Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 10807683 / 15577732
Total articles ≅ 2,718

Latest articles in this journal

Ping Wu, Zheng Wang, , Baoji Chen,
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics;

Purpose: To investigate the characteristics of sustained drug release systems established by an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide hydrogel and mitomycin C (MMC) in vitro, and verify their antiscar effects in rat ocular injury model. Methods: Low, medium, and high loading doses of MMC were added to 5 mL 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% wt RGD peptide hydrogel, respectively, to prepare 9 ratios of MMC-RGD systems. Drug release characteristics of the systems in phosphate-buffered saline solution were investigated by plotting the drug release curves and fitting them with mathematical models in OriginPro8.0 software. Appropriate ratios of MMC-RGD systems were selected as treatment in rat ocular injury model. Scar formation was observed by Masson staining and immunohistochemical staining with alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibronectin (FN). Results: Nine ratios of MMC-RGD systems could release drug slowly. The maximum drug release proportions of all systems were >80%, and the time to maximum release proportions statistically prolonged with the increase of drug loading. Fitting with mathematical models indicated that the mechanisms of drug release were mainly Fick diffusion at early stage and Anomalous Transport at later stage. Systems of 1% wt RGD hydrogel were evaluated in animal experiments, which could inhibit hyperplasia of collagen and expression of α-SMA and FN. Conclusions: The RGD peptide hydrogel could be used as the carrier of MMC to establish sustained drug release system, which could inhibit scar formation after rat's ocular injury.
Akhilesh Kumar, Deepti Chaurasiya, Shabana Sultan, Deepak Soni, Suraj Kubrey, Priti Singh, Sunil Verma, , Bhavana Sharma
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Volume 39, pp 36-47;

Purpose: Umbilical cord blood serum (UCBS) is an effective adjunctive treatment along with conventional therapy in ocular surface disorders (OSDs). It aids in rapid ocular surface restoration thereby achieving epithelial integrity, in addition to improvement in subjective and objective parameters. The study aims to compare the efficacy of human umbilical cord blood serum and autologous serum (AS) in treatment of OSD. Methods: A prospective randomized study was conducted on 101 eyes diagnosed with OSD resulting from dry eye disease (DED; n = 40), acute chemical burn (ACB; n = 21), and ocular allergy (OA; n = 40). Randomization was done in Group I, administered with AS, and Group II with UCBS. Outcomes evaluated were visual acuity (VA), eye sensation score (ESS), ocular surface disease index (OSDI), tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer's value, Corneal Fluorescein Score, epithelial defect, limbal ischemia, corneal clarity (CC), and improvement in grade of severity. Statistical analysis was done using Wilcoxon signed-rank, Wilcoxon rank sum, Chi-square, and Z-test with a significance level (P ≤ 0.05). Results: In DED, Group II showed significant improvement in VA, ESS, and OSDI by the 7th day, whereas the mean Schirmer, TBUT, and corneal fluorescein staining score improved by 3 months. In ACB, Group II showed improvement in VA, reepithelialization, reduction in limbal ischemia, and CC by 3 months. In OA, Group II showed improvement in ESS by day 7. Conclusion: Human umbilical cord blood serum is more effective than AS in restoring ocular surface.
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Volume 39, pp 1-2;

Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jonathan L. Noguchi, Michelle Y. Seu, James B. Qiao, Ivy R. Tan, Selina R. Swaminathan, James F. McDonnell, Zhiqun Tan,
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Volume 39, pp 80-85;

Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in developed countries with little in the way of treatment that prevents progression to end-stage disease. Kaempferol (KF) is a plant-derived dietary flavonoid that has demonstrated as a strong antioxidant showing neuroprotection in stroke models. We hypothesize that KF has protective effects against retinal degeneration and may serve as a therapeutic agent against AMD. Methods: BALB/c albino mice were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: control-treated or KF-treated retinal light injury mice. Mice were exposed to 8,000 lux cool white fluorescent light for 2 h to induce light injury. Control or KF was injected intraperitoneally after light injury for 5 days. Scotopic electroretinography (ERG) was recorded before light injury and 7 days after light injury. The retinal morphology and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were performed after light injury. Results: ERG a- and b-wave amplitudes were significantly reduced in the retinal light injury group compared with the nonretinal light injury group. Retinal light injury produced markedly thinning of the outer nuclear layer along with significant TUNEL-positive signals. In contrast KF treatments significantly attenuated reduction of ERG a- and b- wave amplitudes and the loss of the outer nuclear layer. Conclusions: KF protects retinal photoreceptors and preserves retinal function against retinal degeneration caused by light injury. These initial findings suggest that KF may represent a novel therapy for retinal degenerative conditions such as AMD.
, Mark Naunton, Ted Maddess
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Volume 39, pp 17-26;

Purpose: To determine the appropriate dose frequency for the second-generation fluoroquinolones (2FQs), ciprofloxacin 0.3% and ofloxacin 0.3%, in the day-1 treatment of bacterial keratitis (BK) based on the corneal concentrations achievable and required Minimum Inhibitory Concentration90 (MIC90) of common BK isolates. Methods: Literature-based ocular MIC90 required to treat bacterial isolates of BK patients were determined for each fluoroquinolone. Published corneal concentrations for each 2FQ, and the drop regimens used to reach these concentrations, were then analyzed to determine the relationship between the corneal 2FQ concentration and the amount of drug applied per hour and the total amount applied. Results: Significant relationships were found to exist for corneal concentrations of both ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin and the amount of drug applied per hour (both P = 0.005), and the total amount of drug applied (P = 0.003 and P = 0.0004, respectively). Derived ciprofloxacin drops/hour corneal concentrations agreed well with both a literature-based regimen and the manufacturers' day-1 drop regimen for various MIC90. Derived ofloxacin drops per hour indicated a higher rate than that suggested by the manufacturer. Conclusions: Both a literature-based and the manufacturers' drop regimens for the day-1 treatment of BK using 0.3% ciprofloxacin have a pharmacodynamic basis, which is related to the required MIC90 of commonly encountered isolates in BK. Dose frequency for 0.3% ofloxacin should be in line with the manufacturers' maximum suggested drop regimen. Commonly suggested drop regimens below these recommendations for either FQ may need to be revised in view of these findings.
Youngsub Eom, , Hong Kyun Kim, Jong Suk Song, ,
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Volume 39, pp 27-35;

Purpose: To compare the efficacy and ocular tolerability of a 0.08% nanoemulsion cyclosporine A (CsA) (TJO-087) once daily versus a conventional 0.05% emulsion CsA twice daily in dry eye disease. Methods: 178 patients with dry eye disease were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the TJO-087 or CsA0.05% group. Changes in the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), tear film break-up time (TBUT), corneal and conjunctival staining scores, and Schirmer test scores from baseline to the 32-week visit were compared between both groups. To evaluate ocular tolerability of the study formulations, 7 symptoms (stinging/burning, itching, blurred vision, sandiness/grittiness, dryness, light sensitivity, and pain or soreness) were evaluated (the higher the score, the lower the tolerability) at each follow-up visit. Results: A total of 155 eyes of 155 patients were enrolled. The TJO-087 and CsA0.05% groups showed significant improvement in OSDI, TBUT, ocular surface staining, and Schirmer test scores at 32 weeks from baseline. There was no difference in the extent of improvement in all efficacy parameters. There were no differences in the ocular tolerability scores between the 2 groups at all visits, except that the itching score was higher in the TJO-087 group than in the CsA0.05% group at week 8. Conclusions: Using topical 0.08% CsA once daily is an effective therapeutic option for improving the symptoms and signs in dry eye disease, with a tolerability comparable with that of conventional 0.05% CsA. This trial was registered at the US National Library of Medicine ( as NCT05245604 (registration date: 19/06/2020).
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Volume 39, pp 3-16;

In rare cases, bisphosphonates are well established to cause ocular inflammation, presenting as uveitis, episcleritis, scleritis, orbital inflammation, and/or conjunctivitis. Some reports of bisphosphonate-associated neuro-ophthalmic complications also exist. We identified 101 reports in the literature relating to bisphosphonate-associated ocular complications. In a great majority of cases, symptoms resolve after discontinuation of the drug and anti-inflammatory treatment. Many cases recur if rechallenged with the same bisphosphonate. First-generation nonamino bisphosphonates, including clodronate and etidronate, are not associated with ocular inflammation. Only 2nd- and 3rd-generation amino bisphosphonates, including pamidronate, alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate, and zoledronate are associated with these complications. The mechanism of bisphosphonate-induced ocular inflammation may be related to activation of γ/δ T cells or M1 macrophages. Intravenous forms, such as pamidronate and zoledronate, tend to have higher rates and faster onset of ocular inflammation, generally presenting within days of infusion. In oral bisphosphonates, such as alendronate and risedronate, these complications present with more sporadic timing. Rates of complications are also higher when bisphosphonates are used for malignancy, as doses tend to be higher compared with doses for osteoporosis.
Robert N. Weinreb, Jason Bacharach, Jacob W. Brubaker, Felipe A. Medeiros, Marina Bejanian, Paula Bernstein,
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Volume 39, pp 55-62;

Purpose: To evaluate the time course of biodegradation of an intracameral, biodegradable, sustained-release bimatoprost implant that lowers intraocular pressure without the need for daily eye drops. Methods: In 2 identically designed, randomized, phase 3 clinical trials, adults with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and open iridocorneal angles inferiorly in the study eye were administered 10- or 15-μg bimatoprost implant (day 1 and weeks 16 and 32) or twice-daily topical timolol 0.5%. Implants were assessed on gonioscopy throughout the studies. Investigators reported whether implants were visible, estimated the size of visible implants relative to their initial size at implantation, and reported the implant location. Data for 10-μg implant placed on day 1 were pooled from both studies for analysis. Results: A total of 372 patients received the 10-μg bimatoprost implant. The degree of implant biodegradation at each follow-up time point was variable among patients. The implant frequently swelled during the initial phase of biodegradation from 6 to 28 weeks. Accelerated biodegradation occurred between 31 and 52 weeks, resulting in 82% of implants absent or ≤25% of initial size by 52 weeks. By month 20, 95% of implants had biodegraded to absent or ≤25% of initial size. The implant was predominantly located inferiorly in the iridocorneal angle. Conclusions: Bimatoprost implant biodegradation in phase 3 studies showed some degree of variability among patients. Clinically significant implant biodegradation was observed in the majority of patients by 12 months. Clinical studies are in progress to further understand implant biodegradation and the ideal timing for implant re-administration. NCT02247804; NCT02250651.
C Anupama, Abhijith Shettar, ,
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Volume 39, pp 70-79;

Purpose: The fluid pump and barrier functions of the corneal endothelium maintain stromal deturgescence required for corneal transparency. The effect of oxidative stress, a hallmark of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD), on the endothelial barrier function has been investigated. Methods: The endothelium of porcine corneas ex vivo was exposed to (1) membrane permeable oxidants (H2O2, 100 μM, 1 h; tert-butyl-hydroperoxide, 100 μM, 1 h), or (2) ultraviolet A (UVA) with photosensitizers for 15 min, riboflavin (50 μM) or tryptophan (Trp) (100 μM). The effects on the apical junction complex were analyzed by (1) immunostaining the perijunctional actomyosin ring (PAMR) and ZO-1 and (2) assessment of paracellular flux of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)–avidin across cultured endothelial cells grown on biotinylated-gelatin film. The extent of oxidative stress was quantified by changes in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in addition to lipid peroxidation and release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Results: Both methods of oxidative stress led to the disruption of PAMR and ZO-1 concurrent with changes in ROS levels, depolarization of MMP, increased lipid peroxidation, elevated LDH release, and increased permeability of FITC-avidin. The effects of direct oxidants were opposed by SB-203580 [p38 mitogen-activating protein (MAP) kinase inhibitor; 10 μM]. The damage by UVA+photosensitizers was blocked by extracellular catalase (10,000 U/mL). Conclusions: (1) Acute oxidative stress breaks down the barrier function through destruction of PAMR in a p38 MAP kinase-dependent manner. (2) UVA+photosensitizers elicit the breakdown of PAMR via type I reactions, involving H2O2 release. (3) Blocking the oxidative stress prevents loss of barrier function, which could be helpful in the therapeutics of FECD.
Martín Eugenio Cortina, Giovanna Benozzi,
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Volume 39, pp 48-54;

Purpose: Regression of the refractive outcome is a major concern of LASIK procedures mainly in presbyopic patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the pharmacological treatment of presbyopia performed with Benozzi's method, in combination with hyperopic LASIK surgery in presbyopic population. Methods: A nonrandomized case series was developed, including presbyopic patients who underwent bilateral “Hyperopic LASIK surgery” and were pharmacologically treated with Benozzi's Method from January 2011 to August 2018, with at least 2 years of follow-up, at two private ophthalmological clinics of Argentina. Main outcomes were spherical equivalent (SE), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), and uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA). Measurements were evaluated at baseline and postoperative at 1 month (without Benozzi's treatment), 2 months (starting with Benozzi's treatment), and 2 years. The SE stability across the time was statistically compared. Results: A total of 84 eyes of 42 patients, with a mean age at the time of the surgery of 51.07 ± 4.5 (42–59), were found following 2 years of follow-up. Patients have improved and maintained UDVA, achieving Jaeger 1 in the second postoperative month, which was maintained up to the last year of follow-up. Refractive stability across the time is observed comparing first month after surgery with the last year of follow-up, without statistical significant difference (p: 0.11). Conclusion: Hyperopic presbyopic patients that underwent LASIK surgery and 1 month after surgery started with the pharmacological treatment of presbyopia (Benozzi's method) results in excellent UNVA and UDVA that is stable over time without refractive regression.
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