International Journal of Pathogen Research

Journal Information
EISSN: 25823876
Total articles ≅ 211

Latest articles in this journal

Edward I. Usman, Wartu J. Reuben, Musa A. Maikano, D Shetu Edward, Samuel P. Kelechi
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 29-35; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i3213

Abstract:
Introduction: Cytomegalovirus causes a congenital infection, which poses a great public Health challenge such as hearing loss, seizure and mental disorder among children. Methodology: Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to screen serum samples (90) collected from Patients presented with Seizure between the ages 0-13 years for Cytomegalovirus IgG specific antibodies. Results: The presence of CMV IgG specific antibody among Seizure patients obtained from this study recorded a prevalence of 68(75.5%). The age groups 9-13 years presented highest CMV (IgG) specific antibodies response 36(40.0%), followed by ages 5-8 years 22(24.4%) and least for ages 0-4 years 10 (11.1%), P>0.005. The CMV (IgG) specific antibodies response with respect to gender presented male with highest prevalence 50 (55.5%) than their female 18 (20.0%) counterparts P<0.005. Conclusion: Therefore CMV is highly prevalent within the study area and the need for necessary facilities to be available in screening pregnant women of the virus in order to prevent the spread vertically to their fetuses thereby increases the risk of Seizure.
Onyinye Lovette Nomeh, Ezinwanne Blessing Chukwu, Rebecca Chinenye Ogba, Peace Oluchi Akpu, , Agabus Chidiebube Nwuzo, Ifeanyichukwu Romanus Iroha
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 14-28; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i3212

Abstract:
Background and Objectives: Carbapenem antibiotic are drug of last-resort from the treatment of bacterial infection, as a result of the prevalence and rapidly evolving enzymes from Carbapenem resistant bacteria such Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae make urinary tract infection difficult, and in some cases impossible to treat in health care settings. With limited progress of new antibacterial drugs, the best approach is monitoring the prevalence and antibiogram profile of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae among patients with UTI in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Methodology: A non-repetitive, clean catch mid-stream urine was collected from five hundred (500) diagnosed UTI inpatient and outpatient. The samples were evaluated using routine microbiological protocol for isolation and identification of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Phenotypic screening of Carbapenem-resistant strains was performed using Modified Hodge Testing. Antibiogram studies of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed using the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method and the results were interpreted using the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) zone diameter breakpoints. Multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARI) was determined for MDR strain. Result: The prevalence of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate accounted for 148(29.6 %) consisting of 95(54.3 %) and 53(16.3 %) from in-patients and out-patients. Escherichia coli accounted overall isolation rate of 112(22.4 %) comprising of high proportion among in-patient 82(46.9 %) over out-patient 30(9.2 %). The proportion of K.  pneumoniae accounted for 36(7.2 %) with 13(7.4 %) and 23(7.1 %) recorded among in-patients and out-patients. Association between presence of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in clinical samples was statistically significant with patient’s population with p value <0.05. Carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae accounted for 37(7.4 %) comprising of 24(13.7) and 13(4.0 %) among in-patients and out-patients respectively while carbapenem-susceptible Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae accounted for overall detection rate of 111(22.2 %) consisting of 71(40.6 %) and 40(12.3 %) among in-patients and out-patients respectively. The isolates resistance rate to cephalosporins were relatively high i.e., Cefotaxime, Cefoxtin Ceftazidime, Ceftriaxone resistance was observed at 60-100% while amoxicillin/clavulanate, azetronam, tetracycline nitrofurantoin and Ticarcillin-clavulanic acid recorded 100 % with MDR index ranged from 0.5-0.8, but were 100 % and 85.0 % sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Conclusion: These results strongly hypothesize that MDR bacteria, including Carbapenem-resistant isolate, have become common residents in various hospital environments, however with substantial evidence in this study, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin as drugs of choice could be used for treatment of UTI. Therefore, its importance that good antibiogram evaluation of other drug classes beside fluoroquinoles reported in this study need to be establishes as baseline for empirical diagnosis, epidemiological surveillance, drug prescriptions and infection management.
Chiamaka Frances Ejimofor, Nnamdi Enoch Nwakoby, Odira Johnson Oledibe, Chikaodili Eziamaka Afam-Ezeaku, Onyinye Ann Mbaukwu
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i3211

Abstract:
This study's objective is to separate and identify harmful fungus from spoiled avocado pears. Healthy avocado pear fruits were delivered to the lab and left to rot on a lab bench after being purchased from Awka, Nnewi, and Ihiala. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) and SDA agar were used to test the fruits for the presence of fungal infections that cause deterioration. According to the findings, PDA media exhibit greater growth than SDA, and ther45 x 102 CFU/g).e was no statistically significp > 0.005ference (p>0.005) between the fungal counts of the avocado and pear samples collected from the three different sites, with the Eke Awka market sample showing the highes48 x 102 CFUcount (48x102cfu/g), followed by the Total Market47 x 102 CFUample (47x102cfu/g), and the Nnewi market sample showing the lowest fungal count (45x102cf Based on their colonial and physical traits, the fungus responsible for the fruit deterioration was identified. The investigation also revealed that a total of 5 isolates of fungus from fruits, including Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Rhizopus sp., Fusarium spp., and Candida spp., were collected. Of them, isolates of Aspergillus niger species were found most commonly (36%). Rhizopus species and Candida were next, each with an infection incidence of 18%, while Fusarium solani and Penicillium digitatum were the least common (141%). Aspergillus niger, one of the identified fungi, was the least harmful and produced the least amount of fruit rot. R. stolonifer, Fusarium solani, Candida tropicalis, and Penicillium digitatum were the least pathogenic and caused the most fast disintegration of treated fruits in 3-5 days. This study has demonstrated that fungus is to blame for fruit rotting. This study has demonstrated that fungus is to blame for fruit rotting. Producing, preparing, and preserving foods like fruit salads must be done as quickly and hygienically as possible using high-quality tools, products, and materials since fruits are typically infested by harmful fungus.
Ejimofor Chiamaka Frances, Nwakoby Nnamdi Enoch, Oledibe Odira Johnson, Afam-Ezeaku Chikaodili Eziamaka, Mbaukwu Onyinye Ann
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 51-62; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i2210

Abstract:
The well-known vegetable Telfairia occidentalis, sometimes known as the fluted pumpkin leaf, is utilized throughout Nigeria. In Igbo, it is typically referred to as Ugu. The objective of this study was to ascertain the biochemical (phytochemical) makeup of Telfairia occidentalis, a popular vegetable in Nigeria. The study made use of fluted pumpkin leaf extract that was treated differently by soaking in ethanol and water. Alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, steroids, and phenol compounds were all present in the ethanolic extract at the conclusion of the research, but terpenoids were not, making seven out of the eight phytochemicals present. Alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, and phenol compounds were all present in the water extract, while saponin, tannin, and terpenoids were not. This made five out of the eight phytochemicals present. According to quantitative analysis, the flavonoid concentration in the fluted pumpkin leaf was the highest (11.83 mg/100 g), followed by steroid (11.67 mg/100 g), saponin (4.58 mg/100 g), alkaloid (3.63 mg/100 g), terpenoids (3.56 mg/100 g), and phenol (3.50 mg/100 g), while tannin had the lowest value (0.51 mg/100 g).
Estella Achick Tembe-Fokunang, Andrew Nyuyki Banin, Joseph Fokam, Dobgima John Fonmboh, Kristen Nubia Kaba, Lovet Benyella Fokunang, Ben Enoluomen Ehigiator, Zelinjo N. Igweze, Sarah Tishkoff, Ralf Duerr, et al.
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 32-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i2209

Abstract:
The coronavirus (COVID-19) took the world by storm and triggered intensive research mobilization and action towards vaccines and drug repurposing. This pandemic triggered an emergence therapy intervention of which the development of new vaccine and drug repurposing were good options that was to be validated by regulatory authorities for potential use for enhancing acquired immunity for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). Prior to the outbreak that led to the global health emergency intervention, an understanding of the viral architecture, pathophysiology and mechanism of action and functions were well established. The global health disaster caused by COVID-19 has generated significant interest globally for research in vaccine discovery and development by many research institutions and Pharmaceutical sectors since 2019. So far, the approval of many clinical trials tested vaccines by the regulatory authorities have led to the need for post approval concerns of efficacy, safety and quality of these approved vaccines. This review paper attempts to explore the vaccines approved for global access to the population discovery and development process, the potential safety implications. An insight into other therapy options such as the convalescence plasma treatment and management for the global COVID-19 pandemic has been reviewed.
, Doriane Tohoto Djuissi, Molo Thierry, Dorothée Nganti Mvondo, William Norbert Tueguem Kuaté, Patrice Zemko Ngatsi, Hubert Bolie, Abdou Koné Nsangou, Alain Heu, Serge Bertrand Mboussi, et al.
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 20-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i2208

Abstract:
Aims: This study was aimed to evaluate the antifungal activities of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of Thevetia peruviana seeds on the in vitro growth of the fungus. Study Design: A randomized sample block design containing four treatments (T- = Negative control; T2= Ethyl acetate extract; T3= Acetone extract; T+=Callomil Plus) with three repetitions was used. Plant extracts were used at three concentrations: C1: 12.5 µl/ml; C2: 25 µl/ml and C3: 50 µl/ml; the chemical fungicide at the dose of 12.5 μL/ml. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the University of Yaoundé 1, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Plant Biology, Laboratory of Phytopathology and Crop Protection, and in the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IARD) of Yaoundé, Laboratory of Phytopathology, during the year 2019-2020. Methodology: acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of T. peruviana were prepared and used at concentrations of 12.5, 25 and 50 µl/ml. P. colocasiae was isolated from infected taro leaf cultivars "Macumba or Ibo coco" located in three different regions: west, Littoral and Centre. The various explants were were put in V8 agar medium and maintained in pure culture. Mycelial fragments of P. colocasiae of about 0.8 cm in diameter were cut and placed in sterile Petri dishes containing Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium supplemented with different concentrations of plant extracts and incubated at 23±1°C for seven days for the evaluation of the radial growth. Results: The results obtained showed that the acetone and ethyl acetate extracts have completely inhibited the growth of the strain of West at 25 μ/ml while total inhibition of the pathogen was not obtained with strain of Centre region. The lowest inhibition was obtained with the strain of Littoral region: 93.88 % for acetone extract and 90.78 % for ethyl acetate extract compare to 100 % for west and Centre region at highest concentration. Conclusion: The acetone and ethyl acetate extracts at the concentration of 25 μ/ml totally inhibited the in vitro radial growth of some strains of P. colocasiae. These extracts, which are effective against P. colocasiae, may substitute fungicides in the fight against taro leaf blight.
Christiana Inuaesiet Edemekong, Ifeanyichukwu Romanus Iroha, Mandu Daniel Thompson, Ijeoma Onyinye Okolo, Henrietta Onyinye Uzoeto, Justina Nnenna Ngwu, Ismaila Danjuma Mohammed, Ezinwanne Blessing Chukwu, Agabus Chidiebube Nwuzo, Benneth Mark Okike, et al.
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 7-19; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i2207

Abstract:
Background and Objectives: Antibiotic-resistance among microbiota found within the oral cavity is a growing concern due to extensive use of antibiotics in dental practice both for therapeutic and prophylactic reasons, but has so far received little attention in recent time. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiogram of non-oral bacteria isolates from patients attending dental clinic at Federal College of Dental Technology and Therapy Medical Center Enugu (FEDCODTTEN) Methodology: A total of two hundred (200) oral swab samples were collected from patients with dental disease, placed in sterilized Brain Heart Infusion broth and immediately transported to the Microbiology Laboratory Unit of Federal College of Dental Technology and Therapy Enugu, for bacteriological analysis using standard microbiological methods for isolation and characterization. Antibiogram studies of non-oral bacteria was performed using the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method and the results were interpreted using the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) zone diameter breakpoints. Multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARI) was determined for Multidrug Resistant (MDR) non-oral bacteria. Results: Phenotypic characterization of non-oral bacteria revealed an occurrence rate of S. aureus 35(17.5%) followed by E. coli 18(9.0%), Salmonella typhi 16(8.0 %) and K. oxytoca 4(2.0%) as the least predominant bacteria species. Among the oral site, lower right quadrant showed increase isolation rate of 30(15.0%) bacteria followed by lower left quadrant 23(11.5%) while upper right quadrant accounted 15(7.5 %) with the least isolation rate. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of non-oral bacteria in right quadrant and left quadrant samples from dental disease patients (P < 0.05). Non-oral bacteria isolate exhibited 57.1-100% resistant to Ertapenem, colisitn, amoxillicin, azetronam, colistin, ampicillin and clindamycin with Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Index (MARI) ranged from 0.4-0.7, indicating high level of multi-drug resistance but were susceptible to ciprofloxacin 77.8%, gentamicin 100% and imipenem 100%. Conclusion: The high antibiotic resistant and increase multi-drug resistance outcome reported among non-oral bacteria in this study calls for strengthened efforts in antibiotic stewardship and infection prevention and control measures in dental practices with the need to implement regular awareness programs at time interval to control and manage multi-drug resistance bacteria through judicious use of antibiotic to re-establish dominance over multi-drug resistance non-oral bacteria implicated in dental diseases.
, Greg Ndubuisi Arji, Chukwudi Uche Ngwu
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i2206

Abstract:
Background: Sickle cell anemia patients are a cohort of at-risk individuals for Hepatitis B virus infection due to their life-long dependency on transfusion therapy. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations stipulates testing and vaccination for at-risk individuals. Objective: The objectives of the present study are to assess the level of knowledge of sickle cell disease patients to HBV infection, identify their HBV vaccination status and to assess the barrier that prevents patients from being tested and vaccinated for HBV infection. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The subjects comprised of 120 sickle cell disease patients who were recruited through consecutive sampling using pretested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaires and data was analyzed with statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) for Microsoft Window Version 23. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 24 +6 years. About 57.5% of the respondents are aware of Hepatitis B virus infection but only 15% had good knowledge of the disease. About 80.8% of the respondents have not been tested for Hepatitis B infection while 70% has not been vaccinated. The cost of testing for HBV infection and vaccination was identified as a major factor that prevented many of the patients from identifying their HBV status as well as getting vaccinated as about 80% of the respondents have not been tested due to high cost of testing while 84.2% have not been vaccinated due to high cost of the vaccine. Conclusion: There should be universal health education to sickle cell anemia patients on the need for Hepatitis B virus infection test and vaccination as well as a health insurance scheme that will cover the cost of Hepatitis B virus testing and vaccination for patients.
Ajanaobionye Theophilus I., Eze Emmanuel A., , Anyaegbunam Zikora K. G.
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 23-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i1204

Abstract:
Background: Disinfectants and conventional antibiotics are used daily in Nigeria’s households and hospitals, in various approaches and at exceptional concentrations with inside to combat infectious diseases. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance globally has made most chemotherapeutic agents less efficient to target pathogens. Aim: This research was done to determine the efficacy of some disinfectants and conventional antibiotics used against ESKAPE pathogens. Methodology: The in vitro efficacy of the disinfectants and antibiotics were compared using the disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method. Results: Inhibition zone diameters were observed in all of the disinfectants and conventional antibiotics at concentration-dependent for the tested pathogenic isolates. Chloroxylenol was effective at higher concentrations and showed a progressive decrease in zones of inhibition as the concentration decreases. Ethanol was effective at 70% and 35% concentrations against Staphylococcus aureus. Hypochlorite was effective against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and E. coli at a 100% - 25% concentration and effective against Staphylococcus aureus at 100% and 50% concentrations. Therefore, the efficacy of disinfectants and antibiotics arise to be crucial however concentration-dependent. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study may be used as an alternative for medical applications. However, inappropriate disinfectant and conventional antibiotic use resulted in emergence of resistant microorganisms; hence these therapeutic agents should be used properly at a sufficient concentration to prevent diseases caused by these pathogenic bacteria. Nevertheless, the need to compare the efficacy of these disinfectants and conventional antibiotics against ESKAPE pathogens in vivo is very important.
Okoyomoh Kingsley, Elendu Melford Uche, Obioha Kennedy Chinonye, Chris Akunne Wariso
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 19-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i1203

Abstract:
The aim of this work was to evaluate the lipid profile of Plasmodium berghei infected rats treated with aqueous extract of Cassia spectabilis. Twenty five (25) adult male wistar rats were divided into five (5) groups of five (5) rats per group. Group I was the normal control fed only rat chow and water, Group II was infected with the parasite without treatment. Groups III and IV were infected with Plasmodium berghei and afterwards treated with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of aqueous extract of Cassia spectabilis respectively, while Group V was infected and treated with a standard drug (chloroquine). Treatment lasted for 7 days after which animals were sacrificed and blood sample collected. Evaluation of lipid profile was performed by standard procedures. Plasmodium berghei infection significantly (P<0.05) increased Total Cholesterol (TC), Triacylglyceride (TG) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) but significantly (P<0.05) decreased High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) an observation which was reversed following treatment with the aqueous extract of Cassia spectabilis in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion, extract of the said plant wields the potential to recover a stable lipid profile in Plasmodium berghei infected rats.
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