Archive of Urological Research
Published by: Peertechz Publications Private Limited
Total articles ≅ 29
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 2 May 2023
Archive of Urological Research, Volume 7, pp 008-016; https://doi.org/10.17352/aur.000044
Folk medicine has been considered one of the novel remedies for treating cancers. Women's cancers are increasing worldwide, and disease recurrence has been a major threat all over the world. Our current study focused on the formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by organic methods and their chemo-preventive capacity against the breast (MCF-7) and ovarian cancer (PA-1) cell lines from humans by employing MTT, Flow cytometry, and migration assays. Plant extracts in organic nanoparticle production have become more common in recent years due to their benefits, including affordability, effectiveness, simplicity and briefness. Melia azedarach leaf and fruit methanolic extracts were used to successfully create silver nanoparticles simultaneously to evaluate the potency and efficacy of the extracts. Characterization studies were performed using synthesized M. azedarach silver nanoparticles (MA-AgNPs). A typical SPR peak was discovered ranging from 400 nm (leaf) and 427 nm (fruit) using absorption spectroscopy, with an average particle size of 92.5 nm (leaf) and 124.1 (fruit) nm. The zeta potential for Melia leaves and fruits was found to be -20.9 and -31.2 mV for the extracts. The relevant functional groups for the capping agent found in the extracts and silver nanoparticles formed as a result of the reduction of silver nitrate were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumonia would be useful in new antimicrobial medications being developed. MCF-7 and PA-1 cell lines were found to be more susceptible to the cytotoxic action of the biosynthesized nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles that were synthesized exhibited extremely positive anti-cancer activity.
Published: 24 March 2023
Archive of Urological Research, Volume 7, pp 004-007; https://doi.org/10.17352/aur.000043
Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (RARP) is the gold standard surgical treatment for localized clinically significant prostate cancer. In patients undergone previous abdominal or pelvic surgery, it can be difficult to perform and it is also contraindicated execution of radiotherapy. We have described step-by-step the first case of RARP performed with the robotic system HugoTM RAS in a patient previously subjected to proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis packaging for ulcerative colitis. The procedure was found to be safe and feasible, with intra- and post-operative data overlapping those of the same procedure in the general population. Execution by an experienced surgeon is in any case recommended.
Published: 21 March 2023
Archive of Urological Research, Volume 7, pp 001-003; https://doi.org/10.17352/aur.000042
Several lesions of the bladder are incidental findings and a few of them are seen against a background of bladder outlet obstruction. Tuberculosis of the bladder is associated with characteristic lesions and changes. Presented here is a never-seen-before bladder lesion in a patient presenting with symptoms of Bladder Outlet Obstruction due to an enlarged tuberculous prostate, and no evidence of tuberculous cystitis.
Published: 7 December 2022
Archive of Urological Research, Volume 6, pp 030-033; https://doi.org/10.17352/aur.000041
Renal duplexing (also known as a duplicate collection system) occurs in about 1% of children and does not usually require medical attention. The condition results in two tubes rather than the normal single ureter tube for each kidney. Medical problems that warrant attention are obstruction of urine flow or the backflow of urine into the kidney (reflux). These double ureter tubes can join in a "y" shape before reaching the bladder (partial duplex) and combining their urine delivery. In other cases, each duplicate ureter empties into the bladder on its own (complete duplex). There is cause for concern when a duplex kidney is associated with urological conditions requiring treatment. Renal duplexing can cause urine to reflux into the kidney (vesicoureteral reflux) rather than going into the bladder and can cause subsequent Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). This can result in serious consequences like the loss of renal parenchyma (reflux nephropathy) and sometimes death in acute infections if not attended to in a timely manner. Weigert-Meyer postulated that rule i-e in a complete duplex system is mostly associated with reflux in lower moiety and obstruction in upper moiety with ectopic insertion and ureterocele. Ureteroceles may require simple management of symptoms or surgery, depending on the size of the ballooning, the functioning of the kidney and bladder and the degree of urine obstruction. An ectopic ureter is when the ureter opens and drains urine outside the bladder rather than inside.
Published: 20 October 2022
Archive of Urological Research, Volume 6, pp 017-021; https://doi.org/10.17352/aur.000039
Purpose: To compare accuracy in predicting final Gleason Grade Group (GGG) of Prostate Cancer (PCa) of US/MRI fusion guided target (fBx) vs. systematic Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided (TRUS) biopsy, using histopathologic analysis at prostatectomy as the gold standard. Materials and methods: After obtaining IRB approval, we retrospectively reviewed records of patients who underwent Radical Prostatectomy (RP) from January 2014 through May 2019 with prior US/MRI fusion guided target or TRUS biopsy. The rates of upgrading (RP GGG > BX GGG), downgrading (RP GGG < BX GGG), and concordance (RP GGG = BX GGG) were compared between the fBx and TRUS groups. Age, PSA, PSA density, and prostate volume were also noted for all patients. Statistical analysis was utilized to assess the data. Results: A total of 348 men with complete clinical data were included in this study. The rate of downgrading and upgrading in the fBx group was less than in the TRUS biopsy group (14% vs. 19.6%, and 13.2% vs. 19.6%, respectively). The concordance rate was higher in the US-MR fBx group (72.9% vs. 60.7%, p < 0.05)) across all GGG. Notably, lower rates of concordance were found for GGG 1 (24.1%) and GGG 4 (3.6%) in the TRUS Bx group. Patients who underwent US-MR fBx had higher average PSA (9.4 vs. 6.5 ng/ml), higher PSA density (0.3 vs. 0.2 ng/ml2), and lower prostate volume (31 vs. 42 cc). Additionally, biopsy results showed a lower rate of GGG 1 (3.1% vs. 13.2%) and a higher rate of GGG 5 (14.7% vs. 5.5%) in the US-MR fBx group. Conclusions: Target biopsy has a higher GGG concordance compared to TRUS biopsy (72.9% vs. 60.7%, p < 0.05). In addition, there was less downgrading or upgrading of final PCa GGG in the fBx groups compared to TRUS Bx (14% vs. 19.6%, 13.2% vs. 19.6%, respectively). This finding may have important implications for treatment decisions.
Published: 14 October 2022
Archive of Urological Research, Volume 6, pp 014-016; https://doi.org/10.17352/aur.000038
Background: A prostatic biopsy is a diagnostic test used in cases of suspected prostate cancer. The patient expresses significant levels of anxiety from the very first outpatient visits; anxiety and pain management is essential for a successful outcome of the procedure. Lavender oil is one of the essential oils that is commonly used in aromatherapy to reduce anxiety and pain, its low toxicity and side effects have made it the preferred treatment in complementary medicine. Aim: To assess the 'effectiveness of lavender scent in decreasing the levels of anxiety and pain in patients undergoing a prostatic biopsy. Methods: An interventional non-pharmacological, randomized, two-arm, multi-center, nonprofit study. The SS Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo Hospital and the City of Alessandria Clinic, Monza Polyclinic of Alessandria, will enroll consecutively all adult patients undergoing outpatient prostatic biopsy from April 1, 2022, to October 1, 2022. The Numerical Rating Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale will be used for assessments. Conclusion: Lavender oil aromatherapy could have a clinically significant effect on reducing pain and anxiety during prostatic biopsy procedures; its simple use, safety, and low cost provide a therapeutic option to be considered, complementary to other medical interventions in certain clinical settings.
Published: 11 May 2022
Archive of Urological Research, Volume 6, pp 001-013; https://doi.org/10.17352/aur.000037
Objectives: Complication of obstetric fistula is the formation of bladder stones which rarely occur in Vagina-Vesico Fistula (VVF) patients. In this study, the metal and organic characterization of bladder stones removed between 2010-2019 from vesicovaginal fistula patients managed at the National Obstetric Fistula Centre (NOFIC), Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria were carried out. Methods: The solubility of the bladder stones in different solvents were investigated and metal compositions were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OESS). The qualitative chemical composition was determined following standard procedures while the structural chemical characterization and functional groups were determined using the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results: Distilled water and aqueous solvent chloroform extract of W. lateritia demonstrated significant capacity to dissolve bladder stones in-vitro. Chemical compounds identified include uric acid, oxalate, cysteine, and phosphate from the bladder stones. The metals found in the bladder stones were: Ca, Na, Cu, Zn, Mg, B, Pb, and Al. Trace elements can influence the external morphology of growing crystals and may increase or decrease the speed of the crystallization process. The GC-MS revealed the presence of the following compounds: methyl 2-Hydroxyethyl sulfoxide; methylene chloride; mercaptamine;1,1diethoxy, dichloroactealdehyde; Cyclopentasiloxane; monoammonium salt; di-Allo-Cystathionine; dichloroacetaldehyde; 2-(2Furyl)-2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran; Methenamine; 1,1-Difluoro-1-sila-5-thiacyclooctane; Triacetonetriperoxde; 4-Aminosalicylic acid, 3-Trimethylsilyl (3TMS) derivative;Pentanethiol; and 2,5-Bis-(5-hexyl-[1,3,2]dioxaborinan-2-yloxy)-benzene. FTIR revealed the following: hydroxyl, carboxylic, ester, aromatic, and aliphatic groups, confirming the compounds identified. Conclusion: Metals (Mg, Ca, Pb, etc), organic metabolites (oxalate, cystine, uric acid, phosphate, methenamine, methylene chloride, 4-Aminosalicylic acid, 3-Trimethylsilyl, etc) were found in the bladder stones.
Published: 30 November 2021
Archive of Urological Research pp 035-037; https://doi.org/10.17352/aur.000036
The OEIS complex comprises a constellation of complex and severe malformations of the abdominal wall, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, and spinal cord. The malformation results from improper closure of the ventral abdominal wall due to failure of convergence of cephalo-caudal and lateral folding of the embryo during early gestation. The rarity of the condition suggests etiologic heterogeneity and the possible role of environmental and genetic factors. We present clinical and imaging findings of the OEIS complex in a neonate.
Published: 10 August 2021
Archive of Urological Research, Volume 5, pp 030-034; https://doi.org/10.17352/aur.000035
Published: 12 June 2021
Archive of Urological Research, Volume 5, pp 028-032; https://doi.org/10.17352/aur.000034