Frontiers in Public Health
Latest articles in this journal
Frontiers in Public Health, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.980578
Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of metformin, glyburide, and insulin for GDM, we conducted a subgroup analysis of outcomes for women with GDM according to the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) diagnostic criteria.Methods: We searched the NCBI, Embase, and Web of Science databases from inception to March 2022. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the outcomes of hypoglycemic agents in women with GDM were included. Bayesian network analysis was employed.Results: A total of 29 RCTs were included. Metformin was estimated to lead to a slight improvement in total gestational weight gain (WMD – 1.24 kg, 95% CI −2.38, −0.09), a risk of unmet treatment target in the sensitivity analysis (OR 34.50, 95% CI 1.18–791.37) than insulin. The estimated effect of metformin showed improvements in birth weight than insulin (WMD – 102.58 g, 95% CI −180.45 to −25.49) and glyburide (WMD – 137.84 g, 95% CI −255.31 to −25.45), for hypoglycemia within 1 h of birth than insulin (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.84). The improvement in the estimated effect of metformin for hypoglycemia within 1 h of birth still existed when compared with glyburide (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.66), whether in the IADPSG group (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.92) or not (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.98).Conclusion: Metformin is beneficial for GDM women to control total GWG compared with insulin, regulate fetal birth weight more than insulin and glyburide, and increase the risk of unmet treatment targets compared with insulin. Compared to metformin, glyburide is associated with neonatal hypoglycemia.
Frontiers in Public Health, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.815380
Background: The present study aims to investigate one of the major causes of traffic accidents: drivers' unsafe behaviors while driving.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the behaviors of 946 drivers at traffic lights were observed in the morning, at noon, and in the evening using direct in-field observation. The unsafe behaviors of the drivers included not fastening the seat belt, using a cellphone or handsfree device, smoking, being distracted by a child, talking with passengers, not observing the stop line, eating and drinking, and getting out of the car, letting out a passenger, or arguing with a passenger at the traffic light.Results: Of the drivers at the traffic light, 60% did not obey the stop line, and 72% did not fasten their seat belt. Also, 13.6% used their cellphones, and 22% talked with passengers. The frequency of the other unsafe behaviors was <3%. For wearing seat belts, drivers aged 41–50 years wore seat belts almost five times more than drivers under 25 years of age (4.94 [2.36–10.320]; p < 0.001), and drivers aged 50 years and older were almost three times likelier to wear seat belts than drivers under 25 years of age (2.8 [1.31–6.08]; p < 0.001). The results showed that the drivers were significantly likelier to wear seat belts on Saturdays (after the weekend) (0.56 [0.40–0.78]; p = 0.001). Regarding using mobile phones while driving, women were twice as likely to use mobile phones as men (2.20 [1.30–3.72]; p < 0.001). Drivers aged 26–40 years used mobile phones significantly less than drivers under 25 years of age (0.24 [0.14–0.43]; p < 0.001) and drivers aged 41–50 years were significantly less likely to use mobile phones than drivers under 25 years of age (0.19 [1.31–6.08]; p < 0.001).Conclusion: The results showed that the occurrence of wearing a seat belt in Shahin Dej was low. We observed a significant association between wearing a seat belt, age, whether it was Saturday (a day after weekend for Iranians). Additionally, similar associations were observed between using mobile phones and gender, age, and day of the week.
Frontiers in Public Health, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.1053428
Background: Providing patients with personalized tobacco cessation counseling that is culturally sensitive, and disease-specific from healthcare providers (HCPs) as part of their routine consultations is an approach that could be incorporated, using existing healthcare systems such as the Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) clinics. This paper describes the development of a multi-component culturally tailored, patient-centric, disease-specific tobacco cessation package utilizing multiple approaches of intervention development for healthcare providers and patients attending these clinics in Punjab, India, along with a proposed framework for implementation.Methods: The proposed intervention package was developed in 6 stages. These included a review of literature for identifying successful cessation interventions for ethnic minority groups, co-production of the package with all stakeholders involved via a series of consultative meetings and workshops, understanding contextual factors of the state and ‘factor-in’ these in the package, pre-test of the package among HCPs and tobacco users using in-depth interviews, micro detailing and expansion of the package by drawing on existing theories of the Cascade Model and Trans-Theoretical Model and developing an evolving analysis plan through real-world implementation at two pilot districts by undertaking a randomized controlled trial, assessing implementer's experiences using a mixed-method with a primary focus on qualitative and economic evaluation of intervention package.Results: A multi-component package consisting of a booklet (for HCPs), disease-specific pamphlets and short text messages (for patients; bilingual), and an implementation framework was developed using the 6-step process. A major finding from the in-depth interviews was the need for a specific capacity-building training program on tobacco cessation. Therefore, using this as an opportunity, we trained the in-service human resource and associated program managers at the state and district-level training workshops. Based on the feedback, training objectives were set and supported with copies of intervention package components. In addition, the role and function of each stakeholder were defined in the proposed framework.Conclusion: Consideration of tobacco users' socio-cultural and patient-centric approach makes a robust strategy while developing and implementing an intervention providing an enlarged scope to improve care services for diversified socio-cultural communities.
Frontiers in Public Health, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.937844
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the diagnosis, treatment, and care for tuberculosis (TB). Delays in seeking TB care may result in increased community transmission and unfavorable treatment outcomes. We sought to understand the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the proportion of patients with TB who delayed seeking the diagnosis and care for TB and explore the reasons for their postponement.Methods: We surveyed a representative sample of outpatients treated for pulmonary TB from June to November 2020 using an anonymous standardized questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of factors associated with the postponement of TB care. We used routinely collected surveillance data to assess trends of TB reports before and after the emergence of COVID-19 (2017–2019 vs. 2020–2022) in Tianjin, China.Results: Among 358 participants who were diagnosed with pulmonary TB during the COVID-19 response, 61 (17%) postponed seeking TB diagnosis due to COVID-19, with 39 (64%) citing fear as the primary reason. Female sex (aOR:2.0; 95% CI: 1.1–3.7), previous antituberculosis treatment (aOR:3.2; 95%CI: 1.4–7.6), and TB diagnosis during the first-level response (aOR = 3.2, 1.7–6.2) were associated with the postponement. Among all 518 participants receiving antituberculosis treatment, 57 (11%) had postponed their regular healthcare visits due to COVID-19, 175 (34%) received no treatment supervision, and 32 (6%) experienced treatment interruption. Compared to 2017–2019, reported pulmonary TB declined by 36.8% during the first-level response to COVID-19, 23.5% during the second-level response, 14% during the third-level response in 2020, and 4.3% in 2021.Conclusion: The COVID-19 response reduced the number of people who sought and received diagnosis, treatment, and care for TB in Tianjin, China. Integrative programs to ensure access and continuity of TB services should be considered and dual testing for SARS-CoV-2 and M. tuberculosis may facilitate finding cases.
Frontiers in Public Health, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.973488
This study explores the preferred behavior of self-management among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and offers suggestions for different patients from personalized medicine. According to some related references, a questionnaire was designed in 2020 to collect data from 131 patients with CKD in a general hospital. The Sampling patients showed no difference in their disease progress. The questionnaire covered two aspects of demographic and behavior with 29 items on six dimensions. Statistical methods such as a descriptive analysis of the F test in behavior dimensions on demographic characteristics and Principal component analysis from items have been applied to classify some kinds of self-management behavior into different groups. In the demographic insight, employment status closely relates to self-management behavior, and income is insignificant. In the behavior aspects, according to some key items, we found four types of self–management behavior preferred in the sorting: cognitive-knowledge, Diet-exercise-medical, emotion management, and exercise-medical, which were defined by behavior dimensions. Although patients had the same disease progress, their self-management behavior mainly existed in four types based on critical factors. According to their favorite behavior and personality group, healthcare stakeholders can offer lean support for improving patients' self-management of CKD in China.
Frontiers in Public Health, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.998484
Notwithstanding technological innovation, the COVID-19 pandemic, and new communication tools, the need for travel is growing again and, in some travel segments, it is stronger than ever. Interestingly, the public health implications of traveling across time zones are still poorly understood and this is especially true for organizations that send their workers across the globe. Using data from 173 Olympic teams over 15 Olympic Games, we show that crossing multiple time zones has negative implications for human (sports) performance. More importantly, the results indicate that performance impairment is especially visible after flying east, with peak performance particularly impaired, leading to a “gold demotion effect” of gold medals to silver medals as a result. Given that Olympic sporting teams typically have dedicated medical staff and active mitigation strategies, these findings have important public health implications. For example, organizations are demanding their workers to be on “top of their game” while traveling, without providing them with the support and tools to do so. The implications for public health management and human resource management are discussed.
Frontiers in Public Health, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.1052727
Since the outbreak of COVID-19, there has been a large body of literature focusing on the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and young people. The purpose of this study is to explore the current research status and the specific mechanism of COVID-19's effects on young people based on related literature. This paper mainly used VOS viewer and CiteSpace software to conduct a scientometric analysis of 5,077 publications retrieved from the Web of Science database. The results show that the main contributors to the field were mainly from North America and Europe, and the trend of research focus was from shallow to deep. The five main research areas in the field were summarized by keyword clustering analysis as follows: lifestyle changes due to lockdown; changes in stress and emotions; psychological illness and trauma; risk perception and practice toward the epidemic; interventions and social support. Finally, they were linked by four pathways to form a framework that integrates the relationships between the five domains and between elements within each of them, revealing the mechanism of COVID-19's effect on young people. In addition, less studied but promising elements are also presented in the framework, such as research on special groups (disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and sexual minority youth) and extreme suicidal tendencies that deserve our further attention.
Frontiers in Public Health, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.952363
The global economy has been hard hit by the COVID-19 pandemic. Many countries are experiencing a severe and destructive recession. A significant number of firms and businesses have gone bankrupt or been scaled down, and many individuals have lost their jobs. The main goal of this study is to support policy- and decision-makers with additional and real-time information about the labor market flow using Twitter data. We leverage the data to trace and nowcast the unemployment rate of South Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic. First, we create a dataset of unemployment-related tweets using certain keywords. Principal Component Regression (PCR) is then applied to nowcast the unemployment rate using the gathered tweets and their sentiment scores. Numerical results indicate that the volume of the tweets has a positive correlation, and the sentiments of the tweets have a negative correlation with the unemployment rate during and before the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, the now-casted unemployment rate using PCR has an outstanding evaluation result with a low Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Symmetric MAPE (SMAPE) of 0.921, 0.018, 0.018, respectively and a high R2-score of 0.929.
Frontiers in Public Health, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.1019553
Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has demonstrated effectiveness in high-risk populations. PrEP service in Thailand became free of charge under the Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in 2021. The National Health Security Office launched a pilot project in 2020 to ensure sustainable service delivery, and the national monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework was adopted to evaluate early phase implementation. We carried out a cross-sectional survey as part of the M&E process to investigate PrEP stigma among current and non-current PrEP users from both hospital and Key Population Led Health Services (KPLHS) settings in Thailand.Methods: Between August and October 2020, an online cross-sectional survey was conducted. A link for a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all active PrEP centers and PrEP clients were then recruited by PrEP providers. Descriptive and univariate analysis using Chi-square were applied in the analyses. Attitudes toward PrEP were ranked from the most negative to the most positive. The negative attitude can be interpreted as PrEP stigma.Results: This study included 513 PrEP clients (355 from hospitals and 158 from KPLHS). In both settings, respondents' attitudes toward PrEP were generally positive, but some potential stigma was observed. 31.8% of hospital PrEP clients and 9.5% of KPLHS clients agreed that PrEP users should keep their pills hidden from others. Almost half (44.5%) of hospital clients and 18.4% of KPLHS clients agreed that PrEP users are often viewed negatively by society. More than 20% of hospital clients and 12% of KPLHS agreed that PrEP users frequently experience difficulties when their partner/lover/family find out that he or she is on PrEP. Respondents from the hospitals had slightly higher PrEP stigma than those from KPLHS.Conclusions: According to our findings, at the policy level, the campaign to provide PrEP education to all groups of people should be continued in order to promote a positive view of PrEP and reduce PrEP-related stigma among the general population, which is critical for successful PrEP implementation.
Frontiers in Public Health, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.1071229
Background: Influenza is a serious public health problem, and its prevalence and spread show significant spatiotemporal characteristics. Previous studies have found that air pollutants are linked to an increased risk of influenza. However, the mechanism of influence and the degree of their association have not been determined. This study aimed to determine the influence of the air environment on the spatiotemporal distribution of influenza.Methods: The kernel density estimation and Getis-Ord Gi* statistic were used to analyze the spatial distribution of the influenza incidence and air pollutants in China. A simple analysis of the correlation between influenza and air pollutants was performed using Spearman's correlation coefficients. A linear regression analysis was performed to examine changes in the influenza incidence in response to air pollutants. The sensitivity of the influenza incidence to changes in air pollutants was evaluated by performing a gray correlation analysis. Lastly, the entropy weight method was used to calculate the weight coefficient of each method and thus the comprehensive sensitivity of influenza incidence to six pollution elements.Results: The results of the sensitivity analysis using Spearman's correlation coefficients showed the following ranking of the contributions of the air pollutants to the influenza incidence in descending order: SO2 >NO2 >CO> PM2.5 >O3 >PM10. The sensitivity results obtained from the linear regression analysis revealed the following ranking: CO>NO2 >SO2 >O3 >PM2.5 >PM10. Lastly, the sensitivity results obtained from the gray correlation analysis showed the following ranking: NO2 >CO>PM10 >PM2.5 >SO2 >O3. According to the sensitivity score, the study area can be divided into hypersensitive, medium-sensitive, and low-sensitive areas.Conclusion: The influenza incidence showed a strong spatial correlation and associated sensitivity to changes in concentrations of air pollutants. Hypersensitive areas were mainly located in the southeastern part of northeastern China, the coastal areas of the Yellow River Basin, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and surrounding areas, and the Yangtze River Delta. The influenza incidence was most sensitive to CO, NO2, and SO2, with the occurrence of influenza being most likely in areas with elevated concentrations of these three pollutants. Therefore, the formulation of targeted influenza prevention and control strategies tailored for hypersensitive, medium-sensitive, low-sensitive, and insensitive areas are urgently needed.