Sumaira Khan, Vishal Kumar, Nilesh Gawde, Antaryami Dash
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health, Volume 9, pp 4622-4628;

Background: Disadvantaged urban slums in India are prone to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) inadequacies. Due to biological necessities and sociocultural context of India, women remain one of the most vulnerable groups prone to the negative consequences of WASH inadequacies. This study explored the WASH practices among women residing closer to the community-managed toilet (CMT) in the slum locality of South-West Delhi to determine critical linkages to WASH inadequacies that can be used to improve accessibility, usage, and care provided by the CMT. Objectives of the study were to understand the WASH practices and the perceived physical and psychosocial impact on women residing closer to the CMT. Methods: Qualitative study using thematic content analysis. Free-list interviews and FGD were conducted to collect data to explore the perceived health effects of WASH practices among the women of the community. Results: We found thatWASH practices are defined by concerns across multiple dimensions and can lead to adoption of harmful coping strategies. An interplay of sociocultural, infrastructural and household and community level factors acts as mediating factors to limit the usage of WASH facilities which may seemingly look available and accessible to women in disadvantaged urban locations. Conclusions: Access to improved WASH facilities does not imply usage and women are disproportionately burdened by WASH inadequacy. Practices such as reduced eating at night to avoid open defecation and fear of violence threaten women’s physical and psychosocial health and well-being. Priority public health attention should be given to the linkages between women’s health and inadequate WASH practices.
Alina Thapa, Deependra K. Thapa, Raj K. Sangroula, Arati D. Shrestha, Pabitra Balampaki, Upendra Karki, Pramodh Chaudhary, Janak K. Thapa
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health, Volume 9, pp 4506-4513;

Background: Technostress among students may lead to a higher burden on higher education institutions through a decrease in productivity, dropouts, and deviation from academic work. Students have a different set of characteristics, which makes them an interesting group to be studied. The aim of the study was to find out the status of technostress among respondents. Methods: Analytical study was conducted among 460 undergraduate public health science students of Purbanchal University in Kathmandu valley. The census method was used for data collection. Standard questionnaires and IDI guidelines are used as data collection tools. Data entry was done in Epidata and analysis was done in SPSS. Results: Mean value of 460 respondents was 22.61. Positive correlation was observed between the technostress and stress (p=0.01), depression (p=0.01), and anxiety (p=0.05). Academic productivity has positive correlation with stress (p=0.05) and depression (p=0.05). Stress was significantly associated with grade (p<0.001), depression was significantly associated with grade (p=0.003), techno overload (p=0.004), techno invasion (p=0.023), and anxiety was significantly associated with age (p=0.008), grade (p=0.009), techno overload (p=0.023), techno invasion (p=0.016), techno complexity (p=0.023). Conclusions: The study showed a positive association between technostress and academic qualification. There is a need for an awareness program on technostress and mental health to provide comprehensive knowledge on mental health.
Deepak Anil, Sunil Kumar D., M. R. Narayana Murthy
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health, Volume 9, pp 4754-4761;

Diabetes is a chronic disorder that arises mainly due to unhealthy lifestyles in genetically susceptible individuals and has affected over 460 million people worldwide. Hence, alternative ways of identifying individuals at risk for developing diabetes are needed. Risk assessment tools can be useful for identifying and segmenting those at higher risk. The goal of this article is to assess various diabetes risk models that have been established in general populations to predict future diabetes, and to compare the technology behind their development and validation. PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus were searched from inception to 10th November 2021. Studies that reported the use of risk assessment tools to identify individuals at risk of diabetes were included. Of the 9045 articles identified, 28 were included. This study includes six diabetes risk assessment tools, all of which were developed using logistic regression analysis. The most commonly included variables were age and a family history of diabetes. All six tools were subjected to external validation. The risk scores exhibited an overall strong predictive capacity for the population it was developed. However, the external populations had a lower discriminatory performance, implying that risk scores may need to be verified within the group in which they are meant to be utilised. Further, developing the risk tools using modifiable diabetes risk factors and biochemical tests can be more useful for predicting future diabetes.
V. Pragadeesh Raja, M. Shivasakthy, Lavakumar S.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health, Volume 9, pp 4762-4764;

Community-based education (CBE) is now recognized as an important addition to the methods available in medical education, because the skills of graduates are needed in the community more than in the tertiary hospital. The purpose of the current review was to explore the importance of the community based medical education in present competency based medical education. A total of 24 articles similar to the current study objectives were identified initially, of which 4 were excluded due to the unavailability of the complete version of the articles. Overall, 14 articles were selected based on the suitability with the current review objectives and analyzed. Keywords used in the search include community based medical education and community oriented medical education. The collected information is presented under the following subheadings, namely reasons for medical institutions involved in community based medical education, taxonomy of CBE, challenges in the implementation of community based medical education, steps for implementation the community based medical education, benefit to students. Taxonomy of community based medical education divided into three categories, primarily service-oriented research oriented and training focused. When implementing the community based medical education so many challenges faced some of the challenges are transport problem, no cooperation among the community leaders and no interested among the students. In CBME students an opportunity to learn and work with other health professionals in, for instance, primary care units. Faculties have responsibility to move the medical education settings from hospital to community based medical education.
Rajaram Saranya, Chandar Sahanaa, Roselin Mohandass
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health, Volume 9, pp 4776-4777;

Malaria is a major public health problem in India. India’s varied geography and diverse climatic conditions from tropical monsoon in the south to temperate in the north, favor the distribution of vectors and species of the malaria parasite. Malaria in India takes several forms, including forest/ tribal malaria, urban malaria, industrial malaria, and plains malaria. P. falciparum and P vivax species contribute to the majority of malarial cases and deaths in India.
Anwar R. Alanazi, Ohood A. Albalawi, Saeed O. Alasmari, Sakhr A. Almulhim, Safaa S. Altowejri, Naser M. Marzok, Majed A. Alqarani, Sohair A. Alsaiad, Wael A. Al Shehri, Fares R. Alanazi
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health, Volume 9, pp 4720-4724;

Different bleaching treatments may be used to try to remove intrinsic stains and more tenacious extrinsic discoloration. Intracoronal tooth whitening, sometimes known as non-vital tooth whitening can be used to whiten teeth. By oxidizing the organic discoloration in the tooth, the bleaching treatment lightens the color of the teeth. The underlying etiology of the discoloration affects the effectiveness and efficacy of tooth bleaching. Internal bleaching is a minimally invasive and cost-effective dental technique that doesn't alter the tooth's size or position on the dental arch. Trauma can cause a tooth to become nonvital and lose its natural color without ever requiring endodontic treatment. In these situations, the first course of treatment should be a root canal. We can move forward with the internal bleaching technique if the tooth has had endodontic treatment. Before placing all ceramic restorations, an interior bleaching may occasionally be required too. Pulp chamber origin discoloration is an indication for internal bleaching. Inflammation-mediated external root resorption known as cervical root resorption can occur after trauma and after intracoronal bleaching. Another internal bleaching issue was the coronal fracture, which is thought to have been brought on by desiccation or changes to the physicochemical properties of the dentin and enamel. The absence or minimal color difference between the treated and untreated teeth has traditionally been considered a sign of immediate treatment efficacy.
Rakesh Kumar, Nawin Jai Vignesh K.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health, Volume 9, pp 4749-4753;

The trans-fats are a form of unsaturated fatty acids which contain one or more unconjugated double bonds in the trans-configuration. Trans-fat is found in natural sources such as dairy products and meat but the quantity of trans-fatty acid in natural sources is meagre. Most commonly they are found in industrial food products like bakery products, cookies and snacks. Several studies have identified increased industrial trans-fat consumption as harmful to human health. The major effects are on the cardiovascular system and central nervous system. To reduce the trans-fatty acid consumption, the global and national organizations have proposed various approach and strategies like WHO ‘Replace’ action plan strategy, implementation of trade policies and guidelines, work-site intervention strategies, improvements in hydrogenation technology, labeling of food products, behavioural change communication for population. Trans-fatty acid consumption is a modifiable risk factor. Planning and implementation of government policies and guidelines for reduction of trans-fatty acid levels in food product can have a significant impact. But behavioural change among general population is the key to reduce trans-fatty acid consumption.
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