Journal of Child Neurology
ISSN / EISSN: 08830738 / 17088283
Published by: SAGE Publications
Total articles ≅ 7,404
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Child Neurology; https://doi.org/10.1177/08830738221147805
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is a clinical phenomenon that often results from perinatal asphyxia. To mitigate secondary neurologic injury, prompt initial assessment and diagnosis is needed to identify patients eligible for therapeutic hypothermia. However, occasionally neonates present with a clinical picture of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy without significant risk factors for perinatal asphyxia. We hypothesized that in patients with genetic abnormalities, the clinical manifestation of those abnormalities may overlap with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy criteria, potentially contributing to a causal misattribution. We reviewed 210 charts of infants meeting local protocol criteria for moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in neonatal intensive care units in Calgary, Alberta. All patients that met criteria for therapeutic hypothermia were eligible for the study. Data were collected surrounding pregnancy and birth histories, as well as any available genetic or metabolic testing including microarray, gene panels, whole-exome sequencing, and newborn metabolic screens. Twenty-eight patients had genetic testing such as microarray, whole-exome sequencing, or a gene panel, because of clinical suspicion. Ten of 28 patients had genetic mutations, including CDKL5, pyruvate dehydrogenase, CFTR, CYP21A2, ISY1, KIF1A, KCNQ2, SCN9A, MTFMT, and NPHP1. All patients lacked significant risk factors to support a moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy diagnosis. Treatment was changed in 2 patients because of confirmed genetic etiology. This study demonstrates the importance of identifying genetic comorbidities as potential contributors to a hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy phenotype in neonates. Early identification of clinical factors that support an alternate diagnosis should be considered when the patient's clinical picture is not typical of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and could aid in both treatment decisions and outcome prognostication.
Journal of Child Neurology; https://doi.org/10.1177/08830738221147808
Background and Objectives: Creatine kinase (CK) is a commonly used screening test for neuromuscular disorders (NMDs). However, hyperCKemia can result from several pathologic and physiologic causes. We analyzed neuromuscular disorders in noninfant children with hyperCKemia including those with no weakness and mild CK elevations (<5 times the upper limit of normal). We hypothesized that children with mild CK elevation and no weakness would be unlikely to have neuromuscular disorders and require additional evaluation. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients between 1 and 18 years of age seen at a single children's hospital over a 3-calendar-year period with initial total CK values greater than the upper limit of normal with at least 2 years of follow-up data. Final diagnoses were analyzed and associations with possible risk factors assessed. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to assess altering CK cutoff values. Results: Of 260 subjects with hyperCKemia, 18 had a neuromuscular disorder (6.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.2%-10.9%). Of 166 subjects with CK <5 times the upper limit of normal and no weakness, 8 had a neuromuscular disorder (4.8%, 95% CI 2.3%-9.6%). Weakness (odds ratio [OR] 32.5, 95% CI 4-385, P = .0002), and family history of neuromuscular disorders (OR not calculable, P = .0003) were associated with neuromuscular disorders. An optimal CK threshold of 777 was identified on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis (sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 64%). The most commonly identified neuromuscular disorders were muscular dystrophies, inflammatory myopathies, and metabolic myopathies. Conclusion: Most children with hyperCKemia will not be diagnosed with a neuromuscular disorder, but a significant minority even with mild hyperCKemia and without weakness may warrant additional evaluation.
Journal of Child Neurology; https://doi.org/10.1177/08830738221147372
Prenatal identification by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of callosal anomalies, particularly with accompanying intracranial abnormalities, poses a challenge for accurate prognostication and fetal counseling as outcome can vary widely depending on underlying etiology. In female patients, Aicardi syndrome is an important consideration, and prompt postnatal ophthalmologic assessment to identify ocular stigmata of Aicardi syndrome can aid with anticipatory guidance and greater vigilance for seizures. We present a case of a female with fetal and postnatal MRI findings of agenesis of corpus callosum and type 2b interhemispheric cysts, characteristically found in Aicardi syndrome, but was found to have oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1). We also present 3 other companion cases with pre- and postnatal imaging of patients with Aicardi syndrome. These cases highlight the importance of widening the differential diagnosis to also include OFD1 for female patients with callosal anomalies.
Journal of Child Neurology; https://doi.org/10.1177/08830738221144081
Background: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is a late complication of measles infection. However, to date, the pathogenesis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is still not explained; both viral and host factors seem to be associated. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between NOD1 and NOD2 gene variants and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Methods: The gene variants of NOD1 (rs2075820 and rs2075818) and NOD2 (R334Q and R334W) were explored in 64 subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients and 70 controls using polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results: The frequencies of the AA genotype and A allele of rs2075820 ( NOD1; c.796G>A) polymorphism were lower in patients compared with controls ( P = .022 and .014, respectively). The presence of the A allele of rs2075820 may be considered as a protective factor for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. There was a significant difference between the groups in rs2075818 ( NOD1 G/C) polymorphism, and the CC genotype increased the risk of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis by 3.471-fold. The carriers of the C allele of rs2075818 (G/C) had a 1.855-fold susceptibility to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ( P = .018). The GC genotype might be associated with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis susceptibility in the patients compared with patients without having that haplotype ( P = .03). Conclusions: Thus, we identified an association between subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and the rs2075820 ( NOD1 G/A) and rs2075818 ( NOD1 G/C) polymorphisms. These findings implicate a possible effect of this genetic polymorphism in susceptibility to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, which needs to be confirmed in bigger populations.
Journal of Child Neurology; https://doi.org/10.1177/08830738221135918
Background:To facilitate advances in spinal muscular atrophy therapeutic research, it is important to determine the impact and prevalence of symptoms experienced by children with spinal muscular atrophy. Methods: We conducted qualitative interviews with caregivers of children with spinal muscular atrophy. From these interviews, we generated a survey inquiring about 260 symptoms of importance grouped into 17 symptomatic themes. Results: Sixteen caregivers of children with spinal muscular atrophy aged from 4 months to 12 years participated in initial interviews, and 77 caregivers completed the survey. Higher symptom prevalence was associated with spinal muscular atrophy type, SMN2 copy number, and functional status. Hip, thigh, or knee weakness had the greatest reported impact on the lives of children with spinal muscular atrophy. Conclusions: This research provides one of the largest data sets regarding disease burden in children with spinal muscular atrophy. The most prevalent symptoms are not identical to those with the greatest impact. This unique insight into the most impactful symptoms will help focus therapeutic development in spinal muscular atrophy.
Journal of Child Neurology, Volume 37, pp 1003-1009; https://doi.org/10.1177/08830738221129968
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore the clinical and neuroradiologic properties of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors. Methods: Data from 6 pediatric patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, which mainly contained the features of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT), was retrospectively analyzed. Follow-up was conducted in all patients through clinic services and/or telephone consultation. Results: The patients included 4 males and 2 females, aged from 3.2 to 83.1 months at the initial diagnosis. All patients had MRI scans. Two patients underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT scintigraphy preoperatively and 4 postoperatively. All primary lesions were located in the cranial cavity and the average diameter of lesions was 37.2 mm. Cerebrospinal fluid spread on enhanced T1-weighted images were found in 2 patients. Multiple metastases were found on MRI and PET/CT scans, which were located at cranial cavity, spinal cord, lung and lymph node. The primary and metastatic lesions showed evident uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. Two patients underwent total tumor removal, and 4 patients underwent subtotal removal. None of the patients received shunt surgery. Follow-up was performed in all 6 patients. One patient survived event-free 38.4 months after resection. The mean overall survival of the remaining 5 patients was 5.1 months. Conclusion: We identified specific PET/CT and MRI features that can facilitate the recognition of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors prior to biopsy.
Journal of Child Neurology, Volume 37, pp 1010-1010; https://doi.org/10.1177/0883073820966872
Journal of Child Neurology, Volume 37, pp 1015-1015; https://doi.org/10.1177/08830738221134784
Journal of Child Neurology; https://doi.org/10.1177/08830738221120741
Up to 30% of youth with concussion experience PPCSs (PPCS) lasting 4 weeks or longer, and can significantly impact quality of life. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to increase understanding of causal mechanisms underlying PPCS. However, there are no clear modalities to assist in detecting PPCS. This scoping review aims to synthesize findings on utilization of MRI among children and youth with PPCS, and summarize progress and limitations. Thirty-six studies were included from 4907 identified papers. Many studies used multiple modalities, including (1) structural (n = 27) such as T1-weighted imaging, diffusion weighted imaging, and susceptibility weighted imaging; and (2) functional (n = 23) such as functional MRI and perfusion-weighted imaging. Findings were heterogeneous among modalities and regions of interest, which warrants future reviews that report on the patterns and potential advancements in the field. Consideration of modalities that target PPCS prediction and sensitive modalities that can supplement a biopsychosocial approach to PPCS would benefit future research.
Journal of Child Neurology; https://doi.org/10.1177/08830738221134552
Evaluations to rule out epileptic vs nonepileptic staring spells may entail unnecessary evaluations that can be costly and time consuming. Our study aims to identify common etiologies for staring spells across 3 different pediatric age groups and to propose an age-based clinical guidance to help determine which patients warrant further workup. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective chart analysis of 1496 patients aged 0.0-17.9 years presenting with confirmed staring spell diagnosis from January 2011 to January 2021. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on their age: 0.0-2.9, 3.0-12.9, and 13.0-17.9 years. Patient information collected included demographics, clinical presentation, comorbidities, and final diagnosis. Multilevel likelihood ratios and a receiver operating characteristic curve were determined using 8 of the 11 clinical variables. A total of 1142 patients who met the inclusion criteria were included for the final analysis. The most common final diagnosis was attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (35%), followed by normal behavior (33%). Generalized and focal epilepsy were diagnosed in 8% and 4% of the patients, respectively. In the 0.0-2.9-year age group, normal behavior was the final diagnosis in 72% patients. In the 3.0-12.9-year and 13.0-17.9-year age groups, ADHD was the most frequent final diagnosis in 46% and 60%, respectively. Overall, ADHD and normal behaviors remain the most common final diagnoses. Multilevel likelihood ratios can be used to develop an age-based guidance to differentiate between epileptic and nonepileptic staring spell diagnoses.