Surgical Infections

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 10962964 / 15578674
Total articles ≅ 2,337

Latest articles in this journal

Chloe Williams, Whitney Kellett, Megan Ireland, Wendy Wahl, , Anahita Jalilvand
Published: 27 January 2023
Background: The impact of socioeconomic metrics on outcomes after sepsis is unclear. The Distressed Communities Index (DCI) is a composite score quantifying socioeconomic well-being by zip code. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the association between DCI and mortality in patients with sepsis admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Patients and Methods: All patients with sepsis admitted to the SICU (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [SOFA] score ≥2) were reviewed retrospectively. Composite DCI scores were obtained for each patient and classified into high-distress (DCI ≥75th percentile; n = 331) and control distress (DCI <50th percentile; n = 666) groups. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were compared between groups. The primary outcomes were in-hospital and 90-day mortality. Results: The high-distress cohort was younger and more likely to be African American (19.6% vs. 6.2%), transferred from an outside facility (52% vs. 42%), have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (25.1% vs. 18.8%), and baseline liver disease (8.2% vs. 4.2%). Sepsis presentation was comparable between groups. Compared with the control cohort, high-distress patients had similar in-house (23% vs. 24%) and 90-day mortality (30% vs. 28%) but were associated with longer hospital stay (23 vs. 19 days). High DCI failed to predict in-hospital or 90-day mortality but was an independent risk factor for longer hospital length of stay (odds ratio [OR], 2.83 ± 1.42; p = 0.047). Conclusions: High DCI was not associated with mortality but did independently predict longer length of stay. This may reflect limitations of DCI score in evaluating mortality for patients with sepsis. Future studies should elucidate its association with length of stay, re-admissions, and follow-up.
, Lillian S. Kao, Mikayla Moody, Robert G. Sawyer
Published: 18 January 2023
Background: It is recognized increasingly that common surgical infections of the peritoneal cavity may be treated with antibiotic agents alone, or source control surgery with short-course antimicrobial therapy. By extension, testable hypotheses have emerged that such infections may not actually be infectious diseases, but rather represent inflammation that can be treated successfully with neither surgery nor antibiotic agents. The aim of this review is to examine extant data to determine which of uncomplicated acute appendicitis (uAA), uncomplicated acute calculous cholecystitis (uACC), or uncomplicated mild acute diverticulitis (umAD) might be amenable to management using supportive therapy alone, consistent with the principles of antimicrobial stewardship. Methods: Review of pertinent English-language literature and expert opinion. Results: Only two small trials have examined whether uAA can be managed with observation and supportive therapy alone, one of which is underpowered and was stopped prematurely because of challenging patient recruitment. Data are insufficient to determine the safety and efficacy of non-antibiotic therapy of uAA. Uncomplicated acute calculous cholecystitis is not primarily an infectious disease; infection is a secondary phenomenon. Even when bactibilia is present, there is no high-quality evidence to suggest that mild disease should be treated with antibiotic agents. There is evidence to indicate that antibiotic prophylaxis is indicated for urgent/emergency cholecystectomy for uACC, but not in the post-operative period. Uncomplicated mild acute diverticulitis, generally Hinchey 1a or 1b in current nomenclature, does not benefit from antimicrobial agents based on multiple clinical studies. The implication is that umAD is inflammatory and not an infectious disease. Non-antimicrobial management is reasonable. Conclusions: Among the considered disease entities, the evidence is strongest that umAD is not an infectious disease and can be treated without antibiotic agents, intermediate regarding uACC, and lacking for uAA. A plausible hypothesis is that these inflammatory conditions are related to disruption of the normal microbiome, resulting in dysbiosis, which is defined as an imbalance of the natural microflora, especially of the gut, that is believed to contribute to a range of conditions of ill health. As for restorative pre- or probiotic therapy to reconstitute the microbiome, no recommendation can be made in terms of treatment, but it is not recommended for prevention of primary or recurrent disease.
Joseph D. Forrester, Abebe Bekele, Andrei-Marius Stefan, Tshokey Tshokey, Allison E. Berndtson, Robel T. Beyene, Jesse Chou, Robert G. Sawyer, Julie Y. Valenzuela, Jennifer Rickard
Published: 11 January 2023
Background: Surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance programs are recommended to be included in national infection prevention and control (IPC) programs, yet few exist in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs). Our goal was to identify components of surveillance in existing programs that could be replicated elsewhere and note opportunities for improvement to build awareness for other countries in the process of developing their own national surgical site infection surveillance (nSSIS) programs. Methods: We administered a survey built upon the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's framework for surveillance system evaluation to systematically deconstruct logistical infrastructure of existing nSSIS programs in LMICs. Qualitative analyses of survey responses by thematic elements were used to identify successful surveillance system components and recognize opportunities for improvement. Results: Three respondents representing countries in Europe and Central Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia designated as upper middle-income, lower middle-income, and low-income responded. Notable strengths described by respondents included use of local paper documentation, staggered data entry, and limited data entry fields. Opportunities for improvement included outpatient data capture, broader coverage of healthcare centers within a nation, improved audit processes, defining the denominator of number of surgical procedures, and presence of an easily accessible, free SSI surveillance training program for healthcare workers. Conclusions: Outpatient post-surgery surveillance, national coverage of healthcare facilities, and training on how to take local SSI surveillance data and integrate it within a broader nSSIS program at the national level remain areas of opportunities for countries looking to implement a nSSIS program.
Jiangtao Yu, Xiangyun Zheng, Qingfei Sun, Ying Shan, Huanhu Zhang
Published: 6 January 2023
, Sarah Oorschot, Brittany Roles, Claire Italiano
Published: 30 December 2022
Background: Surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP) is a leading indication for antibiotic use in Australian hospitals with established high rates of inappropriate prescribing. Optimal administration of SAP for patients at high risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections presents additional complexities. A greater understanding of barriers to optimal SAP in this cohort is required to inform targeted antimicrobial stewardship strategies, optimize SAP, and reduce the rate of surgical site infections (SSIs). Methods: A multiple-choice questionnaire appraising knowledge and barriers to optimal SAP was electronically distributed to key stakeholders. Data from the questionnaire were collated and analyzed using Survey Monkey® (Momentive Inc., San Mateo, CA) data analysis tools. Results: Eighty-three persons provided full or partial responses to the questionnaire. There were 19% of respondents who considered MRSA colonization status of patients to be only “somewhat important” when selecting appropriate SAP. Additionally, 62% of responses did not correctly identify the appropriate SAP regimen for patients who are colonized with MRSA. Several barriers to optimal SAP were identified including poor understanding of SAP guidelines, lack of timely identification of patients confirmed to be colonized with MRSA, inaccurate documentation of antibiotic and surgical start times, and limitations of the current operating room management software program. Conclusions: The high level of engagement from most key stakeholders demonstrates accountability and an overall desire to improve SAP. Barriers identified in this audit should be considered by facilities wishing to optimize compliance with SAP guidelines and consequently reduce SSIs, in particular for patients who are at high risk of MRSA infections.
, Mary E. Brindle, Rachel G. Khadaroo, Tara L. Klassen, Jared M. Huston
Published: 29 December 2022
Background: Active and recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections are associated with morbidity and mortality after surgery in adults. Current recommendations suggest delaying elective surgery in survivors for four to 12 weeks, depending on initial illness severity. Recently, the predominant causes of COVID-19 are the highly transmissible/less virulent Omicron variant/subvariants. Moreover, increased survivability of primary infections has engendered the long-COVID syndrome, with protean manifestations that may persist for months. Considering the more than 600,000,000 COVID-19 survivors, surgeons will likely be consulted by recovered patients seeking elective operations. Knowledge gaps of the aftermath of Omicron infections raise questions whether extant guidance for timing of surgery still applies to adults or should apply to the pediatric population. Methods: Scoping review of relevant English-language literature. Results: Most supporting data derive from early in the pandemic when the Alpha variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) predominated. The Omicron variant/subvariants generally cause milder infections with less organ dysfunction; many infections are asymptomatic, especially in children. Data are scant with respect to adult surgical outcomes after Omicron infection, and especially so for pediatric surgical outcomes at any stage of the pandemic. Conclusions: Numerous knowledge gaps persist with respect to the disease, the recovered pre-operative patient, the nature of the proposed procedure, and supporting data. For example, should the waiting period for all but urgent elective surgery be extended beyond 12 weeks, e.g., after serious/critical illness, or for patients with long-COVID and organ dysfunction? Conversely, can the waiting periods for asymptomatic patients or vaccinated patients be shortened? How shall children be risk-stratified, considering the distinctiveness of pediatric COVID-19 and the paucity of data? Forthcoming guidelines will hopefully answer these questions but may require ongoing modifications based on additional new data and the epidemiology of emerging strains.
Hua-Qing Wang, Ping Han, Qi-Bing Huang, Ze-Li Zhang
Published: 29 December 2022
Objectives: Intra-cranial infection is the most serious complication after ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). There were differences in clinical characteristics between early (occurs within one month after VPS, the early group) and delayed (occurs 1 month or more after VPS, the delayed group) infections. The aim of this study is to clarify the differences between the two groups. Patients and Methods: All cases diagnosed as intracranial infection after VPS between September 2017 and December 2021 were collected. Clinical data were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Results: Nineteen cases met the inclusion criteria, including 12 cases in the early group and seven cases in the delayed group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, age, and etiology of hydrocephalus. Cases in the early group usually had fever with worsening consciousness (11; 91.7%), which was caused by surgical operations (10; 83.3%) with gram-positive coccis infection (9; 75.0%), whereas those in the delayed group had abdominal pain (5; 71.4%), caused by abdominal factor (7; 100%) with gram-negative bacilli infection (6; 85.7%). There were differences in symptoms (p < 0.01), causes of infection (p < 0.001), and pathogens (p < 0.05). Shunt removal was performed for all 19 cases. After the infection was controlled, eight cases received VPS again, and no re-infection occurred after a follow-up of four to 22 months. Conclusions: It is suggested in this study that there were differences between the two groups in terms of etiology, symptoms, and pathogens. The results can provide theoretical basis for prevention, early diagnosis, and reasonable treatment of infection after VPS.
Lauren S. Kelly, Jennifer A. Munley, Kolenkode B. Kannan, Erick E. Pons, Preston S. Coldwell, Letitia E. Bible, Hari K. Parvataneni, Jennifer E. Hagen, Philip A. Efron,
Published: 28 December 2022
Background: Post-injury inflammation and its correlation with anemia recovery after severe trauma is poorly described. Severe injury induces a systemic inflammatory response associated with critical illness and organ dysfunction, including disordered hematopoiesis, and anemia. This study sought to characterize the resolution of post-injury inflammation and anemia to identify risk factors associated with persistence of anemia. Patients and Methods: This single-institution study prospectively enrolled 73 trauma patients with an injury severity score >15, hemorrhagic shock, and a lower extremity long bone orthopedic injury. Blood was obtained at enrollment and after 14 days, one, three, and six months. Analytes were compared using Mann-Whitney U tests with correction for multiple comparisons. Results: Median age was 45 years and Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 27, with anemia rates of 97% at two weeks, 80% at one month, 52% at three months, and 30% at six months. Post-injury elevations in erythropoietin, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein resolved by one month, three months, and six months, respectively. Median granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentrations remained elevated throughout the six-month follow-up period. Patients with persistent anemia had longer intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay, more infectious complications, and received more packed red blood cell transfusions compared to those with early anemia recovery. Conclusions: Severe trauma is associated with a prolonged inflammatory response, which is associated with increased transfusion requirements, lengths of stay, and persistent anemia. Further analysis is needed to identify correlations between prolonged inflammation and clinical outcomes after discharge.
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