Bioengineering Studies

Journal Information
EISSN: 27441636
Total articles ≅ 13

Latest articles in this journal

Mervisa Halilović-Alihodžić
Published: 1 September 2021
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 37-41; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i2.id194

Abstract:
Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a powerful molecular cytogenetic approach for identifying chromosomal abnormalities. CGH allows researchers to scan whole genomes for changes in DNA copy numbers. Starting in 2004, the array CGH became an irreplaceable method for the detection of gene mutations in people with congenital and developmental abnormalities, such as intellectual disability, dysmorphic characteristics, developmental delay, or several congenital deformities without an obvious syndrome pattern. This review focuses on the evolution of array CGH technology and its use in molecular diagnostics and its advantages over older cytogenetic tools. This review further highlights special arrays developed in the past decade which detect small intragenic copy number changes as well as large DNA segments for the region of heterozygosity.
Adna Smajkan
Published: 1 September 2021
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 12-20; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i2.id192

Abstract:
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular technique used for the detection of specific DNA sequences within the chromosome. It relies on the complementary binding between the fluorescently labeled probe and the target sequence. This paper describes how this method was first developed, and the basic principle and the procedure behind it. Furthermore, it covers the basic applications of FISH, including its use in microbiological diagnostics, diagnosis of solid tumors, diagnosis of hematological malignancies, evaluation of sperm and diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome, along with its applications in plants.
Ilma Kotorić
Published: 1 September 2021
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i2.id190

Abstract:
Nucleic acid analogues are used in protein synthesis, as their effects on gene expression are confirmed, and play a crucial and important role during transcriptional and posttranscriptional processes in the cell. Due to the many remaining challenges associated with genetic engineering, current research mainly focuses on new materials such as peptide nucleic acids [PNA] and locked nucleic acids [LNA]. PNAs and LNAs have been developed to mimic the chemical characteristics of DNA and RNA and to show improved properties. They represent synthetic DN/RNA analogues in which the phosphodiester backbone is replaced with unchanged aminoethylglycine units, being very resistant to enzymatic degradation by proteases and nucleases. This review summarizes the application of nucleic acid analogues in the inhibition of gene expression in bacterial genomes, as well as the usage in the development of high-performance affinity biosensors.
Abas Sezer
Published: 1 September 2021
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 7-11; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i2.id191

Abstract:
Advances in technology opened many doors, increased opportunities in various research fields, and helped create tools and devices required for many analyses. One of them is microarray technology. It is widely used in numerous research areas including infection biology, detection of small noncoding RNAs, microarray-based gene expression profiling, and many more. Microarray implementation in molecular diagnostics and their use as diagnostic devices are considered a step closer to precision medicine. Further advances in microarray technology can potentially help with the identification of new pathogens, improvement in medicine, and better drug delivery.
Ajla Pleh, Lejla Mahmutović, Altijana Hromić-Jahjefendić
Published: 30 June 2021
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i1.id178

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant capacity of some phytochemicals by using an H2O2 scavenging assay. Betaine, Allantoin and Nicotinamide were put to the test. Even though hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is not intrinsically reactive, it can be transformed into the extremely reactive and harmful hydroxyl radical (HO), which is then able to interact with nucleotides in deoxyribose nucleic acid and in that way trigger breakage of the strand resulting in carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, etc. Antioxidants aid in the protection of cells from the harmful effects of reactive oxygen species that are known to induce oxidative stress. Excessive production of these reactive oxygen species in the human body is associated with many chronic degenerative diseases such as diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, cancer, etc. The effective way to minimize levels of oxidative stress is the ability to scavenge these reactive oxygen species (ROS). Also, phytochemicals are able to act as antioxidants, and in that way play a vital role in the prevention of disease caused by oxidative stress. The ability of a compound to scavenge H2O2 is a good predictor of its potential antioxidant function. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging assay was determined using the Ruch et al., 1989 method, and a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. In conclusion, our samples had marvellous H2O2 scavenging activity and possessed good antioxidant capability, and were compared with the ascorbic acid (vitamin c) as standard natural antioxidant/ as reference antioxidant. The samples were also able to scavenge H2O2 in a concentration-dependent way, according to our results
Nadia Islam
Published: 30 June 2021
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 46-54; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i1.id182

Abstract:
Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women and the second largest cause of mortality in the entire population worldwide. This review investigated how breast cancer is patho-physiologically associated with obesity which is defined by body mass index ≥30 kg/ and metabolic syndrome which leads to type 2 diabetes in pre and postmenopausal women. It also addressed the controversy relating the definition of BMI. The biological markers in breast cancer currently in use are ER, PR, HER2, uPA, and PAI-1. This study looked into future of predictive and prognostic biomarkers, such as exosome by altering interaction of distant cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment and the breast cancer progress.
Amina Karić, Mohamed Ragab Abdel Gawwad
Published: 30 June 2021
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 19-30; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i1.id180

Abstract:
DNA molecule is found in every cell in a living organism and function as an instruction manual for growth, development, as well as any other processes that happen. As the cell divide, it needs to copy its DNA. During the copying, an error can occur, which can lead to a disease. However, there are different error repair mechanisms that are searching for an error, and repairing it. This study focused on 2 proteins involved in DNA repair mechanism, RPA32B and RPA2 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Throughout multiple in silico approached, multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree construction, 3D visualisation, combination and interaction, we confirmed that the RPA2 and RPA 32b are involved in DNA replication, meiotic recombination and DNA repair mechanism.
Azra Alimanović
Published: 30 June 2021
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 2, pp 11-18; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v2i1.id179

Abstract:
Viruses are extremely small obligate molecular parasites that can be seen only with an electron microscope. In plant pathology there are the organisms named plant viral vectors whose task is to transmit pathogens. Transmission of vector can be mechanical and insect that present two pathways which allow the spreading of plant virus particles. Plant virologists with other association in molecular biology and plant pathology nominated top 10 viruses based on scientific and economic importance. This paper reviews the current standing of most known antiviral defense mechanism called RNA silencing and most known molecular diagnostic method in plant pathology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Kanita Šabanović, Ahmet Yildirim, Jasmin Šutković
Published: 31 December 2020
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 1, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v1i1.id107

Abstract:
When a plant is under heavy metals stress, it has different mechanism of coping with it. Brassica oleracea var. acephala (kale) is a plant that has an ability of heavy metal accumulation and removal of heavy metals from the ground. The plants were exposed to 50, 100, 200, and 500 μM of CdCl2 for 5days, in controlled in vitro conditions. Root length was measured to confirm the Cd effect on plant growth. There are five key antioxidants enzymes responsible for the regulation of heavy metals stress: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), Peroxidase (POD) and Polyphenol oxidase (PPO). All enzymes showed significant activity, especially triggered by 500 μM CdCl2 in both varieties. The domestic sorts seem more resistant if compared to hybrid variety, showing significant lower expression of antioxidants enzymes at higher concentrations. In general, significant percentage of enzymes is more expressed in the hybrid Italian sort, Nero di Toscana, indicating the ability of domestic sorts to be more resistant to heavy metal stress.
Esma Zajimović, Jasmin Šutković
Published: 31 December 2020
Bioengineering Studies, Volume 1, pp 44-50; https://doi.org/10.37868/bes.v1i1.id116

Abstract:
Felis Catus is a small carnivorous mammal and it is considered to be the only domesticated species among Felidae family. The purpose of this work is to genetically characterize cat breeds from Bosnia and Herzegovina and to compare them to one unknown completely different cat. To achieve this, samples of 20 cats that belong to the European Shorthair Cat (ESH) breed have been collected, plus the target subject. Further, for the genetic microsatellite characterization, the DNA material was isolated from each cat, in order to compare them to the sample taken from an unknown cat breed that will be referred to as the subject of this research. Genetic diversities within and between populations were be analyzed using 5 microsatellite markers. The obtained results showed that the subject cat genetically differs from other ESH breed cats, where the observed heterozygosity patterns within the cat breeds showed minimum but expected genetic variety among the analyzed cat species.
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