Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 02166461 / 23546832
Total articles ≅ 197

Latest articles in this journal

Elizabeth Wina, Andi Saenab
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, pp 165-176; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v32i3.3127

Abstract:
The use of bioactive compounds from plants is becoming a major interest to be used as feed additives to reduce the effect of greenhouse gases on climate changes and as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoter. One of the compounds that have not been widely known and used is anacardic acid. In Indonesia, anacardic acid and its derivates are commonly found in the waste from the cashew nut industry, namely cashew nut shells. The purpose of this paper is to describe the chemical and biological characteristics of anacardic acid and its effects on rumen fermentation and ruminant production. Anacardic acid or cashew nut shell extract that contains anacardic acid have the ability to suppress methane produced in the rumen. In addition, this compound increases propionic acid in the rumen which is useful for ruminant. Up till now, the applications of anacardic acid for ruminants that described in published papers were mostly done in vitro, while its direct application to livestock has not been widely reported and most of its use is combined with other compounds. The utilization of anacardic acid in Indonesia as a feed additive for ruminants will contribute to reducing greenhouse gases and increasing the productivity of ruminants.
Atien Priyanti, Nur Chasanah
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, pp 119-132; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v32i3.3077

Abstract:
Livestock products innovation, especially of those superior breed have become one of the solution in the development of livestock production, where in reality is very limited on the availability of good quality breed. Indonesian Agency of Agricultural Research and Development through Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development Implementing Units have been responsed these needs through breeding research started in the year of 2000. This effort have been yielded some superior local breeds, i.e. beef cattle, sheep, goats, chicken, duck and rabbit that are ready to disseminate to the community, especially for farmers. The dissemination of these superior breeds may enabling to expand and reach its distribution massively to increase animal production. One of the determinant factor to develop the process of its development is availability of financial access, which most farmers in general are very much constrained by capital asset. Therefore, facilitation support is needed to increase capital capacity that is impartial and accommodates the business characteristics. Objective of the manuscript is to review of facilitation support needed of the superior breed innovative research that disseminate to maintain sustainability of its development. In recent years, the Government has launched program of People’s Busines Credit (KUR) that could be optimized to scalling up farmers’ farming with good quality breed. Bank accessibility has demanded to have economics size of scale to be financed in order to guarantee profitable business with its liability cash flow. Meanwhile, livestock farming had been dominated by small scale farmers and yet for production oriented to reach its profitability. Supervision and technical guidance need to be consistently assisted to farmers as prospectous KUR debitor program in order to accelerate the process on disbursement of credit to supply their capital asset.
Priyono Priyono, Rita Nurmalina, Burhanuddin Burhanuddin, Nyak Ilham
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, pp 133-142; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v32i3.3025

Abstract:
Most farmers conduct small-scale dairy farming in Indonesia, so the appropriate policies are required for its development. Problems in the development of dairy farming in Indonesia cannot be solved partially but need to be solved holistically from the upstream-downstream subsystem. Existing conditions indicate that the rate of milk consumption has not been followed by milk production, so imports are still required. This paper aims to describe a systems dynamic approach model to obtain policy recommendations for dairy farming development in Indonesia. The development of the dairy cattle population and milk production in the four periods of the strategic plan of the Ministry of Agriculture for the period 2000-2019 and the development of the dairy cattle population and milk production in Indonesia for the period 2000-2021 showed positive growth. In the same period, the share of the dairy cattle population was 98.47%, and milk production was 98.93% in Java. Problem-solving in dairy cattle development has been modeled by researchers using a systems dynamic approach. Policy recommendations for dairy farming development using a system dynamic approach: good dairy farming practices, optimizing local resources, empowering farmers and institutions, utilizing appropriate technology, controlling productive dairy cows slaughter, strengthening dairy cooperatives, training for farmers, increasing business scale, and imports of dairy cows. However, improving a holistic model from the upstream to downstream subsystems is still necessary to provide alternative policy recommendations for dairy farming development in Indonesia.
Riza Zainuddin Ahmad, Rida Tiffarent, Dianita Dwi Sugiartanti, Sutiastuti Wahyuwardani
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, pp 151-164; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v32i3.2755

Abstract:
Heavy metal toxicity in livestock animals will affect and damage the body organs. The animals that are exposed to heavy metal residues will suffer pain and experience pathological changes in body organs that support the metabolic function of the body's work. Some organs lead to the specific diagnosis of specific contaminating heavy metals. Examination of pathological changes in the body of animals will help a lot in diagnosing, handling animals that are exposed to certain heavy metal toxicity. The respiratory tract, digestive tract and reproductive tract in animals can direct the detection of the effects of toxicity of certain heavy metal. Organs that experience pathological changes can also to help diagnose contamination due to certain heavy metals. The purpose of this writing is to help adding the knowledge of pathological changes regarding heavy metal toxicity Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Cooper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Mangan (Mn) and Lead (Pb), in the organs of animals.
Harmini Harmini, Achmad Fanindi, Maureen Chrisye Hadiatry
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, pp 143-150; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v32i3.3078

Abstract:
Because of a source of feed, saline-tolerant forage plants are one of the factors promoting the development of ruminant livestock on saline soils. Developing tolerant forage on saline soils necessitates several requirements cause saline soil stress reduces forage crop productivity. The strategy for developing forage on saline soils is to create forage that is characterized by morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology. These characteristics must be identified in order for the forage developed to truly adapt to saline land and become local varieties or new high yielding varieties as a result of saline tolerant breeding. Forage production, performance (architecture), and nutrition are expected benefits of tolerant saline soils forage. Cultivation technology must support the genetic advantage of forage varieties on saline soils in order for their genetic potential to emerge. Planting superior forage varieties on saline land is expected to meet the ongoing need for feed while also developing livestock on sub-optimal land.
Simson Tarigan
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, pp 79-90; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v32i2.2983

Abstract:
African swine fever (ASF) has been endemic in Indonesia and neighbouring countries. So far, the only reliable measure to eradicate the disease has been the application of strict biosecurity and culling of all infected pigs. This method is not feasible in Indonesia because most pig farms are small with a deficient level of biosecurity. Vaccination would be the most practical control measure, but no vaccine has been available for ASF. The difficulties encountered in developing the ASF vaccine lie in the fact that the ASF virus is very complex, with a sophisticated ability to paralyze the host immune system. ASF virus infects monocytes and macrophages, causing the cells to lose their functions to mount immune responses, further complicating vaccine development. Killed vaccines, even those containing complete structural and non-structural proteins of the virus and fortified with potent adjuvants for both humoral and cellular immune responses, were practically incapable of inducing protective immunity. Subunit vaccines containing recombinant viral proteins have also been developed, but none have provided satisfactory protection even though the vaccine indicates neutralizing antibodies. Live vaccines prepared from naturally low virulent viral strains or by repeated attenuation in cell cultures provided more satisfactory protective immunities than the inactive or subunit vaccines. However, their use in the field had caused severe side effects because the mutant still had residual virulence. Live vaccines prepared by deleting genes that play a role in virulence have been the most promising approach. Several mutants that were no longer virulent but capable of inducing protective immunity have been identified; however, lengthy safety testing is still needed before this vaccine is commercially available.
Dwi Hariyono
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, pp 105-118; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v32i2.3040

Abstract:
Animal genetic resources (AnGR), including cattle, have been valuable national assets that need to be preserved and developed. There are at least 16 recognized breeds of cattle that have been registered as local and new breeds by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Indonesia. Conservation and development programs of these local cattle breeds require basic information regarding their genetic diversity, relationships, and structures. There are several types of DNA markers that can be used for genetic diversity analysis, such as microsatellite markers. Microsatellites or short tandem repeats (STRs) are a group of DNA sequences consisting of tandemly repeated units (1–6 bp), which are abundant throughout the genome and can be found in both coding and non-coding regions. The primary advantages of microsatellites are that they are inherited in a Mendelian pattern (codominant markers), high polymorphism rates, and high abundances throughout the genome. The aim of this review is to discuss the application of microsatellite markers for genetic diversity analysis in Indonesian local cattle based on 3 indices: number alleles per locus, expected heterozygosity (He), and polymorphisms information content (PIC). There are at least 28 microsatellite markers that have been studied in Indonesian local cattle, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from 2 to 32, He values ranging from 0.100 to 0.985, and PIC values from 0.095 to 0.935. Based on the PIC values, several microsatellites are classified as highly informative, e.g. BM1824, ILST6, TGLA126, TGLA53, TGLA227, TGLA122, ETH225, INRA23, SPS113, SPS115, BM1818, CSSM66, ETH10, INRA005, INRA037, ETH185, HEL017, and ILSTS029. Therefore, these microsatellite markers can be potentially used for future genetic diversity analysis of other breeds of cattle.
Ageng Ilham Ramadhani, R Yesica, Ib Gr Wisesa
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, pp 69-78; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v32i2.3008

Abstract:
Toxoplasmosis is one of the parasitic diseases caused by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Toxoplasma gondii is usually found in cats’ faeces, raw vegetables, meats, grasses, and soil. The transmission of T. gondii happens vertically or horizontally. The standard diagnostic techniques of T. gondii detectionare microscopic examination of cats faeces, PCR, and antibody detection. The drug of choice in cats toxoplasmosis is clindamycin antibiotic (doses: 10-12/kgBW), another treatment is the combination of sulfadiazine 120 mg/kgBW dan pirimetamin 1 mg/kgBW also can be given to reduce the oocyst shed. The prevention of T. gondii infection in cats is not giving raw meats and keeping the environment disinfected. The prevalence of cats toxoplasmosis in cats in Indonesia is influenced by multiple diagnostic techniques, sample total, geographical condition, and climate. The risk factor of toxoplasmosis infection in cats are stray cats, raw foods, and a hygienic environment. The purpose of this article is knowing the life cycle of T. gondii, clinical sign, pathogeneses, diagnostic method, risk factors, control, and the prevalence of cats toxoplasmosis in Indonesia in the last 50 years.
Elma Hrustemović, Faruk Čaklovica, Jasmina Đeđibegović, Muhamed Smajlović, K Čaklovica, Enida Članjak Kudra
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, pp 91-104; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v32i2.3035

Abstract:
Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are contaminants of broiler skin, and in unauthorized numbers cause campylobacteriosis in consumers where symptoms range from gastrointestinal to life-threatening. The number of chicken bacteria and their genetic diversity depend on the growing conditions, and the presence of antibiotic resistance genes is the result of irrational use of antibiotics. The purpose of this paper is to point out the importance of reducing the contamination of Campylobacter spp. in broiler production as well as the importance of the rational use of antibiotics in the production of broilers with a contribution to the prevention of the spread of campylobacteriosis and antibiotic resistance. The incidence of campylobacteriosis can be prevented by the concept of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in broiler production and the use of probiotics as biological preservatives in broiler meat. The spread of antibiotic resistance genes can be reduced by prohibition of antibiotic use for prophylaxis and only permitted for medication.
Hasna Aldisa Madani, Adi Imam Cahyadi
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, pp 59-68; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v32i2.2923

Abstract:
Zoonotic Tuberculosis (Ztb) is caused by member of group bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex which can attack animals as reservoirs and is zoonotic so that it can be transmitted and infected humans. This paper aims to review about zoonotic tuberculosis which includes: causative agents, modes of transmission, risk factors and prevention of Ztb transmission from livestock to humans. Based on reviewing 47 literatures, it shows that zoonotic tuberculosis in livestock can be caused by Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium caprae and Mycobacterium orygis. The disease is transmitted by inhalation and oral routes. The most common risk factors are types of livestock rearing, age of livestock and population or herds size. There are several measures to prevent Ztb transmitted from livestock to humans, such as improving the good maintenance management, implementation of routine surveillance program, increasing vaccination coverage and other preventive measures by taking into account all risk factors that can increase the incidence and transmission of Ztb.
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