Veterinary Sciences: Research and Reviews
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 30 December 2022
Veterinary Sciences: Research and Reviews, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.vsrr/2022/22.214.171.124
Published: 17 November 2022
Veterinary Sciences: Research and Reviews, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.vsrr/2022/126.96.36.199
| Heavy metals such as As, Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn are usually toxic for the aquatic ecosystem. Exposure of heavy metals in the aquatic organisms is linked to the retardation of growth, lesions in liver and damages in kidney. They are also causing infertility in animals. Chronic exposure and excessive concentrations are also deleterious for the normal physiological functions of human. Consumption of fishes contaminated with toxic metals are neurotoxic and carcinogenic to blood, lungs, kidneys, bones, liver and other vital organs of human. The present review outlines the contamination of aquatic environment with heavy metals and their contagious effects on aquatic animals and their public health concerns.
Published: 2 November 2022
Veterinary Sciences: Research and Reviews, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.vsrr/2022/188.8.131.52
| Fasciolosis is a common parasitic disease affecting cattle and other ruminants, commonly sheep, and caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica . The disease is cosmopolitan in distribution and can cause extensive economic losses to the farmers. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of fasciolosis in commercial cattle farms of Tilottama Municipality, Rupandehi district, Nepal. A total of 270 fresh faecal samples were collected purposively from the study area with different ages, sex, stage, and breeds for examination (sedimentation method) to visualize eggs of Fasciola microscopically. The obtained data were coded and analysed using Microsoft Excel 2016. The overall prevalence of fasciolosis in cattle was found to be 15.56%. Age and sex-wise prevalence was found to be statistically significant (P0.05). Fasciolosis is prevalent moderately among cattle in Tillottoma municipality, which necessitates the study of detailed epidemiology of the disease and effective control strategies to prevent huge economic losses.
Published: 20 October 2022
Veterinary Sciences: Research and Reviews, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.vsrr/2022/184.108.40.206
| Estrus synchronization refers to manipulating the estrous cycle or inducing heat in a vast number of females in a given time period. Ovulation can be controlled by interrupting or influencing the wave-like follicular growth pattern. Estrus synchronization is achieved by shortening or prolonging the luteal phase using prostaglandins or exogenous progestogens, respectively. The selection of protocol depends on the assessment of resources, including facilities, labor, experience, and budget. PGF2 α induces luteal regression followed by estrus and ovulation in cows when administered during the luteal period. Progestin suppresses the activity of the ovary and inhibits the dominant follicle maturation due to the suppression of both FSH and LH. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone or an analog is administered with PGF2 α to estrous- cyclic and noncyclic cattle disrupts the patterns of follicular growth, inducing ovulation on a large follicle. To select and successfully implement the estrus synchronization regime in animals’ proper knowledge of the hormonal profile and functional structure prevalent in ovaries in stages of estrus. Various protocols are available based on the hormone used, route of administration, requirements for heat detection, number of hormone injections, number of cattle handled, and injection time. Increased labor and upfront cost of hormone treatment, standard degree of supervision, and decent handling facilities are some of the drawbacks of this technique. Successful estrus synchronization necessitates optimum nutrition, a good body condition score, the best semen quality, general health, and an efficient estrus detection technique.
Published: 23 August 2022
Veterinary Sciences: Research and Reviews, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.vsrr/2022/220.127.116.11
| The study was conducted in terms of knowing the growth performance of broilers supplemented with Ginger and kalojeera and their effect on hematological parameters (TEC, Hb, ESR, PCV, and DLC). A total of 100 day-old Cobb 500 commercial broiler chicks were randomly divided into five groups (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4) and each treatment contain 20 broilers to carry out the work. The average initial weight of the chicks in all experimental groups was about the same. Weekly observations were recorded for live body weight up to 35 days and blood parameters of birds at day 14th, 21th and 35th days. The result showed comparatively better live weight in T4 which is treated with Kalojeera and Ginger having a satisfactory feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 1.68. The better feed conversion ratio (FCR) value was recorded by chicks fed diet supplemented with antibiotics in T1. The hematological parameters TEC, ESR, and DLC value of treatment group shows a significant difference, while Hemoglobin estimation does not show a significant difference from the control group. It could be concluded that Kalojeera and Ginger could act as growth promoters and alternatives to antibiotics in broilers.
Published: 16 August 2022
Veterinary Sciences: Research and Reviews, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.vsrr/2022/18.104.22.168
| Atresia ani with coli and recti has become a common problem of newborn calves. This clinical report is about the evaluation and survival after using of incisional cecostomy technique in a calf treated for intestinal atresia. A 2-day-old cross-bred bovine calf was brought to Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh having atresia coli with atresia ani et recti. Bypass surgery was performed using incisional cecostomy techniques. After 10 days post-surgical administration of antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, a good prognosis in the calf was noticed. After 1 month, a mild skin problem occurred which was minimized simultaneously.
Veterinary Sciences: Research and Reviews, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.vsrr/2022.8.1.65.70
| Broilers do not perform to their genetic potential in a stressful and diseased condition as concerned with poor bedding materials, high ammonia production from litter, and so on. The maximum ammonia production from litter depends on factors like moisture (%), pH, total nitrogen (%) of litter, and temperature of broiler houses. Carbonized Rice Husk (CRH) is a good poultry bedding material that consists of carbon and SiO 2 which interestingly enhance ammonia adsorption. Keeping the above fact, this study was conducted to reduce ammonia reducing immunosuppression that manages susceptibility of E. coli . When the maximum level of ammonia was produced i.e., on day 34, intra-nasal administration of E. coli of strain χ 7122 (serotype 078: K80:H9) at pathogenicity amount (9.4 x 10 5 cfu E. coli per bird) was done and morbidity and mortality rate was also recorded. The significantly minimum ammonia (ppm) was recorded in CRH (30.53±0.77); however, the maximum ammonia (ppm) was recorded in RH (49.78±0.42) with that compared to SD (33.42±0.25) and RS (43.22±0.56). Similarly, the mortality rate due to colisepticemia was recorded minimum in CRH (68.75%), however, the maximum was recorded in RH (86.25%) with that of compared to SD (70.00%) and RS (77.50%). It showed that CRH adsorbs ammonia produced in poultry houses reducing the immunosuppression managing susceptibility of E. coli . This proves CRH as the best poultry bedding material for the rearing of broiler chickens for better production.
Veterinary Sciences: Research and Reviews, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.vsrr/2022.8.1.52.64
| Poultry industry plays a pivotal role in poverty alleviation and the economic development of Bangladesh. However, poultry diseases are one of the most important limitations to the growth of the sustainable poultry industry in the country. Among these diseases, respiratory diseases are the foremost hazard to sustainable poultry production in Bangladesh. Avian influenza (AI), Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB), infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), Avian Metapneumovirus (AMPV), infectious coryza, fowl cholera and aspergillosis are the most prevalent respiratory diseases in Bangladesh. These diseases are most prevalent in layer, broiler, sonali and backyard chicken. AI outbreak is observed every year since its first report in 2007 in Bangladesh. This virus has mutated several times and thereby changed its genetic clades. The prevalence of ND is highest in October and in 0-3 months aged chickens. AMPV generally infects the upper respiratory tract of poultry, which has been isolated for the first time in Bangladesh in 2016. Alternatively, adult chickens are more susceptible to IB and ILT. The prevalence of mycoplasmosis and aspergillosis are higher during the winter season and are reported to occur due to poor management systems. Overall, respiratory diseases are most common in the country and outbreaks of such diseases appear frequently. Therefore, an integrated approach including strict biosecurity, good farming practices and proper vaccination should be taken into consideration for the prevention of these respiratory diseases to ensure sustainable poultry production in Bangladesh.
Veterinary Sciences: Research and Reviews, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.vsrr/2022.8.1.23.29
| A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in the Rupandehi and Palpa districts of Nepal. A total of 89 goat serum samples were tested by using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) for the presence of antibodies against Mycoplasma capricolum capripneumoniae . Out of the total serum sample tested, 3 were seropositive for CCPP giving an overall apparent seroprevalence of 3.37% and true seroprevalence of 3.4%. Significantly higher seroprevalence (p<0.05) was observed among goats with a history of respiratory symptoms. This study revealed the goat population in Rupandehi (district bordering India) and Palpa districts are at high risk of acquiring CCPP infection. Therefore, appropriate preventive measures including regular research and investigation, vaccination and regulatory policies on transboundary animal movements should be implemented to prevent the potential outbreak of the disease. This is the first-ever report of sero-detection of CCPP antibodies in the goat population of Nepal. This article confirms the presence of CCPP in Nepal and the potential circulation of the pathogen to other parts of the country warranting the concerned authorities and farmers to be vigilant for keeping this disease at bay.
Veterinary Sciences: Research and Reviews, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.vsrr/2022.8.1.36.42
| The paucity of information on the occurrence of porcine leptospirosis in Kaduna State, Nigeria predicated this study. The research was conducted to isolate Leptospira species from pigs. The organisms were isolated using Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris (EMJH) enrichment and basal medium, and identified using dark field microscopy. A total of two hundred (200) blood samples and two hundred (200) urine samples each were collected from pigs in Kaduna state, Nigeria. A total of 9 (4.5%) of the cultured samples were positive for the Leptospira organisms and % isolation from blood sample was 7 (3.5%), while 2 (1%) came from urine samples. Our results demonstrated that the total prevalence of Leptospira organisms in pigs in these areas was 4.5%. Considering the economic and zoonotic significance of this organism, we recommend that proper handling of pork and associated by products, as well as occupationally predisposed personnel should be of great importance especially pig farmers and veterinarians. The findings of this study indicates the need for further research to illuminate predisposing factors, patterns of distribution and clinical manifestation of leptospirosis in porcine inhabitants in different regions in Nigeria.