International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 31 December 2022
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research, Volume 8, pp 160-163; https://doi.org/10.17352/ijvsr.000129
Obstructive urolithiasis is urine retention due to the calculi lodgment in the urinary tract. Thus, treatment of urolithiasis is basically to establish normal urinary passage, which can be accomplished in various ways depending on the severity of the condition. This case report describes surgical management of urolithiasis through penile amputation in a five-year-old local breed bull that was brought to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Addis Ababa University, Bishoftu Ethiopia with a complaint of difficulty in passing urine that had developed certain days before presentations. Upon presentation, the animal was found to be dull and depressed, and tail wringing, stamping the feet, kicking at the abdomen, and stretching were observed. On clinical examination per rectal palpation, the urinary bladder was distended. Based on the history and rigorous clinical examination the case was tentatively diagnosed as obstructive urolithiasis. Then penile amputation was performed through a post-scrotal approach after aseptic preparation and controlling of the animal in the appropriate position. Fortunately, after surgery, the animal was urinated continuously and postoperative follow-up and complications were recorded. Finally, the bull was uneventfully recovered and the skin suture was removed on the 15th day of the operation.
Published: 21 December 2022
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research, Volume 8, pp 151-159; https://doi.org/10.17352/ijvsr.000128
The dairy sector is threatened by mastitis, the most prominent and complicated infectious illness in the world for dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of mastitis and potential predisposing factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2016 to April 2017 in and around Holeta town. A total of 316 lactating cows were purposefully selected and diagnosed for mastitis by physical examination and using the California mastitis test. The total prevalence of mastitis at the cow level was 74.05% (95% CI = 0.69-0.79). At the cow level, the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis was 18.35% and 55.7%, respectively, whilst at the quarter level, it was 9.26% and 35%. Of the 1264 quarters inspected, 47 (3.72%), which correspond to 39 (12.34%), were discovered to be blind teats, while the other 1217 (96.28%) were found to be in use. The intrinsic factors significantly related (p 0.05) with the presence of mastitis in the multivariable logistic regression model were breed (AOR = 0.003, CI = 0.0003-0.335, in local cows (AOR = 0.003, CI = 0.0003-0.335, p = 0.000), age, in adult cows (AOR = 16, CI = 3.072-83.293, p = 0.001) and in old cows (AOR = 20, CI = 1.031-388.39, p = 0.048) and stage of lactation, in mid-lactation stage (AOR = 0.08, CI = 0.028-0.211, p = 0.000) and in late lactation (AOR = 0.1, CI = 0.033-0.288, p = 0.000). Semintensive management system (AOR = 16.85, CI = 5.484-51.824, p = 0.000) and extensive management system (AOR = 0.14, CI = 0.059-0.320, p = 0.000), milking hygiene (AOR = 9.43, CI = 3.443-25.805, p = 0.000), and previous mastitis exposure (AOR = 2.7, CI = 1.036-7.022, p = 0.042). This study revealed that subclinical mastitis had a high prevalence rate relative to clinical mastitis. This reveals that the disease lacks strategic preventative and control measures and that mastitis is economically significant in the studied area. According to this study, in order to reduce the economic loss of dairy farms, there should be stringent hygienic milking practices and a consistently sanitary conditions of the farms. Additionally, it would be helpful to promote awareness about routinely checking for subclinical mastitis and culling old and very often infected cows.
Published: 15 November 2022
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research, Volume 8, pp 148-150; https://doi.org/10.17352/ijvsr.000127
The work describes two cases of Indian peacocks (Pavo cristatus) originating from extensive breeding, in which pulmonary aspergillosis and aerosacculitis were diagnosed. A clinical examination revealed difficult breathing with an open beak, gradual apathy, decreased appetite, and weight loss in both affected individuals. During the endoscopic examination, a yellow, caseous mass was diagnosed in the area of the margo caudalis of the lung. Pathological autopsy in both cases revealed a granuloma in the area of the left lung parenchyma and aerosacculitis. Fungal hyphae were detected in the granulomas by pathological-histological examination, and Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus parasiticus were diagnosed by mycological culture.
Published: 27 September 2022
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research, Volume 8, pp 133-147; https://doi.org/10.17352/ijvsr.000126
The most prevalent and ubiquitous organisms in the world are bacteria-killing viruses called bacteriophages. The aim of this paper is to highlight some application areas of bacteriophages. There are both virulent and temperate bacteriophages in the environment, but only virulent bacteriophages are used for treatment, known as phage therapy. Since their discovery, bacteriophages have been considered a vital weapon to fight human and animal illnesses of bacterial origin. Currently, the emergence of growing microbial resistance to antibiotics and attention to bacteriophage use in treatment has all but grown up again. Correspondingly, the applications of bacteriophages for biocontrol purposes have become a remarkable opportunity in a number of fields, including farms and food production. Despite their treatment effects, bacteriophages also maintain a vital relationship with their hosts through moderating microbial populations and promoting their evolution by horizontal gene transfer. Additionally, they serve as vehicles for the transfer of vaccinations, the detection of dangerous microorganisms and systems for displaying proteins and antibodies. Bacteriophages are a varied collection of viruses that are simple to handle, making them suitable for use in treatments and biotechnology research. Hence, the expansion of various phage companies for phage production and the use of phage cocktails for the treatment of various bacterial diseases at different stages is recommended.
Published: 14 September 2022
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research, Volume 8, pp 127-132; https://doi.org/10.17352/ijvsr.000125
Background: Bovine Neosporosis (BN) and Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) are economically significant livestock disease that causes reproductive and respiratory problems in cattle and buffalo caused by protozoan parasite Neospora caninum and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) respectively. The burden of production and economic loss due to infectious reproductive diseases are still unknown in the various location of Nepal. Objectives: To overview the prevalence of bovine neosporosis and bovine viral diarrhea infection in a commercially important livestock herd from Tilottama Municipality, Rupandehi, Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional purposive study was conducted through a questionnaire survey to collect demographic and farm characteristics information. In total 92 serum samples from jugular veins were collected from a different herd of Tilottama Municipality of Rupandehi, Nepal. The antibody against BVDV was tested using the competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (c-ELISA). Results: The individual animal-wise apparent prevalence was 9.78% with a true prevalence of 9.70% (5.09 - 17.57) and 3.26% with a true prevalence of 3.10%; CI (0.93 - 9.06) for BN and BVD respectively. The risk factor history of abortion was associated significantly with BN and BVD seropositivity (p < 0.05). Animals in the mixed farming system and contact with dogs were associated significantly with the occurrence of bovine viral diarrhea and bovine neosporosis respectively at (p < 0.05). Conclusion and recommendation: The stuy indicated the circulation of Neospora caninum and bovine viral diarrhea in dairy herds of the study area. It is suggested that the stakeholders in the study area should be sensitized to the impact of Neospora caninum and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in dairy herds and include both diseases in the regional and national surveillance system.
Published: 9 September 2022
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research, Volume 8, pp 118-126; https://doi.org/10.17352/ijvsr.000124
Gastrointestinal nematode infections cause significant production losses in ruminants. In southern Australia, the estimated annual cost of internal parasites in sheep, cattle and goats are $436million, $82m and $2.54m, respectively. An over-reliance on anthelmintic treatments has resulted in anthelmintic resistance becoming an increasing concern for producers. Reducing the need for chemical anthelmintics is desirable to lower producer costs and limit the development of anthelmintic resistance. Condensed tannins found in many trees and forages are a plant secondary compound receiving considerable interest as an alternative anthelmintic strategy. Direct anthelmintic effects from condensed tannins are associated with the binding of larval proteins; slowing egg hatching, larval development and exsheathment. Indirect effects are associated with improvements to protein metabolism and immune function within the animal. Several native Australian tree extracts have demonstrated anthelmintic properties, but further research is required to assess their suitability for silvopastoral systems in South Australia.
Published: 2 September 2022
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research, Volume 8, pp 113-117; https://doi.org/10.17352/ijvsr.000123
The cross-sectional research study was conducted from November 2015 up to April 2016 in order to assess the prevalence of Brucella infection in shoats in two woredas in the Arsi zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia. The study was conducted in six Peasant Associations (3 PAs from each district). A total of 397 sheep and goats were sampled to be studied. Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) was used as a Screening test for Brucella agglutinins, while Complement Fixation Test (CFT) was used to confirm the reactors by Rose Bengal Plate Test. The statistical analysis of the data was run by Fisher’s exact test and the comparison of proportion was carried out too. Out of the 397 sera samples, 1.51% (n = 6) were seropositive for Brucella infection by RBPT; however, the CFT test indicated that only 0.5% (n = 2) sera were positive. Overall point estimation of 0.2% ovine and caprine Brucella infection was observed. High prevalence has been observed in aborted, parity one (1-5 kidding or lamping), female and in goats than non-aborted, parity two (> 6 lambing or kidding), male and sheep respectively. Especially high Seroprevalence in aborted goats indicates the presence of the illness in the two woredas’. The brucellosis presence in goats and sheep is significant as the infected animals can act as reservoirs of infection and may transmit the infection to human beings by several routes. So, Control measures should be designed and implemented by focusing on the prevention of further illness expansion in the study area by using an appropriate control practices approach.
Published: 23 August 2022
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research, Volume 8, pp 110-112; https://doi.org/10.17352/ijvsr.000122
Out of 300 ostrich chicks imported from South Africa, five chicks of age two months faced rectal prolapse problems at once in the Ostrich Farm Private Limited Rupandehi, Nepal. The feather around the red protruded mass was removed and the protruded mass was cleaned with normal saline. The protruded mass was pushed with gentle pressure and corrected through surgical correction. A blood sample was taken for the analysis of the Hematological profile and the fecal sample was observed under the microscope through floatation and sedimentation techniques. On the fecal examination, no parasites were found. Feed management was done for the first day and Calcium with vitamins and other minerals was given. On the next day, two birds having small protruded masses were recovered. The protruded mass of the next three chicks was restored. Local anesthesia was given with 2ml 2%xylocaine solution around the vent region. Purse string suture is done with silk thread around the anal orifice. Blood serum examination reveals that severe low level of calcium i.e. 6.7,7.1,6.5,6.8,6.9 respectively in all 5 ostrich chicks which should be in the normal range of 9-24. As per my case study, the main cause of this prolapse is the low calcium level, the low fiber in the diet and cold stress due to the winter season.
Published: 28 July 2022
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research, Volume 8, pp 100-109; https://doi.org/10.17352/ijvsr.000121
The objective of the study was to evaluate the combinational effect of Bacillus subtilis strain PB6 along with vitamins (V), minerals (M), and amino acids (A) on performance, growth, and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens during the early days and compare with commercially available combinations of V+A, and M+A without probiotics. An in vivo trial was conducted for a period of 35 days with day 1 Cobb 430 broiler chicks, randomly allotted to one control and four treatment groups namely T1 (PB6+VMA-1 g/L), T2 (PB6+VMA-2 g/L), T3 (V+A-1 mL/L) and T4 (M+A-2 mL/L) using a completely randomized design. Each group had 7 replicates and 12 birds per replicate. The performance parameters such as body weight (BW), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were monitored throughout the trial. At the end of 7 days, BW was significantly higher for T2 (174.71 g) in comparison with T1 (173.99 g), T3 (174.41 g), T4 (173.39 g), and control (173.35 g, p < 0.05). However, no difference in FCR was observed (p > 0.05). Similarly, at the end of 35 days, T2 (1842.15 g) showed the highest BW compared to control (1818.36 g), T1 (1839.39 g), T3 (1833.20 g), and T4 (1816.73 g) and significantly least FCR (1.53, p < 0.05) in comparison with control (1.55), T1 (1.54), T3 (1.57) and T4 (1.56). At the end of 35 days, carcass characteristics such as carcass, breast meat, and organ yield were evaluated and no significant difference between the groups was observed (p > 0.05). The gut health of the birds was assessed by evaluating the dysbacteriosis and total mean lesion score at the end of 35 days and a score of less than one was observed for all the groups. Furthermore, return on investment (ROI) was analyzed and T1 showed an ROI of 2.21:1, followed by T2 which showed an ROI of 1.72:1, and no ROI was seen for T3 and T4. The results from this study suggest that supplementation of PB6 along with essential nutrients has a positive impact on the performance of broiler chickens, without affecting gut health and helps poultry producers for profitable farming.
Published: 19 July 2022
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research, Volume 8, pp 095-099; https://doi.org/10.17352/ijvsr.000120
The research was conducted to study physical parameters and histological structural patterns based on the coat color of Black Bengal goat skins. Five hundred skins were randomly selected, and measured using scientific instruments and the Haematoxylin-Eosin staining method was used for histological study. Black coat color skin was found the highest (58%), the mean weight, length, and width of Black Bengal goat skin was 998.80 gm, 29.24, and 20.91 cm, respectively but there were no significant differences among the groups. The mean thickness of the skin was 1.97, 1.43, and 1.96 mm in the butt, bell, and shoulder regions, respectively, and significantly different between the groups in all categories. All slaughtered goats were flayed using the “Muchki” (Hoisting and fisting) method. The average flay cut length, depth, and mechanical and parasitic damages were 20.2 mm, 1.50 mm, 6.11, and 1.50 %, respectively. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was found in inedible fleshing by-products, but significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in trimming by-products production and salt required for curing. Salted skins were preserved for an average of 3.5 days. Hair follicles, sebaceous glands, erector pili muscles, collagen fibers, and fiber bundles were more regular in the butt region than shoulder and belly regions in the black, brown, white, and mixed coat color of Black Bengal goat skins.