Foodborne Pathogens & Disease

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 15353141 / 15567125
Total articles ≅ 2,177

Latest articles in this journal

Magdalena Gonet, Daniel Krowarsch, Justyna Schubert, Aleksandra Tabiś,
Published: 1 January 2023
Foodborne Pathogens & Disease, Volume 20, pp 32-37; https://doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2022.0059

Abstract:
The only staphylococcal enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis include SECepi and SELepi, whereas Staphylococcus aureus produces orthologous SECs and SEL having different sequences. We compared S. epidermidis and S. aureus SECs and SELs in terms of resistance to proteolysis and both, thermal and chemical stability. We show that SECepi and SELepi produced by S. epidermidis have similar resistance to proteolysis if compared with their respective orthologues produced by S. aureus. Studied S. epidermidis and S. aureus SEC variants incubated with pepsin at pH 2.0 were found to be more resistant to proteolysis than SELs. SELs turned out to be more resistant than SECs to proteolysis with trypsin at pH 8.0. SECepi was found to be more resistant to thermal denaturation if compared with its S. aureus orthologues. The S. epidermidis and S. aureus SEC variants were found to have higher thermal stability than SELs. Our data indicate that, due to their high stability, the enterotoxins SECepi and SELepi produced in food by S. epidermidis may pose a food safety risk comparable with that posed by S. aureus enterotoxins.
Published: 1 January 2023
Foodborne Pathogens & Disease, Volume 20, pp 38-39; https://doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2022.29018.ack

Abstract:
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Xiang-Zhu Meng, Chao Kang, Jiaqi Wei, , Gang Liu, Jin-Ping Zhao, Hong-Shun Zhang, Xin-Bo Yang, Xiang-Yu Wang, Li-Hua Yang, et al.
Published: 1 January 2023
Foodborne Pathogens & Disease, Volume 20, pp 17-31; https://doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2022.0052

Abstract:
Giardia duodenum (G. duodenalis) can cause giardiasis and infect a variety of hosts. So far, there have been no detailed data regarding the positive rate of G. duodenalis in cattle in China. Here, a systematic literature review was carried out to investigate the epidemiology of bovine G. duodenalis in China. To perform the meta-analysis, the databases China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Chinese Journal Databases, WanFang Databases, PubMed, and ScienceDirect were employed for screening studies related to the prevalence of G. duodenalis in cattle in China. The total prevalence of G. duodenalis in cattle was estimated to be 8.00% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.51–11.62). In the age subgroup, the prevalence of G. duodenalis in calves (11.72%; 95% CI: 7.75–17.73) was significantly higher than that in cattle of other age groups. An analysis based on seasons showed that the prevalence of G. duodenalis in cattle was higher in summer (9.69%; 95% CI: 2.66–35.30) than that in other seasons. The prevalence of G. duodenalis in cattle in 2016 or later was 11.62% (95% CI: 6.49–20.79), which was significantly higher than that before 2016 (3.65%; 95% CI: 2.17–6.12). The highest prevalence of G. duodenalis in cattle was 74.23% (95% CI: 69.76–78.45) recorded in South China. The NOAA's National Center for Environmental Information (https://gis.ncdc.noaa.gov/maps/ncei/cdo/monthly) was used to extract relevant geoclimatic data (latitude, longitude, elevation, temperature, precipitation, humidity, and climate). By analyzing the data of each subgroup, it was shown that age of cattle, sampling year, province, region, temperature, and climate were potential risk factors for giardiasis prevalence in cattle. Based on the analysis of common factors and geographical factors, it is recommended to strengthen effective management measures (e.g., ventilation and disinfection in warm and humid areas) and formulate relevant policies according to local conditions. Breeders should pay more attention to the detection of G. duodenalis in calves, to prevent giardiasis prevalence in cattle of different ages, thereby reducing the economic losses of animal husbandry in China.
Hyun-Ju Song, Dong Chan Moon, Su-Jeong Kim, Abraham Fikru Mechesso, Ji-Hyun Choi, Naila Boby, Hee Young Kang, , Soon-Seek Yoon,
Published: 1 January 2023
Foodborne Pathogens & Disease, Volume 20, pp 7-16; https://doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2022.0051

Abstract:
Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria isolated from food animals pose a major health threat to the public on this planet. This study aimed to determine the susceptibility profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from cattle and pig fecal samples and investigate the molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli using gene identification, conjugation, and Southern blot approach. Overall 293 E. coli were recovered from cattle (120 isolates) and pigs (173 isolates) in 7 provinces of Korea during 2017–2018. Ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole resistance rates were the highest in pigs' isolates (>60%, p ≤ 0.001) compared to that in cattle (3–39%). Multidrug resistance (MDR) was higher in pig isolates (73%) than in cattle (31%), and the MDR profile usually includes streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. Resistance to critically important antimicrobials such as ceftiofur, colistin, and ciprofloxacin was higher in weaners than those from finishers in pigs. The qnrS gene was detected in 13% of the pig isolates. Eight isolates from pigs and one isolate from cattle were identified as ESBL-producers and ESBL genes belonged to blaCTX-M-55 (n = 4), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 3), and blaCTX-M-65 (n = 2). Notably, the blaCTX-M-65 and qnrS1 genes were found to be carried together in an identical plasmid (IncHI2) in two isolates from finisher pigs. The blaCTX-M-carrying isolates belonged to phylogenetic groups B1 (n = 4), B2 (n = 2), A (n = 2), and D (n = 1). The blaCTX-M genes and non-β-lactam resistance traits were transferred to the E. coli J53 recipient from seven blaCTX-M-positive strains isolated from pigs. The blaCTX-M genes belonged to the IncI1α, IncFII, and IncHI2 plasmids and are also associated with the ISEcp1, IS26, IS903, and orf477 elements. These findings suggested the possibility of blaCTX-M-carrying E. coli transmission to humans through direct contact with cattle and pigs or contamination of food products.
Akiko Yamazaki, Yukiko Shirafuji, Yoichi Kamata
Published: 1 January 2023
Foodborne Pathogens & Disease, Volume 20, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2022.0049

Abstract:
Several cases of gastrointestinal symptoms including diarrhea and vomiting due to the consumption of Sarcocystis-infected venison have been reported in Japan. However, the control of case incidence is difficult, as epidemiological information concerning Sarcocystis in venison in Japan is insufficient. We examined the prevalence and parasite load of Sarcocystis in 89 samples of Yezo-deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) venison in Hokkaido by quantifying the copy numbers of the 18S rRNA gene of Sarcocystis, followed by a statistical analysis that considered the sampling area, age, and sex to clarify the parameters related to the parasite load. The copy numbers per gram of venison in samples ranged from 4.8 to 8.8 log. Wilcoxon rank-sum test, the one-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA), Steel–Dwass test, and a two-way factorial ANOVA showed significant differences in the copy numbers among sampling areas, not by age or sex, suggesting that the load of Sarcocystis in wild deer depended on the sampling area in Hokkaido. Notably, more than 80% of Hokkaido venison has a higher gene copy number than the meat that caused Sarcocystis fayeri-food poisoning. This information is expected to contribute to the establishment of hygiene standards for safe venison consumption and the control of gastrointestinal symptom cases due to consumption of Sarcocystis-infected venison.
Molly Mitchell, , Guerrino Macori, Declan Bolton, Geoff McMullan, Denise Drudy,
Published: 1 December 2022
Foodborne Pathogens & Disease, Volume 19, pp 806-816; https://doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2022.0037

Abstract:
Clostridioides difficile (basonym Clostridium) is a bacterial enteropathogen associated with cases of C. difficile infection that can result in pseudomembranous colitis, rapid fluid loss, and death. For decades following its isolation, C. difficile was thought to be a solely nosocomial pathogen, being isolated from individuals undergoing antimicrobial therapy and largely affecting elderly populations. More recently, C. difficile spores have been identified in the broader environment, including in food-producing animals, soil, and food matrices, in both ready-to-eat foods and meat products. Furthermore, evidence has emerged of hypervirulent ribotypes (RTs), such as RT078, similar to those cultured in asymptomatic carriers, also being identified in these environments. This finding may reflect on adaptations arising in these bacteria following selection pressures encountered in these niches, and which occurs due to an increase in antimicrobial usage in both clinical and veterinary settings. As C. difficile continues to adapt to new ecological niches, the taxonomy of this genus has also been evolving. To help understand the transmission and virulence potential of these bacteria of importance to veterinary public health, strategies applying multi-omics-based technologies may prove useful. These approaches may extend our current understanding of this recognized nosocomial pathogen, perhaps redefining it as a zoonotic bacterium. In this review, a brief background on the epidemiological presentation of C. difficile will be highlighted, followed by a review of C. difficile in food-producing animals and food products. The current state of C. difficile taxonomy will provide evidence of Clade 5 (ST11/RT078) delineation, as well as background on the genomic elements linked to C. difficile virulence and ongoing speciation. Recent studies applying second- and third-generation sequencing technologies will be highlighted, and which will further strengthen the argument made by many throughout the world regarding this pathogen and its consideration within a One Health dimension.
, Feifei Xu, Robiul Karim,
Published: 1 December 2022
Foodborne Pathogens & Disease, Volume 19, pp 796-805; https://doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2022.0054

Abstract:
Cyclosporiasis is an emerging disease caused by Cyclospora cayetanensis, which induces protracting and relapsing gastroenteritis and has been linked to huge and complicated travel- and food-related outbreaks worldwide. Cyclosporiasis has become more common in both developing and developed countries as a result of increased global travel and the globalization of the human food supply. It is not just a burden on individual human health but also a worldwide public health problem. As a pathogen of interest, the molecular biological characteristics of C. cayetanensis have advanced significantly over the last few decades. However, only one FDA-approved molecular platform has been commercially used in the investigation of cyclosporiasis outbreaks. More potential molecular markers and genotyping of C. cayetanensis in samples based on the polymorphic region of the whole genomes might differentiate between separate case clusters and would be useful in tracing back investigations, especially during cyclosporiasis outbreak investigations. Considering that there is no effective vaccine for cyclosporosis, epidemiological investigation using effective tools is crucial for controlling cyclosporiasis by source tracking. Therefore, more and more epidemiological investigative studies for human cyclosporiasis should be promoted around the world to get a deeper understanding of its characteristics as well as management. This review focuses on major cyclosporiasis outbreaks and potential molecular markers for tracing back investigations into cyclosporiasis outbreaks.
Aránzazu Rodríguez,
Published: 1 December 2022
Foodborne Pathogens & Disease, Volume 19, pp 787-795; https://doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2022.0058

Abstract:
The cuisine of the Balearic Islands (Spain, southern Europe) has several products of a great tradition, recognized worldwide and covered by European Union quality schemes, such as Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) and Protected Geographical Indication (PGI). Among them, the most emblematic products are sobrasada de Mallorca (a type of raw curated pork meat), ensaimada de Mallorca (pastry product), and Mahón-Menorca cheese (cow's milk cheese). During 4 consecutive years (2018–2021), the presence/absence of Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase positive (henceforth as E. coli), Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus in these products has been monitored, as well as the total yeast and mold count in ensaimada de Mallorca. The results of the microbiological analysis showed that sobrasada presented similar microbiological patterns to those of other raw curated meat products (some presence of E. coli and L. monocytogenes). Furthermore, the sobrasada de Mallorca made with white pork tended to be positive in E. coli compared to other sobrasada subtypes. In the case of ensaimada, only a reduced number of cases within filled ensaimadas (with higher moisture content) presented unacceptable mold and yeast counts (>500 colony-forming unit [CFU]/g). Finally, the Mahón-Menorca cheese presented a surprising microbiology pattern: higher E. coli contamination in the pasteurized milk cheese compared to its raw counterpart. This pattern was observed for all the years, being statistically significant in 2020. This study has detected good microbiological status in the three traditional products studied. However, worrisome issues in Good Hygienic Practices have been detected for some companies that produce pasteurized milk Mahón-Menorca cheese under the PDO quality label. The companies involved and even the competent authorities should address these problems to correct this deviation in food security.
Lulu Li, Jinrui Ren, Qing Zhang, Yanbo Luo, Yin Zhang, Jing Qi, Xiaonan Zhao, Ming Hu, Yuqing Liu
Published: 1 December 2022
Foodborne Pathogens & Disease, Volume 19, pp 817-822; https://doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2022.0034

Abstract:
Streptococcus suis is an important zoonotic pathogen that poses a serious threat to the pig industry and human health. The massive use of macrolides has led to the emergence of resistance in S. suis, and S. suis is suspected to be a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes. The mechanism to macrolide resistance in S. suis is mainly due to ermB and mefA. In this study, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) methods were developed to detect ermB and mefA genes in S. suis through turbidimetry detection. The sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP reactions were determined. All results of LAMP and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay were compared to determine whether LAMP method was accurate and reliable. The results showed that all 100 nonstreptococcus clinical isolates tested negative, indicating the high specificity of LAMP assays. The detection limit of LAMP assay was 1 fg per reaction, and 102–104-fold lower than those of conventional PCR methods. Evaluation of the performance of the LAMP assay in S. suis clinical strains revealed a good consistency between LAMP and PCR assays. In conclusion, LAMP assays are specific, sensitive, and rapid methods to detect ermB and mefA in S. suis.
, Tadasuke Ooka, Mizuha Shibata, Yuhki Nagai, Yuki Tokoi, Hiromi Nagaoka, Rika Maeda, Akihiko Tsuchiya, Yuka Kojima, Kenji Ohya, et al.
Published: 1 December 2022
Foodborne Pathogens & Disease, Volume 19, pp 823-829; https://doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2022.0042

Abstract:
Escherichia albertii is an emerging enteropathogen. Several foodborne outbreaks of E. albertii have been reported in Japan; however, foods associated with most outbreaks remain unidentified. Therefore, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays detecting E. albertii specifically and sensitively are required. Primers and probe for real-time PCR assays targeting E. albertii-specific gene (EA-rtPCR) was designed. With 74 strains, including 43 E. albertii strains and several of its close relatives, EA-rtPCR specifically amplified E. albertii; therefore, the sensitivity of EA-rtPCR was then evaluated. The detection limits were 2.8 and 2.0–3.2 log colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL for E. albertii culture and enriched chicken culture inoculated with the pathogen, respectively. In addition, E. albertii was detected from 25 g of chicken meat inoculated with 0.1 log CFU of the pathogen by EA-rtPCR. The detection of E. albertii from chicken meat by EA-rtPCR was also evaluated by comparing with the nested-PCR assay, and 28 retail chicken meat and 193 dissected body parts from 21 chicken carcass were tested. One and three chicken meat were positive in the nested-PCR assay and EA-rtPCR, respectively. Fourteen carcasses had at least one body part that was positive for EA-rtPCR, and 36 and 48 samples were positive for the nested-PCR assay and EA-rtPCR, respectively. A total of 37 strains of E. albertii were isolated from seven PCR-positive samples obtained from six chicken carcass. All E. albertii isolates harbored eae gene, and were classified as E. albertii O-genotype (EAOg)3 or EAOg4 by EAO-genotyping. The EA-rtPCR developed in this study has potential to improve E. albertii detection in food and advance research on E. albertii infection.
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