Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

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EISSN: 26402890
Total articles ≅ 112

Latest articles in this journal

Elnashar Aboubakr Mohamed
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 6, pp 016-020;

A large systematic review and meta-regression analysis found that sperm counts all over the world appeared to be declining rather than stabilizing. The decline in male sperm counts does not necessarily translate to a decline in male fertility. The cause of declining sperm counts remains unknown; however, several potential causative factors have been identified: 1. Chronic diseases: diabetes mellitus, hypertension; hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia and skin Diseases & metabolic syndrome. 2. Environmental factors: bisphenol a; phthalates; heavy metals and heat. 3. Lifestyle: obesity, diet, tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, stress, reduced sleep & sedentary life. Addressing these causes is required to stop or decrease male fertility decline. Action to improve semen quality such as prevention & treatment of chronic disease, decreasing unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, poor diet, or lack of physical activity & eliminating toxic environmental chemicals.
, Riyadh Alabdaly Abdilya, Alqralleh Muna, Ibrahim Dana Issa Juma, Mohamed Amna Elrayah
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 6;

Hyperemesis gravidarum may prompt hypovolemia and significant electrolyte anomalies. Hypokalemia is one of the most common abnormalities. When practical, it may lead to rhabdomyolysis. We report a rare case of rhabdomyolysis in a 24 years old pregnant woman due to hyperemesis gravidarum. She had a profound weakness. Physical examination and laboratory findings showed a need for the hospital admission. Aggressive rehydration and electrolytes were the definite treatment. Her serum creatinine kinase (CK) concentration during entry was 80,01 units/L. Continuous rehydration led to complete recovery clinically. On discharge, she had normal laboratories.
Slaoui Aziz, Bennani Aicha, Tayeb Roughaya, Zeraidi Najia, Lakhdar Amina, Baydada Aziz, Kharbach Aicha
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 6, pp 006-009;

Background: Among the different forms of ectopic pregnancy, cesarean scar pregnancy is one of the most uncommon with an estimated incidence of 1/1800 pregnancies. A major risk of massive hemorrhage, it requires active management as soon as it is diagnosed because it can affect the functional prognosis of the patient (hysterectomy) but can also be life-threatening. Different surgical techniques are generally proposed in first intention to patients who no longer wish to have children, who are hemodynamically unstable and/or in case of failure of medical treatment. Case presentation: We hereby report the case of a young 19-year-old patient with no particular medical history, gravida 2 para 1 with a live child born after a cesarean section for fetal heart rhythm abnormalities during labor 5 months earlier and who presented to the emergency room of our structure for the management of a cesarean pregnancy scar diagnosed at 6 weeks of amenorrhea. She was successfully managed with an intramuscular injection of methotrexate. The follow-up was uneventful. Conclusion: The implantation of a pregnancy on a cesarean section scar is becoming more and more frequent. With consequences that can be dramatic, ranging from hysterectomy to life-threatening hemorrhage, clinicians must be familiar with this pathological entity and be prepared for its management. The latter must be rapid and allow, if necessary, the preservation of the patient's fertility. In this sense, conservative medical treatment with methotrexate injections should be proposed as a first-line treatment in the absence of contraindication.
Slaoui Aziz, Lazhar Hanaa, Amail Noha, Zeraidi Najia, Lakhdar Amina, Kharbach Aicha, Baydada Aziz
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 6, pp 010-013;

Background: Ovarian fibroma is a very unusual epithelial tumor representing less than 1% of all ovarian tumors. It can be asymptomatic and discovered during surgery or be associated with a pleural effusion preferentially located on the right side and a more or less abundant free ascites in the framework of the so-called Meigs syndrome. The challenge of management then lies in distinguishing benign from malignant since clinically, radiologically, and biologically everything points towards malignant which requires radical surgical treatment. We report here the case of a 69-year-old postmenopausal patient with a clinical form of Meigs' syndrome that strongly suggested ovarian cancer. Case presentation: We hereby report here the case of a 69-year-old patient, menopausal, gravida 4 para 3 with 3 live children delivered vaginally and one miscarriage. She presented with ascites, hydrothorax, and a solid tumor of the ovary. Serum CA 125 and HE 4 levels were very high. ROMA score was highly suggestive of malignancy. A hysterectomy with adnexectomy was performed. It was only the histological evidence of ovarian fibroma and the rapid resolution of its effusions that confirmed Meigs syndrome. Conclusion: Meigs syndrome is an anatomical-clinical entity that associates a benign tumor of the ovary, ascites, and hydrothorax. Highly elevated CA 125 and HE-4 tumor markers often point clinicians toward a malignant tumor and compel radical surgical treatment. This case report reminds us once again that only histology confirms the diagnosis of cancer.
, Salinas-Casado Jesús, Moreno-Sierra Jesús
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 6, pp 001-005;

Aims: To analyze the prevalence and risk factors for postoperative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in women submitted to robot-assisted sacrocolpopexy (RASC) for correction of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods: A longitudinal prospective study was carried out on 51 consecutive women who underwent RASC to treat POP. We recorded preoperatively the presence of LUTS urgency, symptomatic stress urinary incontinence (SUI), and voiding difficulty. We also performed an urodynamic study prior to surgical intervention including an incontinence test for overt and occult stress urinary incontinence (with POP reduction). A transobturator suburethral sling (TOT) was implanted in patients with demonstrable urodynamic SUI (overt or occult). Patients' LUTS were reassessed at 6 months after the surgical intervention. McNemar test and the Fisher exact test were used to analyzing dependent variables and Student’s t - test for independent variables. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Postoperative voiding difficulty and symptomatic SUI were significantly reduced. No significant differences were observed in the postoperative prevalence of urgency. The presence of preoperative urinary urgency was the only significant risk factor of postoperative urgency, whereas TOT placement was the only significative factor associated with postoperative symptomatic SUI. TOT placement in patients with occult SUI significantly reduced postoperative Symptomatic SUI. Conclusion: RASC reduces the prevalence of voiding difficulty but not urgency. Concomitant implantation of TOT in patients with preoperative urodynamic SUI (overt or occult) is useful to reduce symptomatic postoperative SUI.
Ochie Kalu, C Abraham John
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 101-103;

Introduction: Sonographic scan tests are real-time procedures but the female reproductive systems are subject to continued changes beyond the mid-menstrual period. Therefore a second test may be useful after mid-menstrual ultrasound tests among women with infertility who first had normal ultrasound tests during the mid-menstrual period. Aim: The aim of this study is to find out whether physiological changes beyond the mid-menstrual period in the female reproductive system could develop into findings that could be missed at the first ultrasound test among women with infertility during mid menstrual period. Method: One hundred and forty (140) women participated in this study, over a period of 12 months. The inter-observer correlations were carried out. The ultrasound test measured the diameters of the endometrium and ovarian follicle. The study was carried out during the mid-menstrual cycle when normal changes are optimal. The subjects were women of childbearing age (18 years - 40 years) with 28 days cycles who were referred from the fertility clinic. Women who had previous pelvic surgery, women on fertility therapy, and women who were unsure of the date were excluded from the study. Only women who met the inclusion criteria were selected for the study. The selection was by convenience sampling method. The women underwent the first phase of the ultrasound test during the mid-menstrual cycle. Those who had ultrasonographic-positive infertility reports were returned to the referral clinic. Only women who had normal ultrasonographic fertility reports were included in the second phase of further ultrasonographic tests. The scans were carried out further for four days for this second phase study and the result was again compared with normal values. (Endometrium Normal range 7.4 mm - 13.5 mm and ovarian follicles normal range 17.4 mm to 23.5 mm). Results: The first phase of the scan showed 108 (77%) of the women had positive infertility results for endometrium and ovarian follicles, while 32 (23%) of the women had a normal ultrasonographic result and were rescanned over days. The findings of the second phase scan showed that 10 subjects (7.30%) showed new abnormalities, Findings were distributed in three sub-groups in this second phase of the study. Sub-group A, 4 (2.67%) had enlarged unruptured follicles, sub-group B, 6 (4.30%) had an endometrial cavity filled with fluid, sub-group C, 22 (15.70%) subjects still had normal scans who may be referred for other studies. Conclusion: Women with infertility who had a normal scan at the mid-menstrual cycle should be followed up with a second-phase ultrasound scan before other tests.
D Bursać, Diana Culej, G Planinić Radoš, J Župan, P Perković, Ž Duić, S Gašparov
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 096-097;

The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines anemia as a global public health problem. It is a medical condition in which the number of red blood cells or the hemoglobin concentration within them is below the physiological range. We present a case of a 40-year-old woman with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) accompanied by malaise, weakness, and tachycardia. The patient reported heavy menstrual bleeding for the past 14 days. Speculum examination revealed that the bleeding was from the uterus. There were no pathological findings during a gynecological and transvaginal ultrasound examination. A complete blood count performed at the time of her arrival showed a low hemoglobin level of 24 g/L, a low hematocrit level of 7,4%, a mean corpuscular volume of 98,7 fL and a number of red blood cells 0,75 x 1012/L. Due to the severity of the anemia, she was given 6 units of red blood cell transfusion, 2 fresh frozen plasmas and tranexamic acid accompanied with calcium carbonate. The curettage was performed. The pathohistological finding was endometrium in proliferation. Afterward, the hemoglobin level increased to 90 g/L. Their past medical history revealed that she abused alcohol. On an abdominal CT scan, Alcohol-Related Liver Disease (ARLD) was confirmed. We should keep in mind that coagulopathy could be the underlying cause of abnormal uterine bleeding and that anemia must be analyzed for successful treatment. A multidisciplinary approach to anemia caused by AUB is required in cases of severe anemia.
Tate Jessica, McGrath Niamh, Lalchandani Savita
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 093-095;

Ms X is a 40-year-old gravida 12, para 2 + 9 woman, who was admitted for an elective caesarean section at 38 weeks gestation following the previous two caesarean sections. Ms X had abdominal distension and generalised abdominal tenderness in the postoperative period. On investigation, she was found to have an elevated white cell count (WCC), C - Reactive Protein (CRP) and creatinine with free fluid in the abdomen on imaging but there was no evidence of perforation of any visceral organ. Ms X was treated conservatively for sepsis, an Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) and post-operative ileus and her symptoms gradually resolved. This is a case of idiopathic ascites post caesarean delivery with no clear cause.
Karoui Abir, Cherif Ahmed, Chaffai Olfa, Saidi Wassim, Sahraoui Ghada, Menjli Sana, Chanoufi Mohamed Badis, Boujelbene Nadia, Abouda Hssine Saber
Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 5, pp 090-092;

Background: Leiomyomas beyond the uterus are defined by benign smooth muscle cell tumors outside of the uterus. Intravenous leiomyomatosis is a rare type of uterine leiomyoma and is characterized by the formation and growth of benign leiomyoma tissue within the vascular wall. Herein, we present a case of Intravenous leiomyomatosis successfully treated by surgical removal and a review of actual medical recommendations. Case presentation: A 49 - year-old woman, maghrébin, G3 P2, no family history of uterine myomas mentioned, having systemic arterial hypertension, presented to our department with hypogastric pain and abnormal uterine bleeding in the prior five months resulting in anemia which required iron supplementation. On physical examination the vital signs were normal. A palpable mass in the hypogastrium was noted. The rest of the exam was unremarkable. Pelvic ultrasound showed a huge uterus with multiple heterogeneous leiomyomas, including at least one intracavity. Computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging were not done initially due to the unaffordability of the patient. The initial diagnosis was leiomyoma. The decision to perform a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was taken. The abdomen was opened by a midline vertical incision. During surgery, multiple subserosal, intramural and submucosal fibroids ranging from 2 cm × 3 cm to 10 cm × 10 cm were seen. On pathological examination, the uterus measured 19 cm in the largest diameter and weighed 1.3 kg. The cut section showed white nodular myometrial masses. Microscopically, intravascular growth of benign smooth muscle cells is found within venous channels lined by endothelium. The diagnosis of Intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus without malignant transformation was retained. The patient was monitored for 14 months and subsequent computed tomography did not reveal any evidence of tumor recurrence. The follow-up will be performed annually till the age of menopause. Conclusion: Intravenous leiomyomatosis is a benign, rare and potentially lethal pathology. It especially affects premenopausal women with a history of uterine myoma, whether operated on or not. They require close and prolonged follow-up because of the high risk of recurrence.
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