Food & Function
ISSN / EISSN: 20426496 / 2042650X
Published by: The Royal Society of Chemistry
Total articles ≅ 7,040
Latest articles in this journal
Food & Function; https://doi.org/10.1039/d2fo03645b
Anthocyanins may be an effective way to reduce the potential risk of chronic diseases induced by glycation and inflammatory. In the present study, the anti-glycation and anti-inflammatory activities of anthocyanins derived from purple cabbage (PCA), purple sweet potato (PSP), purple corn (PCO) and gynura bicolor (GB) were evaluated systematically. The results revealed that the anthocyanins exhibited good anti-glycation effects through multiple mode of actions. According to the results from bovine serum albumin (BSA)-fructose and BSA-methylglyoxal (MGO) model, the inhibition effects of anthocyanins on non-enzymatic glycosylation not only acted on the intermediate stage, but also play a certain role in whole non-enzymatic glycosylation, among which anthocyanins from PCA performed the best inhibitory effect. The anthocyanins could trap MGO effectively with no significant difference among four purple vegetables. Anthocyanins also presented good inhibitory effect on amyloid beta peptide (Aβ)1-42 fibrillation, even better than aminoguanidine (AG) in thermal induction assay. Furthermore, anthocyanins from PCA, PSP, PCO and GB showed significant anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the pro-inflammatory factors (i.e., NO and TNF-α) production, among which anthocyanins from PCA and PSP represented higher inhibition effect than others. This is probably due to the suppression of TLR4-mediated MyD88 signaling pathway in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 cells based on the results of Western blot analysis. Anthocyanins from purple vegetables could be used as a value-added food ingredient for food industry. Food fortification with anthocyanins might be a promising way to protect human against various chronic diseases caused by glycation and inflammatory.
Food & Function; https://doi.org/10.1039/d2fo03480h
During food processing most of the thermally-driven chemical reactions start off on the side chain amino group of lysine generating structurally modified compounds with specific metabolic routes. Upon human digestion, dietary N-ε-carboxymethyllysine (CML) may enter the colon and undergo gut microbial metabolism. However, little is known about the in vivo metabolic fate of dietary CML and its relationship with the habitual diet. We explored by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry the metabolites of CML in urine samples collected from 46 healthy subjects and studied the associations with diet. Mean concentration of N-carboxymethylcadaverine (CM-CAD), N-carboxymethylaminopentanoic acid (CM-APA), N-carboxymethylaminopentanol (CM-APO), and the N-carboxymethyl-Δ1-piperideinium ion were 0.49 nmol/mg creatinine, 1.45 nmol/mg creatinine, 4.43 nmol/mg creatinine and 4.79 nmol/mg creatinine, respectively. The urinary concentration of CML, its metabolites and lysine were positively correlated. Dietary intake of meat products negatively correlated with urinary excretion of CML and CM-APA; conversely dietary plant-to-animal proteins ratio positively correlated with urinary CML and its metabolites. The identification and quantification of CML metabolites in urine and the associations with diet corroborate the hypothesis that CML, an advanced glycation end-product, can undergo further biochemical transformations in vivo. The gut microbiome may have a major role in human metabolism of dietary CML.
Food & Function; https://doi.org/10.1039/d2fo04014j
Large preclinical evidence suggests colitis was one of the risk factor to depression and probiotics were effective therapeutic agent to prevent the disease. The effect of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus Fmb14 on colitis-related depression-like behavior and its possible mechanisms were investigated. One week of DSS exposure led to the following changes in male C57BL/6N mice: a reduction in movement distance from 2218 to 1299 cm, time in central areas from 23.6 s to 11.5 s, and time in the bright box from 217 s to 103 s, which were restored to 1816 cm, 18.4 s, and 181 s, respectively, with preadministration of Fmb14 for 8 weeks. All improvements provided by Fmb14 indicated a remarkable protective effect on depression-like behavior. Fmb14 first worked to repair intestinal barrier damage and the inflammatory response in the colon through ZO1 and Ocln enhancement and IL-1β, NF-κB and IL-6 reduction, respectively. Second, dysbiosis of gut microbiota was modulated by Fmb14, including reduction of Akkermansia (18.9% to 5.4%), Mucispirillum (0.6% to 0.1%) and Bifidobacterium (0.32% to 0.03%). Fmb14 supplementation ameliorates the brain inflammatory response via IL-18 and NF-κB reduction and improves the blood‒brain barrier via increased ZO1 and Ocln. Moreover, brain activity was facilitated by the increase in BDNF and dopamine and the downregulation of GABA in the Fmb14 group. As a consequence of the modulatory effect on dysfunction of neurotransmitters and neuroinflammation, Fmb14 prevents neurodegeneration by inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and Nissl edema. In addition, the correlation analysis further demonstrated the preventative effect of Fmb14 on depression-like behavior through the microbiota–gut–brain axis. Together, these findings demonstrated the important role of Fmb14 in biological signal transduction over the microbiota-gut-brain axis to improve mood disorders.
Food & Function; https://doi.org/10.1039/d2fo02064e
Key findings of the work: Maternal frequent intake of a sufficient amount (>3 times per week, or >50 g day−1) of yogurt in late pregnancy may benefit offspring by decreasing the risk of infantile eczema.
Food & Function; https://doi.org/10.1039/d2fo03909e
Melanoidins isolated from bakery by-products are proposed as new sustainable ingredients for bakery products.
Food & Function; https://doi.org/10.1039/d2fo03509j
Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is one of the main factors leading to cardiovascular diseases. Quercetin (QUE) is a naturally occurring polyhydroxy flavonoid compound, that has a wide range of pharmacological effects. However, the potential mechanism for treating HLP remains unclear. Thus, the study aimed to investigate the role of QUE in HLP development and its underlying mechanisms in HLP rats based on the analysis of gut microbiota and plasma metabolomics. Following the establishment of an HLP model in rats, QUE was orally administrated. Plasma samples and fecal samples were collected from HLP rats for microbiome 16S rDNA sequencing and metabolic UPLC-Q-Exactive-MS analysis. The results have suggested that QUE could regulate dyslipidemia, inhibit the levels of TC, TG, and LDL-c. Additionally, histopathological findings revealed that QUE could reduce lipid deposition, ameliorated hepatic injury and steatosis in the HFD-induced rat, and had a protective effect on the liver. The analysis and identification of plasma metabolomics showed that the intervention effect of QUE on HLP rats was related to 60 differential metabolites and signal pathways such as Lactosamine, 11b-hydroxyprogesterone, Arachidonic acid, and Glycerophospholipid metabolism, Sphingolipid metabolism, Glycerolipid metabolism, Linoleic acid metabolism. Combined with fecal microbiological analysis, it was found that QUE could significantly change the composition of intestinal flora in HLP rats, increase beneficial bacteria, and reduce the composition of harmful bacteria, attenuating Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. The results of correlation analysis showed that the relative abundance level of Firmicutes, Deironobacterium, Fusobacterium, Bacteroides, and Escherichia coli was closely related to the change of differential metabolites. In summary, combined with metabolomics and gut microbiota studies, it is found that QUE can reduce lipid levels and improve liver function. The potential mechanism may be to regulate metabolism and intestinal flora to play the role of reduce lipid levels, to achieve the purpose of treatment of HLP.
Food & Function; https://doi.org/10.1039/d2fo02835b
Various studies have reported that Noni shows various health effects. This study aimed to assess the ability of Noni fruit extract to serve as a single active functional ingredient for the alleviation of hangover symptoms in Sprague Dawley rats and healthy subjects in a single-dose, randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study. The rats were orally administered Noni fruit extract at 50 or 100 mg per kg body weight (B.W.) and HOVENIA. The blood ethanol (EtOH) and acetaldehyde concentrations were significantly lower in the 100 mg per kg B.W. group than in the EtOH group. Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity tended to increase in the 100 mg kg−1 B.W. group. In the human study, 30 subjects received either a placebo or Noni fruit extract (1 g). The Noni fruit extract group showed significantly faster time point at which the maximum concentration (Tmax) of alcohol than in the placebo group. In addition, blood acetaldehyde levels and diarrhea at 40 and 720 min after alcohol intake and the area under the curve between 40 and 60 min of acetaldehyde were significantly decreased in the Noni fruit extract group compared to the placebo group. According to the QUalitative INteraction Trees, subjects who were ≤36 years old who consumed more alcohol (>15 drinks per week) and had a higher total hangover score (>27.5 and 33) presented significantly lower blood acetaldehyde levels and less severe hangover symptoms. These results indicate that Noni fruit extract has the potential to improve hangover symptoms by decreasing alcohol and acetaldehyde levels.
Food & Function; https://doi.org/10.1039/d2fo02013k
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles with the smallest diameter, usually divided into cellular sources and body fluid sources.
Food & Function; https://doi.org/10.1039/d2fo03049g
The extracellular accumulation of amyloid- peptide (Aβ) in neuritic plaques is a classic pathological feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and synaptic structure and function abnormalities closely relate to cognitive impairment. The expression levels of synaptic-related proteins contactin 1/2 (CNTN1/2) are down-regulated in the AD brain, but the mechanism has not been clarified. Evidence suggests that CEBPα/circAPLP2/miR-671-5p pathway may mediate the regulation of CNTN1/2 expression in AD，whereas it needs to be verified. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is widely considered a biologically active ingredient in food. Our previous research revealed that GABA can regulate CEBPα expression in Aβ-treated U251 cells. However, it is uncertain whether GABA can antagonize the pathogenesis of AD. In addition, whether GABA can inhibit the reduction in CNTN1/2 expression by regulating CEBPα/circAPLP2/miR-671-5p in the AD brain remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that GABA could attenuate the deposition of Aβ in the brain and ameliorate cognitive impairments in AD model mice. The expressions of CEBPα, circAPLP2, and CNTN1/2 were decreased and that of miR-671-5p was increased in both AD model mouse brains and Aβ-induced SH-SY5Y cells. These alterations were partly reversed by GABA. Furthermore, CNTN1/2 expression was down-regulated and up-regulated in SH-SY5Y cells treated with miR-671-5p mimics and miR-671-5p inhibitors, respectively. Results from luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-671-5p could bind to the 3’-untranslated region of circAPLP2. Silencing of circAPLP2 with siRNA duplex caused an up-regulation of miR-671-5p and a down-regulation of CNTN1/2 in SH-SY5Y cells. Silencing of CEBPα with siRNA duplex caused a down-regulation of circAPLP2 or CNTN1/2 and an up-regulation of miR-671-5p. In conclusion, GABA may decrease the deposition of Aβ in the brain, inhibit the down-regulation of CNTN1/2 expression, and ameliorate the cognitive deficits of AD model mice. The CEBPα/circAPLP2/miR-671-5p pathway plays a role in regulating CNTN1/2 expression by GABA in AD.
Food & Function; https://doi.org/10.1039/d2fo03885d
Increasing studies have demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of various diseases, including allergic lower airway inflammation such as asthma. To investigate the role of Rg3 in allergic upper airway disease, the effect and therapeutic mechanism of Rg3 in allergic rhinitis (AR) were studied. Ovalbumin-induced AR model mice were intragastrically administered with Rg3. Nasal symptoms, levels of IgE, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, SOD and MDA in serum, and histopathological analysis of nasal mucosa were used to evaluate the effect of Rg3 on ameliorating AR in mice. Moreover, nasal mucosa samples from normal control group, AR model group and high dosage of Rg3 were collected to perform omics analysis. The differentially expressed genes and significantly changed metabolites were screened based on transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses, respectively. Integrative analysis was further performed to confirm the hub genes, metabolites and pathways. After Rg3 intervention, the nasal symptoms and inflammatory infiltration were effectively improved, the levels of IgE, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and MDA were significantly reduced, and the level of SOD was obviously increased. The results of the qRT‒PCR assay complemented the transcriptomic findings. The integrated analysis showed that Rg3 played an anti-AR role mainly by regulating the interaction network, which was constructed by 12 genes, 8 metabolites and 4 pathways. Our findings suggested that Rg3 had a therapeutic effect on ovalbumin-induced AR in mice by inhibiting inflammation development and reducing oxidative stress. The present study could provide a potential natural agent for the treatment of AR.