Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 10445463 / 15578992
Total articles ≅ 2,601

Latest articles in this journal

Botao Ma, Wenxuan Zhao, Hongzhen Fan, Yajun Yun, Siyuan Qi, , Fude Yang
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology; https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2022.0068

Abstract:
Objective: To investigate the relationship between plasma aripiprazole (ARI) and its metabolite dehydroaripiprazole (DARI) concentrations and prolactin (PRL) levels in Chinese children and adolescents. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study and the data were collected at Beijing HuiLongGuan Hospital, a Beijing City owned psychiatric hospital, between January 1 and December 31, 2021. Fifty-two child and adolescent inpatients (17 males, 35 females) aged 13–18 years and received ARI regardless of diagnosis were included. The steady-state ARI and DARI plasma concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The serum PRL levels were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: The plasma concentrations of ARI, DARI, and the total of ARI and DARI were negatively correlated with serum PRL levels in female children and adolescents. Approximately 15% of child and adolescent inpatients treated with ARI exhibited subnormal PRL serum levels. Conclusions: The results suggest that in addition to regularly monitoring PRL levels, therapeutic drug monitoring for ARI and its main metabolite DARI can help to mitigate the adverse medical consequences associated with PRL reduction. Thus, clinicians should consider the ARI-induced reduction of PRL levels when prescribing ARI to child and adolescent patients, particularly among females.
Stephen V. Faraone, , Roberto Gomeni, Eman Rafla, Judith C. Kando, Lori Dansie, , Antonio Pardo
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology; https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2022.0093

Abstract:
Objective: To evaluate the treatment effect size throughout the day of amphetamine extended-release oral suspension (AMPH EROS; Tris Pharma, Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ, USA) in a laboratory classroom study conducted in children aged 6–12 years with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: A post hoc analysis was performed to assess the overall effect size as well as the effect size at each time point from early morning through evening (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 13 hours postdose) for each efficacy measure evaluated in a 5-week, randomized, dose-optimized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, laboratory classroom assessment, efficacy, and safety study of AMPH EROS (N = 99). Change from baseline of the primary (Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, Pelham [SKAMP]-C) and key secondary (secondary efficacy assessments included the SKAMP attention [SKAMP-A], SKAMP-deportment subscale [SKAMP-D], Permanent Product Measure of Performance-number of problems attempted [PERMP-A], PERMP-number of problems correct [PERMP-C]) efficacy measures were analyzed using a linear mixed model repeated-measures analysis model. Comparisons among treatments were adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method. The effect size was estimated using Cohen's d, to determine “small,” (0.2), “medium,” (0.5), or “large” (0.8) magnitudes of treatment effects. Results: Large overall effect sizes were observed for all primary and key secondary efficacy assessments. Moreover, the SKAMP-C, PERMP-number of problems attempted, and PERMP-C scores showed large effect sizes at each time point evaluated across the day, from 1 to 13 hours postdose. The SKAMP-A and SKAMP-D scores showed a medium to large effect size at each time point. Conclusions: AMPH EROS demonstrated a large and consistent effect size across the day, including early in the morning, in the treatment of symptoms of ADHD in children aged 6–12 years. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02083783
, Carolina Kudesey
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, Volume 32, pp 539-542; https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2022.0043

Abstract:
Background and Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine what side effects were most associated with medication nonadherence as reported by adolescents and young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: A combination of multiple linear regression and chi-square automatic interaction detection techniques were utilized in analyzing the survey data responses of 157 adolescents and young adults with ADHD. Results: The mean number of side effects reported was M = 10.33 side effects with 77% of the sample reporting at least one side effect. In aggregate, the number or severity of side effects were not significantly associated with medication nonadherence. Rather, it was the severity of particular side effects, upset stomach and vomiting, which were significantly associated with medication nonadherence. Conclusions: Health care providers should utilize this information as an indicator that medication nonadherence will be an issue when these side effects are present.
Diane Rhee, Morgan Jones, Kate M. Mitchell, Jacqueline Segal, Timothy Rice, Barbara J. Coffey
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, Volume 32, pp 543-547; https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2022.29231.bjc

Abstract:
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Harold S. Koplewicz
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, Volume 32, pp 505-506; https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2022.29232.editorial

Abstract:
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Vinh Tan, Colleen Dockstader, Iska Moxon-Emre, Sandra Mendlowitz, Reva Schacter, Marlena Colasanto, Aristotle N. Voineskos, Aquila Akingbade, Eman Nishat, Donald J. Mabbott, et al.
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, Volume 32, pp 522-532; https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2022.0036

Abstract:
Background: Cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) network alterations are hypothesized to contribute to symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). To date, very few studies have examined whether CSTC network alterations are present in children with OCD, who are medication naive. Medication-naive pediatric imaging samples may be optimal to study neural correlates of illness and identify brain-based markers, given the proximity to illness onset. Methods: Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were analyzed at rest, in 18 medication-naive children with OCD (M = 12.1 years ±2.0 standard deviation [SD]; 10 M/8 F) and 13 typically developing children (M = 12.3 years ±2.2 SD; 6 M/7 F). Whole-brain MEG-derived resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc), for alpha- and gamma-band frequencies were compared between OCD and typically developing (control) groups. Results: Increased MEG-derived rs-fc across alpha- and gamma-band frequencies was found in the OCD group compared to the control group. Increased MEG-derived rs-fc at alpha-band frequencies was evident across a number of regions within the CSTC circuitry and beyond, including the cerebellum and limbic regions. Increased MEG-derived rs-fc at gamma-band frequencies was restricted to the frontal and temporal cortices. Conclusions: This MEG study provides preliminary evidence of altered alpha and gamma networks, at rest, in medication-naive children with OCD. These results support prior findings pointing to the relevance of CSTC circuitry in pediatric OCD and further support accumulating evidence of altered connectivity between regions that extend beyond this network, including the cerebellum and limbic regions. Given the substantial portion of children and youth whose OCD symptoms do not respond to conventional treatments, our findings have implications for future treatment innovation research aiming to target and track whether brain patterns associated with having OCD may change with treatment and/or predict treatment response.
, Yael Leitner, Dinah Zur, Ainat Klein, Daphna Mezad-Koursh
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, Volume 32, pp 533-538; https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2022.0074

Abstract:
Objective: To evaluate the short-term effect of dexmethylphenidate (D-MPH) on visual acuity (VA), pupil size, anterior chamber depth, and accommodation-convergence reflex in children treated with D-MPH for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Prospective cohort study including 15 patients aged 8–16 (11.58 ± 2.39) treated with D-MPH for ADHD. Patients were questioned for subjective complaints such as blurred vision and photosensitivity. An ophthalmic evaluation was performed twice; before and 1.5 hours after D-MPH administration. The examination included evaluation of best corrected visual acuity at distance and near, accommodation range, convergence range, 3D vision test (stereopsis), and anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Results: A significant association between change in pupil diameter and D-MPH treatment dose was demonstrated (p = 0.01). In addition, a positive correlation between complaints about blurred vision and pupil's size change was found (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in VA, convergence range, stereopsis, accommodation range, or anterior chamber measures. Conclusions: Our findings provide support for the effect of stimulants on pupil diameter in a dose-dependent manner. No clinically significant differences in visual functions were found 1.5 hours after consumption of D-MPH. Institutional review board clinical trial refference no. 0122-17-TLV.
Elizabeth Hobbs, Rachel Reed, Boris Lorberg, Adelaide S. Robb,
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, Volume 32, pp 507-521; https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2022.0035

Abstract:
Introduction: Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is a severe psychiatric illness diagnosed before the age of 18, which is associated with extreme shifts in mood characterized by manic and depressive episodes. In 2005, AACAP published algorithms to guide pharmacological treatment of manic/mixed episodes associated with PBD. At that time, lithium was the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment for pediatric bipolar manic/mixed episodes. The goal of this article is to review evidence that has emerged since the AACAP algorithm in 2005. Methods: Literature searches were conducted through PubMed and limited to studies published between 2005 and 2021, using keywords that focused on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for available psychopharmacological medications. In addition, the authors conducted in-depth searches for articles providing evidence for agents included in the 2005 AACAP algorithm. Results: Since the publication of the AACAP algorithm in 2005, multiple RCTs have been conducted in PBD, leading to FDA approval of five medications (aripiprazole, asenapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone) for the treatment of manic/mixed episodes and two medications (lurasidone and olanzapine-fluoxetine combination) for the treatment of depressed episodes. Divalproex sodium and oxcarbazepine were studied in pediatric RCTs and failed to separate from placebo. Conclusions: We offer an update to the 2005 AACAP algorithms for the treatment of pediatric bipolar mixed/manic episodes and added an evidence-based algorithm for the treatment of depression in PBD. In addition to treatment algorithms, we review current evidence for efficacy of agents proposed in the AACAP algorithm and provide tables summarizing medication side effects and efficacy.
Harold S. Koplewicz
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, Volume 32, pp 459-459; https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2022.29229.editorial

Abstract:
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
, Saffron Homayoun, Olivia M. Downer, Mary A. Hamel, Julia S. Zagaroli, Kyle A. Williams
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, Volume 32, pp 476-487; https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2022.0063

Abstract:
Objective: Few large-scale studies of pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) have been conducted, and thus demographic data on these conditions are limited. The current study describes comorbid medical and psychiatric conditions in a self-referred cohort of children with PANS/PANDAS, along with treatment history, barriers to treatment, family medical and psychiatric history, and perceived caregiver burden in these conditions. Methods: A total of 441 primary caregivers of patients with infection-triggered PANS/PANDAS under the age of 18 were included in this online anonymous survey, reporting on a total of 490 children (due to some caregivers reporting multiple children in the family with PANS/PANDAS). Data were collected between July 2018 and May 2019. Primary caregivers completed questions pertaining to patient demographics, symptom presentation, disease course, family medical and psychiatric history, and severity of patients' obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Results: OCD was the most common psychiatric symptom reported in children at the onset of PANS/PANDAS (83.06%), along with a high percentage of medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Most psychiatric comorbidities began or worsened at the onset of PANS/PANDAS symptoms, while major depressive disorder was the most frequently reported psychiatric disorder to develop after PANS/PANDAS onset (10%). A high frequency of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions was reported in family members, with nearly 30% of mothers endorsing one or more autoimmune conditions (29.95%). Mean caregiver burden (Caregiver Burden Inventory; M = 44.0) fell above the “burnout” level, and standardized measures showed mildly elevated levels of depression, anxiety, and stress in caregivers (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21; M = 11.85, 7.16, and 15.56, respectively). Conclusions: Primary caregivers of children with PANS/PANDAS reported a multitude of medical and psychiatric comorbidities in their children, along with a high frequency of autoimmune and psychiatric conditions in family members. Obsessive–compulsive symptoms were the most frequently reported psychiatric symptom. Caregivers of these patients experience elevated levels of burden, stress, anxiety, and depression. Further research is needed to better understand the varied disease course in PANS/PANDAS and to develop interventions to reduce caregiver burden in these disorders.
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