Frontiers in Endocrinology
Latest articles in this journal
Frontiers in Endocrinology, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2023.1178155
Globally, excess weight during childhood and adolescence has become a public health crisis with limited treatment options. Emerging evidence suggesting the involvement of gut microbial dysbiosis in obesity instills hope that targeting the gut microbiota could help prevent or treat obesity. In pre-clinical models and adults, prebiotic consumption has been shown to reduce adiposity partially via restoring symbiosis. However, there is a dearth of clinical research into its potential metabolic benefits in the pediatric population. Here, we provide a succinct overview of the common characteristics of the gut microbiota in childhood obesity and mechanisms of action of prebiotics conferring metabolic benefits. We then summarize available clinical trials in children with overweight or obesity investigating the effects of prebiotics on weight management. This review highlights several controversial aspects in the microbiota-dependent mechanisms by which prebiotics are thought to affect host metabolism that warrant future investigation in order to design efficacious interventions for pediatric obesity.
Frontiers in Endocrinology, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2023.1146517
Introduction: COVID-19 and obesity relationship has been extensively studied since the COVID-19 outbreak, proving obesity is a risk factor. This study aims to broaden the available information about this association and to evaluate the economic impact of obesity and the COVID-19 disease combination.Methods: This retrospectivestudy analyzed a sample of 3,402 patients admitted to a Spanish hospital with available body mass index (BMI) data.Results: The prevalence of obesity was 33.4%. Patients with obesity showed a higher risk of hospitalization (OR 95% ConfidenceInterval [CI]=1.46; [1.24-1.73]; p < 0.001), which increased with the obesity degree (I: OR [95% CI]=1.28 [1.06-1.55], p =0.010; II: OR [95% CI]=1.58 [1.16-2.15], p =0.004; III: OR [95% CI] =2.09 [1.31-3.34], p =0.002). Patients with type III obesity had a significantly higher risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (OR [95% CI]= 3.30 [1.67-6.53]; p = 0.001) and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) need (OR [95% CI]= 3.98 [2.00-7.94]; p<0.001). The average cost per patient was remarkably higher in patients with obesity (p = 0.007), reaching an excess cost of 28.41% in the study cohort and rising to 56.5% in patients < 70 years. The average cost per patient increased significantly with the degree of obesity (p = 0.007).Discussion: Inconclusion, our results suggest a strong association between obesity and adverse COVID-19 outcomes and higher expenditures in patients with both conditions.
Frontiers in Endocrinology, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2023.1147225
Aims: Primary hyperaldosteronism (PA) is a common cause of hypertension. It is more prevalent in patients with diabetes. We assessed the cardiovascular impact of PA in patients with established hypertension and diabetes.Methods: Data from the National Inpatient Sample (2008-2016) was used to identify adults with PA with hypertension and diabetes comorbidities and then compared to non-PA patients. The primary outcome was in-hospital death. Secondary outcomes included ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, acute renal failure, atrial fibrillation, and acute heart failure.Results: A total of 48,434,503 patients with hypertension and diabetes were included in the analysis, of whom 12,850 (0.03%) were diagnosed with primary hyperaldosteronism (PA). Compared to patients with hypertension and diabetes but no PA, those with PA were more likely to be younger [63(13) vs. 67 (14), male (57.1% vs. 48.3%), and African-Americans (32% vs. 18.5%) (p<0.001 for all). PA was associated with a higher risk of mortality (adjusted OR 1.076 [1.076-1.077]), ischemic stroke [adjusted OR 1.049 (1.049-1.05)], hemorrhagic stroke [adjusted OR 1.05 (1.05-1.051)], acute renal failure [adjusted OR 1.058 (1.058-1.058)], acute heart failure [OR 1.104 (1.104-1.104)], and atrial fibrillation [adjusted OR 1.034 (1.033-1.034)]. As expected, older age and underlying cardiovascular disease were the strongest predictors of mortality. However, the female gender conferred protection [OR 0.889 (0.886-0.892].Conclusion: Primary hyperaldosteronism in patients with hypertension and diabetes is associated with increased mortality and morbidity.
Frontiers in Endocrinology, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2023.994370
Background: Surgical resection is the standard of care for the treatment of pancreatic neuro-endocrine tumors (pNETs) in patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1). However, surgery can cause significant short- and long-term morbidity. Magnetic resonance-guided radiotherapy (MRgRT) is a potential effective treatment with little side effects. With traditional radiotherapy techniques, irradiation of pancreatic tumors to high dose levels was hampered by poor visibility of the tumor during treatment. MRgRT uses onboard MRI to guide the treatment, thereby enabling delivery of ablative irradiation doses to the tumor, while sparing surrounding tissues. In this study, we describe results from a systematic review assessing efficacy of radiotherapy in pNET and present the protocol of the PRIME study.Methods: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched for articles assessing efficacy and side effects of radiotherapy for the treatment of pNETs. Risk of bias was assessed using the ROBINS-I Risk of Bias Tool for observational studies. Descriptive statistics were used to describe results of included trials.Results: Four studies comprising of 33 patients treated by conventional radiotherapy were included. Despite the heterogeneity of studies, radiotherapy appeared to be effective for the treatment of pNETs with most patients responding (45.5%) or stabilizing (42.4%) in tumor size.Conclusion and trial design: Due to the limited literature available and concerns about damage to surrounding tissue, conventional radiotherapy is currently little used for pNETs. The PRIME study is a phase I-II trial with a single arm prospective cohort study design, investigating the efficacy of MRgRT in MEN1 patients with pNET. MEN1 patients with growing pNETs with a size between 1.0 and 3.0 cm without malignant features are eligible for inclusion. Patients are treated with 40 Gy in 5 fractions on the pNET, using online adaptive MRgRT on a 1.5T MR-linac. The primary endpoint is the change in tumor size at MRI 12 months follow-up. Secondary endpoints include radiotoxicity, quality of life, endocrine and exocrine pancreas function, resection rate, metastatic free and overall survival. When MRgRT is found effective with low radiotoxicity, it could reduce the need for surgery for pNET and preserve quality of life.Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO https://clinicaltrials.gov/, (CRD42022325542).
Frontiers in Endocrinology, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2023.1198616
Introduction: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex disorder resulting from the failure of expression of paternal alleles in the PWS region of chromosome 15. The PWS phenotype resembles that observed in the classic non-PWS GH deficiency (GHD), including short stature, excessive fat mass, and reduced muscle mass. To date, a small number of studies on the long-term effects of GH treatment are available in adult subjects with PWS.Methods: In this longitudinal study, 12 obese subjects with PWS (GHD/non-GHD 6/6) were treated for a median of 17 years, with a median GH dose of 0.35 mg/day. The median age was 27.1 years. Anthropometric, body composition, hormonal, biochemical, and blood pressure variables were analyzed in all subjects.Results: Waist circumference was significantly lower at the end of the treatment period (p-value=0.0449), while body mass index (BMI) did not differ significantly. Compared to the baseline, a highly significant reduction of Fat Mass % (FM%) was observed (p-value=0.0005). IGF-I SDS values significantly increased during GH therapy (p-value=0.0005). A slight impairment of glucose homeostasis was observed after GH therapy, with an increase in the median fasting glucose levels, while insulin, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c values remained unchanged. Considering GH secretory status, both subjects with and without GHD showed a significant increase in IGF-I SDS and a reduction of FM% after GH therapy (p-value= 0.0313 for all).Discussion: Our results indicate that long-term GH treatment has beneficial effects on body composition and body fat distribution in adults with PWS associated with obesity. However, the increase in glucose values during GH therapy should be considered, and continuous surveillance of glucose metabolism is mandatory during long-term GH therapy, especially in subjects with obesity.
Frontiers in Endocrinology, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2023.1140360
Aim: Accurate preoperative prediction of cervical lymph node metastasis (LNM) in patients with mPTMC provides a basis for surgical decision making and the extent of tumor resection. This study aimed to develop and validate an ultrasound radiomics nomogram for the preoperative assessment of LN status.Methods: A total of 450 patients pathologically diagnosed with mPTMC were enrolled, including 348 patients in the modeling group and 102 patients in the validation group. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed on the basic information, ultrasound characteristics, and American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR TI-RADS) scores of the patients in the modeling group to identify independent risk factors for LNM in mPTMC and to construct a logistic regression equation and nomogram to predict the risk of LNM. The validation group data were used to evaluate the predictive performance of the nomogram.Results: Male sex, age 0.5 cm, capsular invasion, a maximum ACR score >9 points, and a total ACR score >19 points were independent risk factors for the development of cervical LNM in mPTMC. Both the area under the curve (AUC) and concordance index (C-index) of the prediction model constructed from the above six factors were 0.838. The calibration curve of the nomogram was close to the ideal diagonal line. Furthermore, decision curve analysis (DCA) demonstrated a significantly greater net benefit of the model. The external validation demonstrated the reliability of the prediction nomogram.Conclusions: The presented radiomics nomogram, which is based on ACR TI-RADS scores, shows favorable predictive value for the preoperative assessment of LNs in patients with mPTMC. These findings may provide a basis for surgical decision making and the extent of tumor resection.
Frontiers in Endocrinology, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2023.1071424
Introduction: Diabetes adversely affects a number of hepatic molecular pathways, including the kynurenine (KYN) pathway. KYN is produced by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). This study evaluated the effect of endurance training (EndTr) and nettle leaf extract (NLE) on the IDO1-KYN-AHR pathway in the livers of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.Methods: We divided 48 rats into six groups: controls (Ct), treated with EndTr (EndTr), diabetes-induced (D), D treated with NLE (D + NLE), D treated with EndTr (D + EnTr), and D treated with EndTr and NLE (D + EndTr + NLE). EndTr, D + EnTr, and D + EndTr + NLE groups were subjected to training with running on treadmill for 8 weeks, 5 days per week, 25 min in first session to 59 min at last session with intensity of 55% to 65% VO2max. Using real-time PCR gene (Ahr, Cyp1a1, and Ido1) expressions and ELISA, malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein (IDO1, AHR, and CYP1A1) levels were determined in the liver samples.Results: A significant three-way interaction of exercise, nettle, and diabetes was observed on the all variables (P< 0.001). In particular, significant increases in blood glucose level (BGL), in gene and protein expression, and in MDA and KYN levels were observed in the liver samples of the D group versus the Ct group (P< 0.05). BGL and liver MDA levels were significantly lower in the D + EndTr and D + NLE groups than that in the D group. However, the D + EndTr + NLE group showed a more significant decrease in these factors (P< 0.05). In addition, liver KYN levels were significantly lower in the EndTr group compared with that in the Ct group as well as in the D + EndTr + NLE and D + EndTr groups compared with that in the D groups (P< 0.05). Whereas both the EndTr and D + NLE groups showed lower Ahr expression and AHR level compared with the Ct and D groups, respectively (P< 0.05), the D + EndTr + NLE group showed a higher significant reduction in the AHR level than the D group (P< 0.05). The Cyp1a1 expression and IDO1 level significantly decreased only in the D + EndTr + NLE group compared to that in the D group (P< 0.05).Conclusion: Overall, this study showed that the combination of EndTr and NLE may synergistically restore the imbalanced IDO1-KYN-AHR pathway in diabetic liver.
Frontiers in Endocrinology, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2023.1199589
The inhibitory effect of growth hormone (GH) on adipose tissue growth is well known, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we determined the possibility that GH inhibits adipose tissue growth by inhibiting adipogenesis, the process of formation of adipocytes from stem cells, in the lit/lit mice. The lit/lit mice are GH deficient because of a spontaneous mutation to the GH releasing hormone receptor (ghrhr) gene, and they have more subcutaneous fat despite being smaller than the lit/+ mice at the same age. We found that cells of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of subcutaneous fat from the lit/lit mice had greater adipogenic potential than those from the lit/+ mice, as evidenced by forming greater numbers of lipid droplets-containing adipocytes and having greater expression of adipocyte marker genes during induced adipocyte differentiation in culture. However, addition of GH to the culture did not reverse the superior adipogenic potential of subcutaneous SVF from the lit/lit mice. Through florescence-activated cell sorting and quantification of mRNAs of preadipocyte markers, including CD34, CD29, Sca-1, CD24, Pref-1, and PPARγ, we found that subcutaneous SVF from the lit/lit mice contained more preadipocytes than that from the lit/+ mice. These results support the notion that GH inhibits adipose tissue growth in mice at least in part by inhibiting adipogenesis. Furthermore, these results suggest that GH inhibits adipogenesis in mice not by inhibiting the terminal differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes, rather by inhibiting the formation of preadipocytes from stem cells or the recruitment of stem cells to the fat depot.
Frontiers in Endocrinology, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2023.1089315
The thyroid hormones play a pivotal role in various physiological processes, including growth, metabolism regulation, and reproduction. While non-modifiable factors are known to impact thyroid function, such as genetics and age, nutritional factors are also important. Diets rich in selenium and iodine are conventionally acknowledged to be beneficial for the production and release of thyroid hormones. Recent studies have suggested a potential link between beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A (retinol), and thyroid function. Beta-carotene is known for its antioxidant properties and has been shown to play a role in the prevention of various clinical conditions such as cancer and cardiovascular and neurological diseases. However, its impact on thyroid function is still unclear. Some studies have suggested a positive association between beta-carotene levels and thyroid function, while others have found no significant effect. Conversely, the hormone produced by the thyroid gland, thyroxine, enhances the conversion of beta-carotene to retinol. Furthermore, vitamin A derivatives are being explored as potential therapeutic options for thyroid malignancies. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms through which beta-carotene/retinol and thyroid hormones interact and review the findings of clinical studies examining the association between beta-carotene consumption and thyroid hormone levels. Our review underscores the need for further research to clarify the relationship between beta-carotene and thyroid function.
Frontiers in Endocrinology, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2023.1201110
Objective: Early identifying arteriosclerosis in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients could contribute to choosing proper subjects for early prevention. Here, we aimed to investigate whether radiomic intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) analysis could be used as a novel marker to indicate arteriosclerosis in newly diagnosed T2D patients.Methods: A total of 549 patients with newly diagnosed T2D were included in this study. The clinical information of the patients was recorded and the carotid plaque burden was used to indicate arteriosclerosis. Three models were constructed to evaluate the risk of arteriosclerosis: a clinical model, a radiomics model (a model based on IMAT analysis proceeded on chest CT images), and a clinical-radiomics combined model (a model that integrated clinical-radiological features). The performance of the three models were compared using the area under the curve (AUC) and DeLong test. Nomograms were constructed to indicate arteriosclerosis presence and severity. Calibration curves and decision curves were plotted to evaluate the clinical benefit of using the optimal model.Results: The AUC for indicating arteriosclerosis of the clinical-radiomics combined model was higher than that of the clinical model [0.934 (0.909, 0.959) vs. 0.687 (0.634, 0.730), P < 0.001 in the training set, 0.933 (0.898, 0.969) vs. 0.721 (0.642, 0.799), P < 0.001 in the validation set]. Similar indicative efficacies were found between the clinical-radiomics combined model and radiomics model (P = 0.5694). The AUC for indicating the severity of arteriosclerosis of the combined clinical-radiomics model was higher than that of both the clinical model and radiomics model [0.824 (0.765, 0.882) vs. 0.755 (0.683, 0.826) and 0.734 (0.663, 0.805), P < 0.001 in the training set, 0.717 (0.604, 0.830) vs. 0.620 (0.490, 0.750) and 0.698 (0.582, 0.814), P < 0.001 in the validation set, respectively]. The decision curve showed that the clinical-radiomics combined model and radiomics model indicated a better performance than the clinical model in indicating arteriosclerosis. However, in indicating severe arteriosclerosis, the clinical-radiomics combined model had higher efficacy than the other two models.Conclusion: Radiomics IMAT analysis could be a novel marker for indicating arteriosclerosis in patients with newly diagnosed T2D. The constructed nomograms provide a quantitative and intuitive way to assess the risk of arteriosclerosis, which may help clinicians comprehensively analyse radiomics characteristics and clinical risk factors more confidently.