Archives of Public Health

Journal Information
EISSN: 18577148
Total articles ≅ 81

Latest articles in this journal

Vesna Lazarovska, Mira Jovanovska
Published: 20 November 2021
Archives of Public Health, Volume 13, pp 49-56; https://doi.org/10.3889/aph.2021.6001

Abstract:
The cochlear implant has been approved as a method of treating bilateral deep deafness since the 1980s, and since then candidate selection methods have changed several times. Initially, the candidates were only adult patients, and in 1990 the cochlear implant was approved for the first time in children under 2 years of age by the US Food and Drug Administration. In 2000, the same US Administration reduced the limit to one year. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age at cochlear implantation on speech recognition abilities. Concerning the age groups in which the subjects were assigned to, the best results on the tests were achieved by the group who underwent cochlear implantation at the youngest age. In conclusion, the benefit from cochlear implant in subjects with pre-lingual hearing impairment of the most severe degree has to be stressed and it is much bigger in comparison to individual amplifying hearing aids. If cochlear implant is placed at the youngest age, the results might lead to even 100% of active involvement in the social life of individuals with this kind of impairment.
Aferdita Kurti-Karameta, Fimka Tozija
Published: 20 November 2021
Archives of Public Health, Volume 13, pp 5-16; https://doi.org/10.3889/aph.2021.6004

Abstract:
The current pandemic of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Global COVID-19 burden is characterized by a high variability in death rate across countries. Several possible explanations have been proposed, but it is not clear whether this variability is due to a single predominant factor or instead to multiple causes. The aim of this paper was to present and analyze the epidemiological situation and burden of the COVID-19 pandemic in Kosovo compared to other countries in Europe and the world. Material and methods: Public health approach and desk review were applied to present and analyze the trends over time of selected epidemiological indicators for COVID-19 based on multiple sources of data as well as WHO epidata and literature review. The assessment of the epidemiological situation in EU/EEA member states was done using the surveillance data routinely collected by ECDC. Official medical records from the National Institute of Public Health, other relevant health institutions; State Statistical Office and Ministry of Health in Kosovo were used. Results: According to ECDC as of 11 February 2021, 106,472,660 cases of COVID-19 (in accordance with the applied case definitions and testing strategies in the affected countries) have been reported, including 2,323,103 deaths. COVID-19 cases have been reported from: Africa: 3,673,181 cases, Asia: 20,438,608 cases, Europe: 34,681,426 cases, America: 47,620,931 cases; Oceania: 57,809 cases, Others: 705 cases. Deaths have been reported from: Africa 95,128 deaths, Asia 343,886, America 1,107,066, Europe 775,883, Oceania 1,210 and Other 6 deaths. In Kosovo from 13 March 2020 until 15th February 2021 there have been 64,298 cases of COVID- 19 with 1534 deaths. Absolute values of the indicators remain high in all countries in Europe, including those with stable or decreasing trends in these indicators, suggesting that transmission is still wide spread. The epidemic trajectory over the next months will be determined by the balance of four factors, with many different outcomes possible: the continued scale-up of vaccination, declining seasonality, the spread of new variants and increased behaviors that favor COVID-19 transmission. Conclusion: Findings from this paper can help to develop evidence-based policy interventions in Kosovo for risk assessment of COVID-19 and protection of general population and especially vulnerable groups with higher risk from COVID 19.
Antonio Gavrilovski, Ilir Shabani, Vilijam Velkovski, Teodora Todorova, Shaban Memeti
Published: 20 November 2021
Archives of Public Health, Volume 13, pp 91-95; https://doi.org/10.3889/aph.2021.6013

Abstract:
The aim of the study was to investigate the influential factors for hidden blood loss after a total knee arthroplasty and their relationship with the total blood loss. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a crucial treatment of late-stage knee osteoarthritis. Measured blood loss is significantly inconsistent with the hemoglobin (HB) drop postoperatively. Fifty-four patients, 20 males and 34 females, were retrospectively analyzed. The preoperative blood loss and therefore the hidden blood loss following TKA were calculated by the Gross formula. The typical perioperative blood loss was found to be 780±220 ml and therefore the average hidden blood loss was 280±180 ml. No significant differences were found in hidden blood loss for males compared to females. Hidden blood loss may not be reduced by hemostasis during operation with a deflated tourniquet.
Gani Ceku, Mile Petrovski, Shaban Memeti, Nexhmi Hyseni, Sejdi Statovci, Blerim Berisha
Published: 20 November 2021
Archives of Public Health, Volume 13, pp 110-119; https://doi.org/10.3889/aph.2021.6009

Abstract:
The main objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the value of surgical approach in the treatment of children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Material and method: The study was conducted in the period from January 2006 to December 2014, and included children with symptomatic VUR, who were surgically treated. A total of 72 children were treated, of whom 56 were females and 16 were males, aged between 2 and 16 years. They were treated with IV and V grade reflux ureters. Thirty-two of the unilateral refluxes were left-sided, 18 right-sided and 22 both-sided. VUR was diagnosed with Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG). Cohen technique was performed in 64 (90%) patients, Politano-Lead better technique in 4 (5%) patients and Lich-Gregoir technique in 4 (5%) patients. Results: Out of the 72 treated patients, 69 had a postoperative negative finding of VUR on the performed VCUG, indicating a high 95% success rate. In three girls, persistent postoperative reflux was found in postoperative VCUG. In the first patient persistent VUR was unilateral, of V grade. In the second patient, a third-degree VUR was found and the third patient was diagnosed with II grade VUR. Postoperatively, non-febrile UTIs (urinary tract infections) were diagnosed in 23 patients (20 female children and 3 male children) out of 72 patients in total. One female child was hospitalized with febrile UTI and 8 patients or 10% developed febrile UTI within one year of the operative treatment. Conclusion: Open surgery, despite excellent results, is used for more complicated cases, VUR grade IV – V or in previously failed cases, and it does not appear to provide definitive correction of VUR in all patients and does not prevent certain low incidence of UTI postoperatively. Non-febrile UTIs can occur several years after a surgical correction. Endoscopic treatment is an alternative treatment for VUR
Andrej Nikolovski, Aleksandar Otljanski, Rexhep Seljmani, Svetozar Antovic, Nikola Jankulovski
Published: 20 November 2021
Archives of Public Health, Volume 13, pp 96-100; https://doi.org/10.3889/aph.2021.6000

Abstract:
Laparoscopic appendectomy is the preferred operative method for acute appendicitistreatment. In terms of complicated appendicitis it can be effective in hands of an experiencedlaparoscopist that overwhelmed the learning curve for the method. Aim: Тhis retrospectivestudy examines whether the operative time for laparoscopic appendectomy for complicatedappendicitis is shortened after mastering the learning curve. Material and methods: A totalnumber of 196 patients were operated for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis, of whom 77were diagnosed with complicated appendicitis. They were subsequently divided in two groups(laparoscopic and open). Operative time in both groups was measured and the conversionand postoperative complications were noted. Results: Conversion rate was 2.3%. Operativetime was shorter in the laparoscopic group (67.4 ± 22.9 vs. 77.9 ± 17.9 minutes; p = 0.033).Overall postoperative morbidity was 25.97% with wound infection present only in the opengroup (p = 0.018). Intraabdominal abscess occurred in one patient from the laparoscopicgroup (0.38%). Length of hospital stay was shorter in the laparoscopic group (4.3 ± 2.2 vs. 5.7 ± 2.1, p = 0.0052).
Marina Krstevska-Konstantinova, Konstandina Kuzevska-Maneva, Hristijan Nestorov, Daniela Georgieva
Published: 20 November 2021
Archives of Public Health, Volume 13, pp 144-148; https://doi.org/10.3889/aph.2021.6003

Abstract:
Poland syndrome (PS) is a rare congenital malformation, most commonly characterized by absence of chest wall muscles on one side of the body. It may be accompanied with other deformities of the extremities. We present the case of a 10-year-old girl with Poland syndrome and hypertrichosis of the back of the trunk and extremities. The clinical examination did not reveal the etiology of the syndrome, such as familial predisposition or some event that led to interrupted blood flow during the early embionic growth. The pregnancy was concieved with in vitro fertilization (IVF); triplets were born and our patient is one of these three girls. The hypertrychosis appeared at 8 years of life, without evidence of previous familial occurance, medications or hormonal disbalance. Other malformations that were found were: a mild form of kyphoscoliosis and mitral valve prolapse. The child was evaluated using a multidisciplinary approach, with further follow-up planned with surgical correction of the chest wall and breast augmentation.
Mira Jovanovska, Mirjana Petrovikj-Lazikj, Vesna Lazarovska
Published: 20 November 2021
Archives of Public Health, Volume 13, pp 30-38; https://doi.org/10.3889/aph.2021.6005

Abstract:
Children with cleft palate/lip are exposed to risk for verbal communication disorders that include resonance, articulation, voice disorders, and expressive language. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the changes in the voice quality of the children with cleft palate in relation to children without anomaly. The study included 52 participants, 26 with previously corrected cleft palate / lip, and 26 respondents without anomaly who are between 3 and 6 years old. Subjective assessment of voice quality was performed by using the GRBAS scale. Perceptual scales are important in assessing the voice quality, determining the degree and severity of voice disturbance, and deciding on further clinical procedures. Although the instrumental approach to voice examination is relevant because it provides objectivity, the subjective impression in assessing voice quality is crucial. Statistical processing was performed by groups, group structure (gender and age), a certain highest value, as well as percentage participations. The results showed that 50% of the participants were diagnosed with certain changes in the voice. Children aged 3-5 years have a 2.25 times higher incidence of voice changes than children aged 6-8 years. The largest number of participants belong to group 0 - There is no change in voice quality which represents as much as 50% of the total number of patients in the first group. While "3 - Pronounced changes in the voice" were not identified in the respondents aged 3-5 years. In 50% of the total number of participants there is no change in voice quality and these are located in girls aged 3-5 years.
Stefan Pandilov, Suzana Klenkoski, Elena Jovanovska Janeva, Gazmend Mehmeti, Dragan Mijakoski, Sasho Stoleski, Hristian Duma, Dejan Dokic
Published: 20 November 2021
Archives of Public Health, Volume 13, pp 130-143; https://doi.org/10.3889/aph.2021.6006

Abstract:
COVID-19 is an infectious disease that can manifest quite differently. In this study we examined the relationship between the value of serum CRP(C-reactive protein) andneutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as predictor factors for the development of a severe clinical manifestation in COVID19 patients. Materials and methods: We followed 95 COVID-19 positive patients who were hospitalized at the University Clinic for Eye Diseases - COVID Center. We analyzed the initial laboratory parameters of white blood cells and CRP on admission of the patients and the results of laboratory analyses performed before they left the Clinic, or the last parameters before the lethal outcome in those patients who died. Several models of logistic regression were tested to analyze the predictive value of these markers of inflammation for lethal outcome in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Results: Bivariate analysis demonstrated that the length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in patients with lethal outcome (p=0.001). The NLR was significantly higher in patients with lethal outcome at both times (p=0.005; and p=0.017). Leukocyte’s count (p=0.046, and p<0.001) and CRP (p=0.013,and p=0.005) were also significantly higher in patients with lethal outcome at both times. The increase on the NLR scale both at hospitalization and at discharge (or the last analysis before death) leads to increase in the odds of lethal outcome (T1:40.4% increased odds; T2:36% increased odds). Conclusion: CRP and NLR are laboratory parameters that can predict the severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with COVID-19.
Blazho Janevski, Fimka Tozija, Gordana Ristovska, Vladimir Mikikj, Vasilka Poposka-Treneska
Published: 20 November 2021
Archives of Public Health, Volume 13, pp 39-48; https://doi.org/10.3889/aph.2021.6011

Abstract:
Zoonoses have a different impact on public health, determined by geographical and socio-economic factors, which requires their prioritization for prevention and control purposes to be performed at the national level. Prioritization of zoonoses is a mechanism used in policy-making, primarily in allocating available resources. Aim of the paper is to compare two different methods used for prioritization of zoonoses by Institute of public health (IPH) and Food and Veterinary Agency (FVA). Material and methods: IPH used a method prepared by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), - One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization (OHZDP) tool, adapted to national conditions (2019). FVA used a standardized semi-quantitative method based on the OIE Methodological Manual (List and Categorization of priority diseases in animals including and those transmitted to humans). A total of 21 zoonoses have been selected, based on their importance for the human and veterinary sector. These diseases are ranked according to the stated criteria of the two previously conducted prioritizations and their comparison is performed. Results: With the prioritization conducted by IPH and FVA the first 5 ranked zoonoses are: Hemorrhagic fevers with renal syndrome, Leishmaniasis, Tularemia, Brucellosis and Listeriosis. With the prioritization carried out by the FVA the first 5 ranked zoonoses are: Bovine brucellosis, Bovine tuberculosis, Salmonellosis, Avian influenza and West Nile fever. A Cumulative Annual Incidence is taken as a control parameter. Regarding this, the 5 first ranked zoonoses are Echinococcosis, Brucellosis, Lyme fever, Leishmaniasis and Tularemia. Conclusions: A comparative analysis of the separate lists of priorities for human and veterinary medicine shows that only a certain percentage overlap. Also, the presence of a number of zoonoses with endemic character, but also a more pronounced risk of new emergent diseases, determines the need to provide consensus on the methodology of prioritization of zoonoses, and its formalization and institutionalization, as a crucial step towards identification and prioritization of zoonoses that would be the subject of joint programs and interventions.
Valentina Koevska, Erieta Nikolic-Dimitrova, Biljana Mitrevska, Cvetanka Gjerakaroska-Savevska, Marija Gocevska, Biljana Kalcovska
Published: 20 November 2021
Archives of Public Health, Volume 13, pp 78-90; https://doi.org/10.3889/aph.2021.6008

Abstract:
Osteoarthritis is a rheumatic disease characterized by degeneration and decay of cartilage in the joints. As the disease worsens, the joint space narrows causing numbness and pain, which often impairs movement. In addition to pharmacological therapy, low-intensity laser (LILT), high-intensity laser (HILT) and exercise are used to treat osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. HILT is a new modality in our country and the experience from its application is small, especially in the treatment of OA of the knee. Aim of the paper was to compare the effect of HILT with LILT in the treatment of OA of the knee. Material and methods: This was a randomized comparative unilateral blind study involving 72 patients divided into two groups. The first group was treated with HILT, the second group treated with LILT. Outcome measure was the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, which was made on the first and tenth day of treatment. Statistical significance was defined as p <0.05. Results: We found a significant difference between the two groups in terms of VAS score after 10 therapies in favor to a significantly lower score, that is, less pain in the HILT group (p = 0.0035). The comparison of the VAS score between the two times in the two groups separately showed that in both, the HILT and the LILT groups, the VAS score after 10 days of therapy was significantly lower compared to thatat 0 time, for consequently p = 0.00001vsp = 0.00001. Conclusion: Treatment with HILT and LILT significantly reduces pain and stiffness in patients with OA. Patients treated with HILT had better results, i.e., had a significant reduction in pain than patients treated with LILT. HILT was more effective than LILT.
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