Journal of Clinical Oncology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 0732183X / 15277755
Total articles ≅ 137,535

Latest articles in this journal

Journal of Clinical Oncology, Volume 41, pp 1820-1824;

The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors’ suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology , to patients seen in their own clinical practice. Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is an immune-mediated disease that ensues after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation often affecting multiple organs, decreases quality of life, and necessitates immunosuppressive therapy. The current standard first-line cGVHD therapy is glucocorticoids (GCs) which have major side effects. So far, all attempts to improve response to first-line GC therapy of cGVHD by adding other agents, such as mycophenolate mofetil, or cyclosporine A have not improved response. The data reported in the trial by Miklos et al indicate that ibrutinib should not be added to GC in first-line cGVHD therapy. The findings instruct future studies that aim at the identification of patients with cGVHD who may benefit from a GC-ibrutinib combination using biomarkers or clinical parameters. Currently, ibrutinib, ruxolitinib, and belumosudil are the only drugs that are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for steroid-refractory cGVHD. In light of the current standard management of cGVHD, the trial results indicate that ibrutinib will remain reserved for second-line therapy, which may be due to its mechanisms of action. The recommendation on the basis of this trial is that GC monotherapy remains the standard therapy for cGVHD.
Jacobus Pfisterer, Joern Rau
Journal of Clinical Oncology, Volume 41, pp 1953-1954;

, , Thomas John, Christian Grohe, Margarita Majem, , , , , Sang-We Kim, et al.
Journal of Clinical Oncology, Volume 41, pp 1830-1840;

Clinical trials frequently include multiple end points that mature at different times. The initial report, typically based on the primary end point, may be published when key planned co-primary or secondary analyses are not yet available. Clinical Trial Updates provide an opportunity to disseminate additional results from studies, published in JCO or elsewhere, for which the primary end point has already been reported. PURPOSE: The phase III ADAURA ( identifier: NCT02511106 ) primary analysis demonstrated a clinically significant disease-free survival (DFS) benefit with adjuvant osimertinib versus placebo in EGFR-mutated stage IB-IIIA non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after complete tumor resection (DFS hazard ratio [HR], 0.20 [99.12% CI, 0.14 to 0.30]; P < .001). We report an updated exploratory analysis of final DFS data. METHODS: Overall, 682 patients with stage IB-IIIA (American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control, seventh edition) EGFR-mutated (exon 19 deletion/L858R) NSCLC were randomly assigned 1:1 (stratified by stage, mutational status, and race) to receive osimertinib 80 mg once-daily or placebo for 3 years. The primary end point was DFS by investigator assessment in stage II-IIIA disease analyzed by stratified log-rank test; following early reporting of statistical significance in DFS, no further formal statistical testing was planned. Secondary end points included DFS in stage IB-IIIA, overall survival, and safety. Patterns of recurrence and CNS DFS were prespecified exploratory end points. RESULTS: At data cutoff (April 11, 2022), in stage II-IIIA disease, median follow-up was 44.2 months (osimertinib) and 19.6 months (placebo); the DFS HR was 0.23 (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.30); 4-year DFS rate was 70% (osimertinib) and 29% (placebo). In the overall population, DFS HR was 0.27 (95% CI, 0.21 to 0.34); 4-year DFS rate was 73% (osimertinib) and 38% (placebo). Fewer patients treated with osimertinib had local/regional and distant recurrence versus placebo. CNS DFS HR in stage II-IIIA was 0.24 (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.42). The long-term safety profile of osimertinib was consistent with the primary analysis. CONCLUSION: These updated data demonstrate prolonged DFS benefit over placebo, reduced risk of local and distant recurrence, improved CNS DFS, and a consistent safety profile, supporting the efficacy of adjuvant osimertinib in resected EGFR-mutated NSCLC.
Josephine M.N. Lopes Cardozo, , , , , , , , Heli Nevanlinna, Emiel J.T. Rutgers, et al.
Journal of Clinical Oncology, Volume 41, pp 1849-1863;

PURPOSE: A polygenic risk score (PRS) consisting of 313 common genetic variants (PRS313) is associated with risk of breast cancer and contralateral breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the association of the PRS313 with clinicopathologic characteristics of, and survival following, breast cancer. METHODS: Women with invasive breast cancer were included, 98,397 of European ancestry and 12,920 of Asian ancestry, from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), and 683 women from the European MINDACT trial. Associations between PRS313 and clinicopathologic characteristics, including the 70-gene signature for MINDACT, were evaluated using logistic regression analyses. Associations of PRS313 (continuous, per standard deviation) with overall survival (OS) and breast cancer–specific survival (BCSS) were evaluated with Cox regression, adjusted for clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment. RESULTS: The PRS313 was associated with more favorable tumor characteristics. In BCAC, increasing PRS313 was associated with lower grade, hormone receptor–positive status, and smaller tumor size. In MINDACT, PRS313 was associated with a low risk 70-gene signature. In European women from BCAC, higher PRS313 was associated with better OS and BCSS: hazard ratio (HR) 0.96 (95% CI, 0.94 to 0.97) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.94 to 0.98), but the association disappeared after adjustment for clinicopathologic characteristics (and treatment): OS HR, 1.01 (95% CI, 0.98 to 1.05) and BCSS HR, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.98 to 1.07). The results in MINDACT and Asian women from BCAC were consistent. CONCLUSION: An increased PRS313 is associated with favorable tumor characteristics, but is not independently associated with prognosis. Thus, PRS313 has no role in the clinical management of primary breast cancer at the time of diagnosis. Nevertheless, breast cancer mortality rates will be higher for women with higher PRS313 as increasing PRS313 is associated with an increased risk of disease. This information is crucial for modeling effective stratified screening programs.
, , William E. Barlow, , Stephanie The, Lili Du, , Steven Shak, , , et al.
Journal of Clinical Oncology, Volume 41, pp 1841-1848;

PURPOSE: Chemotherapy has not demonstrated benefit over adjuvant endocrine therapy alone for postmenopausal patients with node-positive breast cancer with a 21-gene breast recurrence score (RS) of 25 or below (RS ≤ 25). We tested whether combined results from RS and the sensitivity to endocrine therapy (SET2,3) index of endocrine-related transcription (SETER/PR) adjusted for baseline prognostic index (BPI) improve prognostic assessment, and whether SET2,3 predicted benefit from anthracycline-based chemotherapy. METHODS: A blinded retrospective clinical validation of SET2,3 in two randomized treatment arms from the SWOG S8814 trial comparing adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy followed by tamoxifen endocrine therapy for 5 years, versus tamoxifen alone. SET2,3 assay was calibrated and measured using whole-transcriptome RNA sequence of tumor samples already tested for RS. The primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: There were 106 events in 283 patients over a median follow-up of 8.99 years. Proportional hazards assumptions were met during the first 5 years only. SET2,3 index and RS were not correlated (r = –0.04) and were independently prognostic (SET2,3: hazard ratio [HR], 0.48 per unit; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.68; P < .001; RS: HR, 1.28 per 10 units; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.44; P < .001). SET2,3 index did not predict chemotherapy benefit (interaction P = .77). SET2,3 was high in 93/175 (53%) patients with RS ≤ 25 (concordant low-risk), with 5-year DFS 97%. SET2,3 was low in 55/108 (51%) patients with RS > 25 (concordant high-risk), with 5-year DFS 53%. Both components of SET2,3 index were prognostic after adjustment for RS: SETER/PR (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.92) and BPI (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.64). CONCLUSION: SET2,3 index was not correlated with RS, demonstrated additive prognostic performance, and was not chemopredictive in this subset of patients from S8814. The SETER/PR and BPI components of SET2,3 each added prognostic information to RS.
, Mohammad Abu Zaid, Julian P. Cooney, , Mary Flowers, Alan P. Skarbnik, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, Bor-Sheng Ko, Benedetto Bruno, , et al.
Journal of Clinical Oncology, Volume 41, pp 1876-1887;

To present primary and final analyses from the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III iNTEGRATE study, which evaluated the safety and efficacy of ibrutinib with prednisone in previously untreated patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Patients (age ≥ 12 years) with newly diagnosed moderate or severe cGVHD, requiring systemic corticosteroid therapy, and with no prior systemic treatment for cGVHD were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive ibrutinib 420 mg once daily plus prednisone, starting at 1 mg/kg once daily or placebo plus prednisone. The primary end point was response rate at 48 weeks according to 2014 National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project Criteria. Other end points included event-free survival, duration of response, time to withdrawal of immunosuppressants, improvement in Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale score, overall survival (OS), and safety. Ninety-five and 98 patients enrolled in the ibrutinib-prednisone and placebo-prednisone arms, respectively. At 48 weeks, response rates were 41% (ibrutinib-prednisone) and 37% (placebo-prednisone; P = .54). At 33 months of follow-up, median duration of response was 19 months (ibrutinib-prednisone) and 10 months (placebo-prednisone; P = .10). Median event-free survival was 15 months (ibrutinib-prednisone) and 8 months (placebo-prednisone; hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.1; P = .11). Improvement in overall Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale was 43% (ibrutinib-prednisone) and 31% (placebo-ibrutinib; P = .07). Median OS was not reached in either arm. The 24-month Kaplan-Meier OS estimates were 80% for both arms (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.90). Grade ≥ 3 serious adverse events occurred in 49% (ibrutinib-prednisone) and 47% (placebo-prednisone) of patients. There was no statistical difference observed in the primary and secondary end points with ibrutinib-prednisone treatment. No new safety signals were observed with ibrutinib treatment in previously untreated patients with cGVHD. The primary end point of iNTEGRATE was not met.
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