Childhood Obesity

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 21532168 / 21532176
Total articles ≅ 1,103

Latest articles in this journal

, Nita Salzman, Vy Lam, Mary Holtz, Andrea Moosreiner, Mauricio Garnier-Villarreal
Published: 2 February 2023
Abstract:
Background: Prebiotic fiber has been examined as a way to foster gut bacteria less associated with obesity. Tests of prebiotic fiber in reducing obesity have been conducted mainly in animals, adults, and Caucasians when the highest obesity rates are in African American and Latinx youth. Response to prebiotic fiber is determined by the pre-existing intestinal microbiota. The type of microbiota varies based on diet and physical activity (PA), so it is important to examine acceptability and response to prebiotic fiber in those most at risk for obesity. Methods: This cluster-randomized, controlled feasibility trial included an online program designed to improve diet and PA along with administration of a prebiotic fiber for 12 weeks in 123 students of 4th and 5th grade where 98% were eligible for free or reduced-fee lunch. Of these 56% were male; 71% Latinx; 15% African American; and 14% other. Results: Decrease in body fat (BF) was associated with higher pretest BF. Lower body mass index (BMI) was associated with decrease in fecal Tenericutes and increase in Actinobacteria. Conclusions: Prebiotic fiber can be helpful in supporting healthy weight, so inclusion in culturally congruent foods usually eaten by children from groups at high risk for obesity should be considered following additional studies. Determining those most responsive to prebiotic fibers can also permit individual recommendations for greater inclusion in usual diet choices. Clinical Trial Registration Number NCT05671731.
Rachele De Giuseppe, Francesca Bergomas, Federica Loperfido, , Giorgia Preatoni, Valeria Calcaterra, Hellas Cena
Published: 4 January 2023
Abstract:
Background: Celiac disease (CD) is a multifactorial, immune-mediated enteropathic disorder that may occur at any age with heterogeneous clinical presentation. In the last years, unusual manifestations have become very frequent, and currently, it is not so uncommon to diagnose CD in subjects with overweight or obesity, especially in adults; however, little is known in the pediatric population. This systematic review aims to evaluate the literature regarding the association between CD and overweight/obesity in school-age children. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. An electronic database search of articles published in the last 20 years in English was carried out in Web of Sciences, PubMed, and Medline. The quality of the included studies was assessed by using the STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology statement. Results: Of the 1396 articles identified, 9 articles, investigating overweight/obesity in children/adolescents affected by CD or screening CD in children/adolescents with overweight/obesity, met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the results showed that the prevalence of overweight or obesity in school-age children (6–17 years) affected by CD ranged between 3.5% and 20%, highlighting that the coexistence of CD with overweight/obesity in children is not uncommon as previously thought. Conclusion: Although CD has been historically correlated with being underweight due to malabsorption, it should be evaluated also in children with overweight and obesity, especially those who have a familiar predisposition to other autoimmune diseases and/or manifest unusual symptoms of CD.
, , Elias Samuels, Athena Mckay, Theresa Kowalski-Dobson, Donald Vereen, Noelle Gorka, Vaishali Nambiar, Kent Key, Bettina Campbell, et al.
Published: 1 January 2023
Childhood Obesity, Volume 19, pp 34-45; https://doi.org/10.1089/chi.2021.0216

Abstract:
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought profound changes to the health of families worldwide. Yet, there is limited research regarding its impact on children. The pandemic may exacerbate factors associated with excess weight, which is particularly concerning due to the potential association between excess weight and severity of COVID-19 infection. This study investigates parental perspectives of changes in fruit/vegetable (FV) intake, processed food (PF) intake, outdoor playtime (OP), physical activity (PA) levels, and recreational screen time (RST) among children living in Michigan during the pandemic. Methods: The study team and community partners developed and distributed a survey using snowball sampling to reach families living largely in Central and Southeastern Michigan. Nonlinear mixed-effects proportional odds models were used to examine associations between child weight status along with demographic/household factors and changes in five weight-related behaviors. Results: Parents (n = 1313; representing 2469 children) reported a decrease in OP, FV, and PA levels, while there was an increase in RST and PF intake among their children. Household income was protective against a decrease in OP, PA, and FV but was associated with increased RST. Children's weight status was associated with decreased FV. Age was negatively associated with OP and PA, and positively associated with RST. Conclusions: These findings suggest an adverse influence of the pandemic on weight-related behaviors, particularly among adolescents in families with lower incomes and those with excess weight. Further work is needed to measure any impact on BMI trajectory and to identify interventions to reverse negative effects.
, Abraham Salinas-Miranda, Jennifer Marshall, Heewon L. Gray, Russell S. Kirby
Published: 1 January 2023
Childhood Obesity, Volume 19, pp 57-67; https://doi.org/10.1089/chi.2021.0260

Abstract:
Background: This study explored whether there are mediated effects of child and family risk in the association between community and organizational risk and obesity among children and adolescents aged 10–17 years using 2017–2018 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) data, addressing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and co-occurring conditions. Methods: This cross-sectional study (N = 27,157) used 2017–2018 NSCH data. Frequency distributions and chi-square tests were used to describe participants with and without ASD. Cumulative risk indices were created for child, family, community, and organizational level risk, and mediation analyses were conducted in a two-mediator model (X1: community risk, X2: organizational risk, M1: child risk, M2: family risk) for the dichotomous outcome (Y: obesity). Path analyses were performed using generalized structural equation modeling in Stata 16.0. Results: Direct effects for all four risk indices were associated with obesity in single index models (all p < 0.001); only child and family risk indices were associated with obesity in a full model with all four risk indices (both p < 0.001). When child and family risk indices were assessed as mediators, the indirect effects of community and organizational risk were significant (all p < 0.0001). The total effect of community risk on obesity was significant with family risk as a mediator (p = 0.002). The total effect of organizational risk was not significant with either mediator. Conclusion: Findings suggest that child and family factors play a strong role in obesity risk and that ASD contributes to this risk. Community risk may be another strong predictor of obesity, mediated by family risk. Additional research on social-ecological risk factors for obesity is needed to identify leverage points to improve obesity risk in children and adolescents with and without ASD.
, Ivy L. Mak, Sarah-Eve Loiselle, Popi Kasvis, Tom J. Hazell, Catherine A. Vanstone, Celia Rodd, Hope A. Weiler
Published: 1 January 2023
Childhood Obesity, Volume 19, pp 46-56; https://doi.org/10.1089/chi.2022.0008

Abstract:
Background: Few family-centered lifestyle interventions (FCLIs) for children with overweight or obesity (OW/OB) have assessed regional adiposity and bone health. This study assessed changes in adiposity in 9- to 12-year olds with OW/OB in a 1-year FCLI. Methods: Children were randomized to FCLI (six registered dietitian-led sessions) or no intervention (Control, CTRL). The FCLI focused on physical activity, nutrition education, and behavioral counseling children with families present. Assessments occurred at baseline and every 3 months for 1 year to assess changes in waist circumference (WC), body mass index for age-and-sex Z-scores (BAZ), body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), and cardiometabolic biomarkers. Mixed models were used to determine the effects of group and time or group-by-time interactions for all outcomes. Results: Sixty children (age: 11.1 ± 1.1 years, BAZ: 2.7 ± 0.6) were enrolled; 55 participants (n = 28 CTRL, n = 27 FCLI) completed the study. There were no between group differences from baseline to follow-up for any measure. The FCLI group had significant decreases in BAZ over 12 months (−0.18 ± 0.27, p = 0.03) but not CTRL (−0.05 ± 0.32, p = 0.92). WC and android fat mass did not change in FCLI (p > 0.20) but increased in CTRL (p < 0.02). Whole body bone area, content, and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) increased in both groups (p < 0.010); whole body aBMD Z-score decreased by 5.8% and 1.6% in CTRL and FCLI, respectively (p < 0.001). There were no significant within group changes in biomarkers. Conclusion: The FCLI resulted in small reductions in BAZ and a plateau in android fat mass, which suggest that FCLIs are suitable as an intervention for 9- to 12-year-old children with OW/OB. Clinical Trial Registration number: NCT01290016. Impact statement The family-based intervention for 9- to 12-year-old children that was based on Canadian dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behavior recommendations resulted in favorable changes in body composition, specifically reducing body mass index z-scores and changes in lifestyle behaviors without compromising bone health.
, Terri Fergus, Holly Buhler, Megan Purcell, Shazhan Amed
Published: 1 January 2023
Childhood Obesity, Volume 19, pp 25-33; https://doi.org/10.1089/chi.2021.0278

Abstract:
Background: Many of the complex determinants of obesity originate during infancy when small changes in the environment can permanently influence appetite, behavior, and energy metabolism. Parent feeding style (“how” rather than “what” to feed) has emerged as a potentially important factor in early obesity prevention. Objectives: (1) To assess the feasibility of conducting a brief responsive feeding education intervention by public health nurses during routine well-baby visits. (2) To assess whether this intervention affects parents' attitudes and behavior related to responsive feeding. Methods: Prospective, nonrandomized, comparative pilot study conducted in two communities. Intervention participants were exposed to enhanced responsive feeding education by public health nurses at routine well-baby visits from 0 to 18 months along with wall posters, handouts, automated text messages and tangible takeaways. Parent knowledge and behavior were measured using the Infant Feeding Style Questionnaire and the Toddler Development Index. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed by patients and nurses through open text feedback forms and mid-point and exit interviews. Results: Recruitment (18 intervention; 9 control) and retention fell below targets. Average adherence to protocol by nurses from 0 to 12 months was 89%. Delivery of the intervention was feasible and acceptable, but the additional research-related tasks were challenging in a busy clinical setting. Parents found the different formats and information new and helpful. There was a trend toward less nonresponsive (pressuring, restrictive, laissez-faire) feeding practices in the intervention group. Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrated encouraging results related to overall feasibility and effect on parent feeding style.
Published: 1 January 2023
Childhood Obesity, Volume 19, pp 13-24; https://doi.org/10.1089/chi.2021.0225

Abstract:
Background: Few childhood obesity prevention interventions have focused exclusively on fathers, particularly in low-income families. The objectives of this study were to determine feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of a father-focused childhood obesity prevention program for low-income families with preschool children (ages 3–5 years old). Methods: Father-child pairs (n = 45) enrolled in a community-based intervention in a Northeastern US state and were assigned within groups to intervention (n = 31) or a delayed comparison group (n = 14). The 8-week (2 h/week) program included nutrition, cooking, and parent education. Feasibility (enrollment, retention, and attendance) and acceptability (quality and value of program) of the program were assessed. Pre/Post measures included the Meals in our Household, Comprehensive Feeding Practices, Healthy Kids, and the Cooking Matters questionnaires. T-tests were conducted and Hedge's g was calculated to estimate effect sizes. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.10. Results: Results indicated feasibility and acceptability of the program for intervention fathers, but recruitment and retention of comparison fathers proved challenging. Small to medium effect sizes were detected for improvements in fathers' feeding pressure (g = 0.48, p = 0.005), confidence in cooking skills (g = 0.25, p = 0.09), ability to cook healthy foods on a budget (g = 0.33, p = 0.10), and frequency that fathers cooked dinner (g = 0.15, p = 0.06). There was a large effect size detected in the increase of green salad consumption (g = 0.75, p = 0.01) by fathers and a small effect size for frequency of children eating vegetables (g = 0.13, p = 0.07). Conclusions: While results are promising, further research should evaluate impact of a larger scale father-focused intervention on diet and obesity risk. The project was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT03071419.
, Simran Gupta, , Kristy McCarron, Laura Fischer, Domonique Panton, Kofi Essel
Published: 1 January 2023
Childhood Obesity, Volume 19, pp 3-12; https://doi.org/10.1089/chi.2021.0274

Abstract:
Background: Obesity is a chronic multifactorial disease affecting approximately one in five youth. Many pediatric clinical strategies focus on behavioral change/lifestyle modification efforts, but are limited by their intensity and muted by their inability to address the sociocultural contexts of obesity. The primary objective of the study was to explore primary care pediatric clinicians' current barriers/management practices of patients with obesity. Methods: A mixed-methods study was conducted by distributing an electronic survey to pediatric providers in Washington, DC, and its surrounding metropolitan area. Three focus groups were conducted with a subgroup of these primary care clinicians to further explore their responses. Results: Pediatric clinicians (n = 81) completed the survey out of 380 invitations sent, and 20 took part in 3 focus groups, ranging in size between 4 and 8 clinicians. Over 90% of clinicians felt comfortable advising patients. However, 52% lacked confidence in addressing obesity and over 80% indicated that time constraint is a barrier to care and emphasized the need for more training in obesity management. Six themes emerged regarding clinician barriers to addressing obesity, including (1) limited time, (2) clinician perceived familial resistance, (3) challenges with racial and ethnic concordance, (4) perceived environmental barriers, (5) limited knowledge of community resources, and (6) inadequate collaborative support. Conclusions: Clinicians have difficulty implementing obesity management strategies into their everyday practice due to a variety of barriers. This study emphasized the need for better implementation strategies, tools, and collaboration with community stakeholders for clinicians to engage weight management more effectively.
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