ISSN / EISSN: 08003831 / 1503111X
Published by: Informa UK Limited
Total articles ≅ 463
Latest articles in this journal
Acta Borealia, Volume 39, pp 138-167; https://doi.org/10.1080/08003831.2022.2131089
In largely treeless Arctic and subarctic environments driftwood is a key raw material, and this was no less so in Norse Greenlandic society (AD 985–1450). Driftwood was used for various purposes such as construction, transport, tools, utensils and for decoration. It has been argued that driftwood was a non-renewable resource which by the fourteenth century led to timber shortage in Norse Greenland. This paper presents data from taxonomic identifications on wood remains from five farmsteads in Norse Greenland where excavations have produced large collections of wood artefacts and wood debris. The study shows that 67% of the combined assemblage (total of 8552 pieces) are non-native coniferous taxa, the majority of which came to Greenland as drift. The Norse farms had more or less equal proportions of driftwood. In addition, this study finds no significant change in driftwood availability throughout the Norse period in Greenland nor does the composition of driftwood taxa change.
Acta Borealia, Volume 39, pp 115-137; https://doi.org/10.1080/08003831.2022.2104544
The study of tourism marketing communication is an important aspect that contributes to the understanding of how destinations and locals are portrayed. Through the so-called circle of representation, images can spread from tourism marketing to other media, such as tourism photography. Marketing material in the form of 118 brochures, 3000 Instagram posts and a guidebook portraying the Sámi population mostly in Swedish Lapland, but also in Finnish Lapland as well as Finnmark, Norway, have been collected and analyzed. The focus is on pictorial and textual elements and eight previously conceptualized themes have been used to guide the analysis. The focus was on the portrayal of the Sámi Indigenous population. The materials were collected through a direct qualitative content analysis and analyzed through a multimodal discourse analysis. The results show that there is still a tendency to portray the Sámi based on exoticism. This can spread to different media channels, but there are also discrepancies that hint at a gradual change in how Indigenous populations such as the Sámi are presented. The results of this study show the potential for the use of social media channels such as Instagram for Indigenous entrepreneurs and destination management organizations to educate, attract and entice potential visitors.
Acta Borealia, Volume 39, pp 95-114; https://doi.org/10.1080/08003831.2022.2079276
This article addresses cultural and other forms of appropriation related to tourism in the Sámi areas of Norway (Sápmi). Tourists are chasing and consuming otherness – places, culture and nature different from their home environments. Thus, exposures of arts, culture, nature and places are vital parts of tourism production. Within this context, indigenous cultures are praised. When the use of land and culture is conducted by those from outside the culture, appropriation take place, and it is shown how this occurs in different ways within Sámi tourism. The article is based on a Nordic research project, where the relations between tourism and Sámi culture were addressed. Tourism providers were interviewed. Through these conversations, cultural appropriation came up as one of the challenging issues. Some of the topics and examples given are referred to in the empirical part of the article. The interview data are supplemented by observations and media clips from recent years. In the discussion part, ambiguities, ambivalences, and complexities related to the tourism–culture nexus are discussed. The article is a contribution to this discourse, addressing issues to be aware of, both in the production and the analysis of indigenous tourism.
Acta Borealia, Volume 39, pp 6-23; https://doi.org/10.1080/08003831.2022.2060579
This article follows the trail of muskoxen over many millennia and continents, focussing on their relations to humans – as their hunters and their protectors, itinerant partners and boundary makers. The human-animal histories referred to in the title began when the Pleistocene era was replaced by the Holocene and continued until the present. The article is not “historical” in the sense of being governed by a strict timeline, but the argument unfolds through topics of different historical origins, tracing particular themes. It starts with “origins” and the early loss of genetic variation, proceeds to early modern naturalist “discovery” and naming, and then onwards to early twentieth-century political skirmishes over territories and hunting rights, and finally to recent activities of muskox hunting. The story closes with a reflection on the poetics of the Muskox World.
Acta Borealia, Volume 39, pp 75-94; https://doi.org/10.1080/08003831.2022.2060619
In the mid-1960s, 27 muskoxen were translocated from Northeast Greenland to Tatsip Ataa near Kangerlussuaq in West Greenland. In just a few decades, these 27 individuals reproduced to become a population of many thousand – now the largest population of muskoxen in Greenland. This article examines human–muskox relations in present-day Kangerlussuaq and Greenland as biosocial multiplications. Muskox–human encounters shape muskoxen as well as human sociality in Kangerlussuaq, and – ultimately – they take part in the shaping of Kangerlussuaq as a place. The article ethnographically unfolds the processes through which muskoxen and humans shape each other and multiply. Diverse relations, meanings, and values come out of muskox–human encounters, and only some result in the muskox becoming a resource, understood as an element that can be utilized in a rational way, where the outcome can be measured in a specific (economic) value. Some of the meanings and values embedded in muskox–human encounters and the relations that come out of them overlap with the notion of resource, while others exceed it. Understanding how muskoxen become a resource, and how they do not, is crucial when wanting to understand human–muskox relations and to manage muskoxen sustainably.
Acta Borealia, Volume 39, pp 24-52; https://doi.org/10.1080/08003831.2022.2061763
Peary Land, and in particular the area of Jørgen Brønlund Fjord and Wandel Dal, is the only place in Greenland where prehistoric muskox hunting sites are plentiful and investigated, and it gives a unique insight into prehistoric muskox hunting. In the mid-1900s, Eigil Knuth discovered the 4400 years old muskox hunting sites, which he believed corroborated the idea of a so-called Muskox Way that formed an important part of H. P. Steensby's theorizing about the origin of the peoples of the Eastern Arctic. We revisit Steensby's theory of the Muskox Way and discuss its previous use as a culture-historical idea. We also revisit the site of Pearylandville – the largest of the Independence I (2400–2000 BC) sites in Peary Land – where muskox constituted the primary game animal for prehistoric hunters. We present and analyze the archaeological lithic and faunal material in relation to individual dwellings and suggest an intensive but very short-term occupation of Independence I in Peary Land. This analysis shows that warm season indicators in the fauna material are overrepresented in dwellings with limited lithic tool inventories.
Acta Borealia, Volume 39, pp 53-74; https://doi.org/10.1080/08003831.2022.2060577
Human and muskox lives in Northeast Greenland are entangled in movement. These movements are mutual; sometimes humans move muskoxen, and other times muskoxen move humans. Showing how the movements are both spatial and conceptual, the article explores four human-muskox movements. “Arrivals and Disappearances” concerns the disappearance of humans and arrival of muskoxen in Northeast Greenland in the nineteenth century. “Expansion” looks at the human exploration and mapping of Northeast Greenland by way of muskoxen. “Extinction” explores translocations of muskoxen owed to the perceived movement of muskox close to extinction. Finally, “Intrusions” looks at the mutual intrusions of Inuit and muskoxen across a legislative remove in Ittoqqortoormiit. These four human-muskox movements show how Northeast Greenland is brought into view as a world of movement.
Acta Borealia, Volume 39, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.1080/08003831.2022.2061129
The muskox (Ovibos moschatus) is a fascinating animal. It transgresses barriers of taxonomy, geological epochs and expectations of survival. Its Latin name reflects a bygone belief that it is a cro...
Acta Borealia, Volume 38, pp 131-149; https://doi.org/10.1080/08003831.2021.1987079
We examine the problem of the double taxation of the Sámi of the Kola Peninsula, who were in the dual tax jurisdiction of Denmark and the Russian state in the sixteenth – early seventeenth centuries. The origin of double taxation is associated with the unestablished borders in the Far North of Europe: each country considered Finnmark and the Kola Peninsula as part of its sphere of influence. We conclude that the double taxation of the Sámi of the Kola Peninsula was started in the second half of the sixteenth century as a consequence of the escalation of the conflict between the two states. Denmark and Russia used taxation as a means of fighting for disputed territories. In the 1590s, Denmark drove out Russian tax collectors from Finnmark. At the beginning of the seventeenth century, the Russian state took similar measures, prohibiting Danish tax collectors from entering the territory of the Kola district. Nevertheless, the double taxation of the Sámi of the Kola Peninsula with Danish and Russian tax persisted even after the introduction of a ban on entry into the disputed lands. This measure was a compromise, hindering the development of a possible military conflict with the Danish kingdom.
Acta Borealia, Volume 38, pp 150-169; https://doi.org/10.1080/08003831.2021.1982547
Security is an issue often raised when discussing the Arctic, a region where international relations and tensions between the great powers of the past and present often are taken-for-granted as the traditional scope of dialog. We have chosen to focus on youth in Arctic Norway, their perceived notion of security in their everyday lives, and how this influences their perceived possibilities for the future. We combine human security and ontological security perspectives with the concept of imagined horizons to grasp the discrepancy that we find between how the Arctic is defined from an international relations perspective, and the Arctic that youth in northern Norway understand in their everyday lives. We base the analysis on qualitative interviews with youth of various ethnic backgrounds in the Arctic town Alta in Norway, where we have interviewed them about security, cultural differences, climate change and environmental issues in the Arctic.