Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 10849785 / 15578852
Total articles ≅ 2,260

Latest articles in this journal

, Ilaria Proietti, Vincenzo Petrozza, Sara Aversa, Francesco Fiorentino, Concetta Potenza, Oreste Bagni, Orazio Schillaci, Maria Cantonetti
Published: 27 January 2023
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals; https://doi.org/10.1089/cbr.2022.0086

Abstract:
A 73-year-old female patient, affected by mycosis fungoides (MF), discontinued mogamulizumab, after initial clinical benefit, due to the onset of generalized erythema. Follow-up positron emission computed tomography (PET/CTs) carried out at 3 weeks and 6 months after therapy discontinuation showed, with respect to baseline PET/CT scan, a progressively increasing number of hypermetabolic enlarged lymph nodes suspected for a neoplastic involvement, but with histology indicative of an inflammatory reaction. After sequential therapy with corticosteroids and methotrexate, a complete remission was registered at 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) PET/CT performed at 12 months after mogamulizumab interruption. The case we describe highlights the usefulness of serial examinations with [18F]FDG PET/CT in an MF patient presenting an unusual adverse reaction to mogamulizumab.
Marko Magdi Abdou Sidrak, Maria Silvia De Feo, , Andrea Marongiu, Salvatore Caponnetto, Luca Filippi, Susanna Nuvoli, Angela Spanu, Orazio Schillaci, Giuseppe De Vincentis
Published: 9 January 2023
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals; https://doi.org/10.1089/cbr.2022.0049

Abstract:
Introduction: Lung cancer (LC) is a leading cause of death among men and women, with non-small cell LC (NSCLC) accounting for a substantial portion of the histopathological spectrum and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations being correlated with its manifestation and evolution. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography has been the most widely used instrument to assess and monitor LC in a noninvasive way, including EGFR-mutated NSCLC, and its course during therapy, indicating to the referring physician the response to ongoing treatment or the lack of it. This systematic review aims to evaluate the feasibility and safety of radiolabeled EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKis) in PET in clinical practice. Materials and Methods: From 1999 to April 2022 a Medline search was conducted on four different databases such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Sciences. Clinical studies were assessed by Quality Assessment of Diagnostic accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) and preclinical studies were also reported in this review. Results: Nine clinical studies were QUADAS-2 assessed and risk-of-bias assessment, and it turned out acceptable as two out of eight studies had low risk of bias in all four domains for risk-of-bias assessment, and the other four studies had three low-risk domains. The overall assessment for applicability risks was low. Conclusions: Radiolabeled EGFR-TKis in PET are a valid tool in identifying patients who may benefit from TKi therapy and who may not as a means to start an effective treatment. Although the number of clinical studies conducted so far is meager, these new PET tracers are already proving to be very useful in clinical settings as patient prognosis can be better assessed.
María Fernanda García Melián, María Moreno, Hugo Cerecetto,
Published: 5 January 2023
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals; https://doi.org/10.1089/cbr.2022.0064

Abstract:
The escape from immune surveillance is a hallmark of cancer progression. The classic immune checkpoint molecules PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA-4, LAG-3, TIM-3 novel ones are part of a sophisticated system of up- and downmodulation of the immune system, which is unregulated in cancer. In recent years, there have been remarkable advances in the development of targeting strategies, focused principally on immunotherapies aiming at blocking those molecules involved in the evasion of the immune system. However, there are still challenges to predicting their efficacy due to the wide heterogeneity of clinical responses. Thus, there is a need to develop new strategies, and theranostics has much to contribute in this field. Besides that, aptamers have emerged as promising molecules with the potential to generate a huge impact in the immunotheranostic field. They are single-stranded oligonucleotides with a unique self-folding tridimensional structure, with high affinity and specificity for the target. In particular, their small size and physicochemical characteristics make them a versatile tool for designing theranostic strategies. Here, we review the progress in theranostic strategies based on aptamers against immune checkpoints, and highlight the potential of those approaches.
Wolfgang A.G. Sauerwein
Published: 3 January 2023
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals; https://doi.org/10.1089/cbr.2022.0073

Abstract:
Reporting needs uniformity in definitions and terminology. This is crucial in order to be able to compare and aggregate clinical outcomes data across clinical trials. For decades, there is no standard for reporting dose in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Multiple efforts were made for a common language reporting BNCT, mostly suggesting to report at relevant points the different dose components separately. Although this was accepted by some but not all clinicians, the situation remains an unsatisfactory and cumbersome reporting system, leading to confusion. Another suggestion is made here by proposing not to report the results of calculations that use a site-specific model with certain assumptions, but to report the input parameters needed for such calculations regardless of the model used. This will be mainly the thermal neutron fluence integrated over the irradiation time T and the average 10B concentration integrated over T.
, Maarten L.J. Smits, Marnix G.E.H. Lam, Arthur J.A.T. Braat
Published: 2 January 2023
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals; https://doi.org/10.1089/cbr.2022.0071

Abstract:
Background: Immunotherapy in the form of checkpoint inhibitors has changed the treatment paradigm in oncology. Combining selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) with immunotherapy has been suggested to potentially improve outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC). In this systematic review, the authors discuss the current developments and available clinical data regarding the combination of immunotherapy and SIRT in treating hepatic malignancies. Methods: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library were systematically searched for eligible studies (adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines). Original patient studies written in English language with patients with HCC or mCRC who were treated with SIRT and immunotherapy were included. Endpoints evaluated included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and objective response rate (ORR). Results: 1038 publications were screened, from which 1034 publications were excluded. Eventually four studies with a total of 87 patients were included in this systematic review, of which two consisted of mCRC and the other two HCC. All four studies showed no increased toxicities of the combination therapy over known data on monotherapy. One mCRC study reported a median OS of 8 months, while the other mCRC study ended due to futility. Both reported an ORR of 0%. The two HCC studies reported a median OS of 16.5 and 16.2 months. Median PFS was 5.6 and 5.7 months. ORR ranged from 31% to 80%. Conclusion: The combination of SIRT and immunotherapy has been studied in four early-phase studies showing a favorable safety profile. Further studies are necessary to understand the possible synergy and possible benefit of combination therapy.
Yuting Zhang, Huan He, Lanying He, Bing Shi
Published: 30 December 2022
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals; https://doi.org/10.1089/cbr.2022.0045

Abstract:
Background: Pancreatic cancer (PaC) is a highly malignant gastrointestinal tumor with invasive and metastatic characteristics. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a negative prognostic marker, contributes to PaC progression. However, the mechanism of IL-6 in PaC is not yet fully understood. Methods: miR-455-5p levels were first tested by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in PaC tissues or cells. Subsequently, PaC cell-related functions were identified through CCK-8, Transwell, and Western blotting. Changes in miR-455-5p and IGF-1R expression were confirmed using RT-qPCR and Western blotting. miR-455-5p methylation was assessed by bisulfite sequencing PCR. Results: The authors discovered that miR-455-5p was expressed at low levels in PaC tissues and cells, and miR-455-5p expression was observably reduced by IL-6 in PaC cells. In addition, IL-6 dramatically induces miR-455-5p methylation in PaC cells. Functionally, the data revealed that IL-6 could facilitate the malignant properties of PaC cells, including proliferation, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, and metastasis. The authors found that miR-455-5p could suppress the progression of PaC cells by downregulating IGF-1R in PaC cells. Mechanistically, IL-6 downregulated miR-455-5p and upregulated IGF-1R, and miR-455-5p reduced IGF-1R expression through targeted binding. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the miR-455-5p/IGF-1R axis is necessary for the induction of IL-6 in PaC progression. Therefore, this study might provide a theoretical basis for the application of the IL-6/miR-455-5p/IGF-1R axis in the clinical therapy of PaC.
, Miha Ulčar
Published: 26 December 2022
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals; https://doi.org/10.1089/cbr.2022.0072

Abstract:
In April 2022, the National Cancer Institute of the United States organized a 3-day seminar, dedicated to boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). This short article summarizes a presentation from that event, which is intended to provide an overview of activities currently underway worldwide to make BNCT available for patient treatments. This overview does not claim to be exhaustive but shows a great deal of activity in all areas necessary for the complex therapy that is BNCT. A rapid increase in the number of BNCT centers can be expected over the next few years, coupled with the introduction of novel drugs for BNCT. It will be a major challenge to all stakeholders to create clinical networks that can conduct the necessary prospective clinical trials in a short time and in high quality.
Caijun Dong, Liangwei Yang, Guofang Zhao
Published: 21 December 2022
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals; https://doi.org/10.1089/cbr.2022.0039

Abstract:
Background: Circular RNAs (circ-RNAs) have been demonstrated to influence initiation, drug resistance, and metastasis of tumors. However, the effects of circular-phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (circ-PGAM1) on matrine resistance in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unknown. Materials and Methods: The reverse transcription–quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to determine gene expression. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and cell colony formation assays were used to evaluate NSCLC apoptosis and cell proliferation after indicated treatments, respectively. Results: circ-PGAM1 was upregulated in human NSCLC cell lines (H1299 and A549) compared with the human normal lung epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. circ-PGAM1 overexpression reversed the matrine treatment-induced inhibition on proliferation of NSCLC cells (A549 and H1299) and rescued the matrine treatment-stimulated apoptosis of these cells. miR-326 was demonstrated to interact with circ-PGAM1. circ-PGAM1 knockdown enhanced the antitumor effect of matrine on NSCLC cell proliferation and apoptosis, which was reversed by miR-326 inhibition. The authors also identified CXCR5 as a key downstream target of miR-326 in A549 cells. Conclusions: circ-PGAM1 enhances matrine resistance of NSCLC cells through the miR-326/CXCR5 axis. The authors' findings provide new insights into NSCLC-targeted therapy.
, Sara Nikdel, Elahe Pirayesh, Yazdan Salimi, Mahasti Amoui, Hamidreza Haghighatkhah, Mohammad Ali Ghodsi Rad, Elmira Javanijouni,
Published: 20 December 2022
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals; https://doi.org/10.1089/cbr.2022.0062

Abstract:
Purpose: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic hepatic disease worldwide, with functional impairment of the mitochondria occurring from early stages. Technetium-99m methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) is a lipophilic agent trapped in the mitochondria. This study aims to evaluate the utility of 99mTc-MIBI heart/liver uptake ratio in screening for NAFLD during myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Methods: Seventy eligible patients underwent a 2-d rest/stress 99mTc-MIBI scan with a 2-min planar image acquired in rest phase, at 30, 60, and 120 min postradiotracer administration. Heart/liver uptake ratio was calculated by placing identical regions of interest on the heart and liver dome. All patients underwent liver ultrasound and were allocated into groups A, having NAFLD; and B, healthy individuals without NAFLD. Results: Mean count per pixel heart/liver ratios gradually increased over time in either group; nonetheless the values were significantly higher in group A, regardless of acquisition timing; with the p-value equal to 0.007, 0.014, and 0.010 at 30, 60, and 120 min, respectively. Conclusion: Determining 99mTc-MIBI heart/liver uptake ratio during rest phase in patients undergoing MPI may be a useful, noninvasive screening method for NAFLD; with no additional cost, radiation burden, or adverse effects in these patients. Trial registration number: IR.SBMU.MSP.REC.1398.308.
Back to Top Top