Journal of Vaccines and Immunology

Journal Information
EISSN: 26407590
Total articles ≅ 50

Latest articles in this journal

Adu-Fokuo Douglas, Cheng Feng, Yin Emily, Giwa Elizabeth
Journal of Vaccines and Immunology, Volume 9, pp 006-014;

Background: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), globally there is an estimated 200,000 cases of Yellow Fever Virus yearly, causing 30,000 deaths annually, with 90% of cases occurring in Africa. Where about 20% to 50% of people who get infected and develop severe symptoms from the yellow fever virus die. WHO report showed that Ghana was among 27 African countries with a high risk of yellow fever outbreak at any time. In response, there was a need to amplify the immunization campaign against yellow fever. Ghana in collaboration with WHO, GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance, and UNICEF began a sub-national campaign to vaccinate approximately 5.3 million people against yellow fever targeting people between ages 10 and 60 years from November 28 to December 4, 2018. 459 Adverse Events Following the Immunization (AEFI) in Ghana were reported from 28th November 2018 to 1st January 2019. The yellow fever vaccine is regarded as one of the safest, but with few adverse events. Therefore, there is a need to assess the severity of the reported adverse events following immunization in the 2018 sub-national yellow fever immunization program in Ghana. Objective: To study the Seriousness of adverse events following yellow fever vaccination in Ghana. Methodology: A retrospective review of AEFI data through a surveillance system during a Yellow Fever vaccination campaign in Ghana. The data comprised suspected 459 adverse events following the immunization (AEFI). The reported AEFI from 28th November 2018 to 1st January 2019 was used for this study as secondary data. A total of 5.3 million people were vaccinated. All vaccine recipients were between the ages of 10 years to 60 years. Data were analyzed using frequencies and descriptive statistics in STATA version 15. Findings and discussions: The study showed 459 (0.00086%) per 5.3 million recipients reported adverse events. The AEFI occurred mostly among females and persons aged 30-39 years. Out of the 459 recipients with adverse events, 432 (99.3%) recovered, and 3 (0.7%) died. The most common adverse event per region, sex, and age group is fever. The study also revealed AEFIs may have contributed to the death of 3 (0.000056%) per 5.3 million recipients. However, a causality assessment done by the Vaccine Safety Review Committee of independent experts showed no causality between the reported AEFI (deaths) and the YF vaccination. This indicates that the benefits of the vaccination outweigh the risk of adverse events or fatalities. Conclusion: In conclusion, it was found that the benefits of the Yellow Fever Vaccination (YFV 17D) outweigh the risk of adverse events or fatalities. Reported Adverse Events following the 2018 sub-national yellow fever vaccination per 5.3 million recipients were 459 representing 0.0086%. There was no causality between reported deaths 3 (0.000056%) and the YF immunization. The adverse events that follow yellow fever immunization are not strong and suggest that most of the respondents do not have serious repercussions after the vaccination. Therefore, YF vaccination has saved millions of people from potential vaccine-preventable deaths in Ghana and beyond its borders and did not cause more harm than health benefits.
Ondrej Šušol, Barbora Šušolová, Roman Hájek
Journal of Vaccines and Immunology, Volume 8, pp 029-032;

Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 has been subject to intensive interest since its appearance in 2019, with the risk of severe course being significantly higher for adult patients with hematological malignancy. Results on a two-dose, standard vaccination regimen in patients with hematological cancer have identified risk populations with poor vaccination outcomes (Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, anti-CD20 treatment, etc.). Thus, a booster dose was anticipated with hopes of inducing an immune response in formerly non-respondent individuals. We have vaccinated 394 patients with hematological cancer with the third dose of the mRNA BNT 162b2 COMIRNATY vaccine. Our results show promise, especially for increasing protective antibody levels in patients who retain valid antibody titers. We also identify problematic populations such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia, which still represent a major challenge for prophylaxis and protection against a severe course of COVID-19. Our report brings more insight into vaccination results and behavior. Importantly, we have identified risk groups in which poor outcomes can be anticipated and what extensive preventive measures should be undertaken to avoid COVID-19 infection.
Perera Mnsk, Gunapala A
Journal of Vaccines and Immunology, Volume 8, pp 023-028;

Adult-onset Still’s disease is a rare systemic disease while macrophage activation syndrome is a fulminant complication of Still’s disease. As mortality is high in macrophage activation syndrome, prompt diagnosis is crucial to commence definitive management. Adult-onset Still’s disease is a rare systemic disease while macrophage activation syndrome is a fulminant complication of Still’s disease. As mortality is high in macrophage activation syndrome, prompt diagnosis is crucial to commence definitive management. Macrophage activation syndrome is a complication of adult-onset Still’s disease. When first-line immunosuppressives fail, second-line medications including biologic therapy can be considered with good results.
Mishra Kp, Bakshi Jyotsana, Singh Mrinalini, Saraswat Deepika, Ganju Lilly, Varshney Rajeev
Journal of Vaccines and Immunology, Volume 8, pp 014-022;

Macrophages are important cells of the immune system and are sufficiently plastic to polarize either an M1 state or M2 state. Depending on the signals received from different intrinsic or extrinsic factors, the macrophage polarity is determined. These cells are distributed in every tissue of the body and are also found as circulating cells in the bloodstream called ‘monocytes’. Natural products may be one extrinsic factor to modulate macrophage polarization. It is important to understand the mechanism by which natural products drive the polarization of macrophages. Based on recent advancements in the understanding of immunology, macrophages are classified as classically activated and alternatively activated, also designated as M1 and M2 macrophages respectively. The resident brain macrophages (microglia) get activated under stress and attain the M1 macrophage phenotype which is related to inflammatory mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration while treatment with plant-derived natural compounds drives the M1 microglia towards the M2 type which prevents the inflammatory response and protects the neurons. Understanding the mechanism of polarization of macrophages by natural compounds will be useful in treating different types of inflammatory diseases including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. In this review, we summarized the current understanding of macrophage polarization using plant-derived natural compounds and their ability to regulate the pathophysiology of the tissues.
Onate Tenorio Maria de Los Santos, Eslava Maria Perez, Tenorio Antonio Onate
Journal of Vaccines and Immunology, Volume 8, pp 004-013;

Throughout the history of medicine, vaccines have been one of the most used weapons by humans to prevent diseases and create immunity, having a great impact on both society and the health of individuals and communities, constituting an authentic guarantee to achieve stability and the maintenance of the public health of the population. In this monograph, a compilation, reflective, detailed, and specific study of vaccines within the history of medicine are carried out through a bibliographic search to know in depth the vaccines, their origin, evolution, and role-played throughout all time. Vaccination is one of the greatest advances in public health at the global, national, community, and individual levels, the introduction of immunization has allowed unquestionable benefits, impacting social systems, reducing the cost of treatments, and the incidence of infectious diseases and the mortality from them. Vaccines will have, among others, a social and economic impact, since preventing diseases favors the economic level, the quality of life, and social well-being. Vaccines and their administration techniques evolve in parallel since over time both have progressed, they have experienced progress both in their preparation and in the way they are administered, and with it the material and human resources used to do so.
Sashindran Vk, Sheikh Abdul Raheem, Patil Sunita D
Journal of Vaccines and Immunology, Volume 8, pp 001-003;

Background and objective: The entire world is reeling under the COVID-19 pandemic caused by coronavirus SARS-COV-2. A longitudinal study was planned to understand the evolving pattern of seroprevalence of anti-SARS CoV-2 antibodies in a cohort of health care workers. Method: A prospective study was conducted among the health care workers categorized as doctors, nursing staff, paramedical staff, and housekeeping staff. A qualitative estimation of total antibodies (IgM+IgG+IgA) against SARS-CoV-2 was carried out using an ELISA kit in July and November 2020. Results: Total 443 blood samples were collected on July 20 and 214 samples in November. A cohort of 140 health care workers was selected from July to November 2020 data. The overall seroprevalence in HCWs was 8.35% in July 2020 and it increased to 26.63% in November 2020. The overall seroprevalence in the HCW cohort also revealed an increase from 12.14%. 30.71%. In the cohort of healthcare workers, there was a constant seroprevalence in nursing staff (10.5%) and housekeeping staff (25%) while a statistically significant (p0.002) rise in seroprevalence rate (12.6 to 41.37) was noted in the paramedics. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti- SARS-CoV2 antibodies in asymptomatic HCWs increased from 8.35% to 26.63% over a period of 4 months. A significant rise in seroprevalence was noted amongst nurses (p0.0005) and paramedics (p0.007). The seroprevalence data of the cohort group revealed a statistically significant rise in seroprevalence in paramedics (p 0.002) as compared to other categories of healthcare personnel.
Gomez Palacios Luna R, Martinez Sofia, Tettamanti Cecilia, Quinteros Daniela, Bracamonte A Guillermo
Journal of Vaccines and Immunology pp 049-056;

This Mini-Review and Opinion letter, it was addressed different themes and topics implicated in the development of new treatments and vaccines applied to pathologies developed in humans such as by Virus and related pathogens. In this context, it was presented and discussed different strategies used, which were contemplated from the design of small molecules, towards higher sized chemical structures and new Nanoarchitectures. In particular, it was discussed varied studies developed for the Corona Virus treatment; which afforded to the main mechanisms of action of pharmacophores and targeted functional Nanoparticles. In this direction, it was highlighted the importance of Bioconjugation of molecules and variable Nanoarchitectures for their incorporation within cells as well as for the development of Nano-vaccines. Moreover, it was discussed about the development of combinatory treatments based on different strategies recently reported. Similarly, it was presented different studies and developments actually in progress related to the design of functional and Multifunctional Nano-platforms with potential perspectives on Lab-On particles and Nano-vaccines for precision Nanomedicine and new treatments.
Ameri Mahmoud, Lewis Hayley, Nguyen Joe
Journal of Vaccines and Immunology pp 041-048;

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated influenza split virion vaccine administered via a transdermal microneedle system. In this Phase 1, single-center, randomized, controlled study, 90 subjects aged 18 to 40 years received influenza vaccine (strains (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B) either via a transdermal microneedle system (“patch”; 10 µg) for 5 or 15 minutes or by Intramuscular (IM) injection (15g). Influenza antibody titers were measured by the hemagglutinin inhibition method and compared to EMEA guidelines for influenza vaccines (seroconversion rate, mean increase in hemagglutinin inhibition titer, and percentage of seroprotected subjects). Safety was assessed through local and systemic adverse events, and specific application site events in the transdermal groups. At Day 21, the EMEA criteria were met in all treatment groups for all three influenza strains. The immunogenicity response was similar between all three groups and increased antibody levels persisted to Month 6. The transdermal microneedle system was generally well tolerated, although pinpoint red spots, edema, and erythema were noted after patch removal in most subjects. Influenza vaccination administered via a novel transdermal microneedle system was generally well tolerated and provided similar antibody response using a lower dose than IM injection.
Patel Jay Prakash, Verma Kusum, Singh Vijeta
Journal of Vaccines and Immunology pp 036-040;

Japanese Encephalitis (JE) follows due to viral infection that directly affects brain leading to coma and finally death. JE which finally leads to Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) have been creating devastation in eastern Uttar Pradesh for decades. The Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh is the epicenter of encephalitis induced deaths and the disease mostly affect its rural areas. However, Maharajgang, Sant Kabir Nagar, Basti, Kushinagar, Siddharth Nagar, Deoria and Mau are the most affected districts in the state. Independent figures put the toll around 50,000 as many kids die without reaching hospital. Every year, in rainy season the condition is worst for children in Uttar Pradesh. The Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is generally spread by mosquitoes, specifically those of the genus Culex. Pigs and wild birds serve as reservoir for the JEV. Encephalitis can be air or water borne, the result of a mosquito bite or spread by ticks. The initial symptoms are fever, cold or headache. However, it becomes life threatening only when it crosses the blood and brain barrier. There is no full cure of the disease; however, it can only be treated by vaccination to some extent. Prevention includes control of the vector mosquitoes of JEV by fogging with ultra-low levels of insecticides and by raising the immunity in children by vaccination. There are three types of vaccines has been used in large scale. In India, the JE vaccination was launched during 2006. Recently Shri Yogi Adityanath (Chief Minister, Uttar Pradesh) government has launched a massive encephalitis vaccination program during 2017-18 which is a positive hopeful step towards saving the lives of several innocent people of our country.
Journal of Vaccines and Immunology, Volume 7, pp 034-035;

Despite the advance in health sciences, the more frequent emerging of infectious diseases in recent decades raise due to environmental changes such as human activity,
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