Science of Advanced Materials
ISSN / EISSN: 19472935 / 19472943
Published by: American Scientific Publishers
Total articles ≅ 3,367
Latest articles in this journal
Science of Advanced Materials, Volume 15, pp 405-411; https://doi.org/10.1166/sam.2023.4431
After bone implant, short-term complications can lead to a complicated approach to recovery, requiring surgical correction associated with additive risks, such as deep infection and double fracture. The development of synthesized biomaterials for bone replacement or repair, as well as the prevalence of osteoporosis, bone fracture, and bone cancer, is therefore of significant importance. This work aims to demonstrate the effect of adding multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) to the (PMMA/ZrO2–CaO) bio-composites to fabricate a new hybrid biocomposite system for bone recovery and replacement applications. Four groups of composite samples were produced PMMA/(0, 5, 10, 15, 20)% weights of ZrO2–CaO and adding (0, .1, 0.25, 0.5, 1)% weights of (MWCNTs) to each group. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), surface topography by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and fracture strength tests were performed to evaluate the samples’ properties. A number of the most significant characteristics obtained through XRD exhibited a high degree of homogeneous mixing of the composites. In the examination, smooth peaks were obtained and the homogeneous distribution resulted in phase stability. A FE-SEM analysis demonstrated the presence of fibrous structures following the addition of MWCNTs, indicating that this approach would promote adhesion and healing of the tissue, as well as a fibrous arrangement that mimics that of natural bone. The results also showed improvements in mechanical properties by approximately 57%, 38%, 45%, and 6.5% due to the addition of MWCNTs compared to the version sample. Based on the experimental results, the study highlights the potential of these composites in bone reconstruction applications.
Science of Advanced Materials, Volume 15, pp 378-385; https://doi.org/10.1166/sam.2023.4433
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is currently the third leading cause of iatrogenic renal failure. This research mainly explores the protective effect of Klotho on CIN. Klotho (10 ng/g) was administered after the establishment of a CIN mouse model, and the changes of tissue structure and renal function were observed, and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and senescence-related factors were detected. Compared with the control group, the brush border of renal tubular epithelial cells disappeared, cytoplasmic vacuole-like changes, renal tubular dilatation, and renal function were significantly reduced in the model group. Klotho treatment can effectively alleviate changes in renal tubular epithelial structure and function. Compared with the model group, Klotho treatment can obviously inhibit the expression of P27 and P53, and promote the expression of Sirt1 and Bmi-1, and Klotho can regulate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Exogenous Klotho can slow down nephrocyte senescence by regulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, thereby protecting kidney.
Science of Advanced Materials, Volume 15, pp 369-377; https://doi.org/10.1166/sam.2023.4443
Fluorouracil (FU) is a common chemotherapy drug. To overcome the shortcomings of the original drug, such as strong gastrointestinal reaction and short half-life, FU was placed in the Mahadevi layered complex (MLC) added with dextran (DEX) for surface modification to obtain the magnetic targeting nanoparticles (MLC-Dex-Fu) with sustained release. Next, the MLC-Dex-Fu was combined with liposome to obtain the FU-carrying nano targeted liposome (LMDF). MGC-803 gastric cancer (GC) cells were selected to establish the nude mouse model of GC solid tumor. The nude mice were rolled into different groups (a control group (Ctrl group), a FU group, a LMDF group without magnetic field, and a LMDF group with magnetic field). The diet and weight of nude mice were observed after interventions under the conditions of NMF and MF. The tumor tissues were removed, cleaned, cut into homogenate, transferred to the pre-cooled Eppendorf (EP) tube, and then performed with homogenation, suction by pipettes, and filtration to obtain the tumor cell suspensions of the corresponding groups. Partial tumor cell suspensions were based to analyze the cell proliferation by flow cytometry (FCT), and the other suspensions were based to investigate the migration and invasion by the Transwell method. The results suggested the cell viability in the LMDF groups was greatly decreased (P < 0.05). In the nude mouse model test, LMDF exhibited a good magnetic targeted transport and sustained release chemotherapy, and could guide FU to move in vivo and enrich in the tumor site with a high concentration under the effects of external magnetic field, thus inhibiting the tumor proliferation. Such efficacy was more obvious in comparison with other groups (P < 0.05).
Science of Advanced Materials, Volume 15, pp 392-399; https://doi.org/10.1166/sam.2023.4434
Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the most common acute and critical diseases in clinic. The main pathological features of ALI are increase of pulmonary Vascular permeability, accumulation of inflammatory cells and pulmonary dysfunction due to diffuse pulmonary edema. At present, it is generally believed that the main pathogenesis of ALI is the uncontrolled inflammatory response in the lung. It has been found that cell death plays an important role in the regulation of inflammatory reaction in acute lung injury. Propofol, a new fast-acting, short-acting intravenous anesthetic, it is known that ALI can be alleviated by inhibiting the release of inflammatory factors and inhibiting the anoxia/reoxygenation-induced autophagy, chemotaxis and oxidative stress in macrophages, however, the mechanism of its role in the death of alveolar macrophage remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of propofol in alveolar macrophage death and its mechanism through anoxia-reoxygenation induced ALI. NR8383 was alveolar macrophage as anoxia-reoxygenation model. LDH release, CCK-8, Elisa and Western Blot were used to investigate the pathway of propofol through TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway, mechanism of inhibition of hypoxia-reoxygenation induced alveolar macrophage death of NR8383. The results showed that propofol decreased the release of LDH and the content of IL-1β and IL-18. In addition, propofol pretreatment reduced the protein expression levels of TLR4 downstream pathways (p65 phosphorylation, NLRP3, cleaved-caspase-1, and GSDMD-N), all of which could be reversed by TLR4 receptor antagonist and NLRP3 receptor inhibitors, it’s causing a decrease in alveolar macrophage activity. The results showed that propofol could significantly reduce anoxia-reoxygenation-induced alveolar macrophage death. Propofol may modulate alveolar macrophage death through TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammatory signaling pathway, thereby alleviating anoxia-reoxygenation induced Ali, suggesting that propofol may be a potential drug for the treatment of Ali.
Science of Advanced Materials, Volume 15, pp 330-338; https://doi.org/10.1166/sam.2023.4442
Local high concentrations of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) attract and trap stem cells to involve in the vascular repair when the skin is damaged. In this research, mercaptan ketone polymer (PRGY) was selected as a nano-carrier to prepare ROS-sensitive nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with SDF-1 by means of volatilization of a complex emulsion solvent. The NPs were characterized by a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a particle size (PS) analyzer, the protein content of the NPs was evaluated by a BCA method, the cytotoxicity was evaluated by CCK8, and the NPs were subjected to the in vitro release (IVR) test. An acute mouse wound model was established, the pathological effect of NP solution on major organs of mice was observed by HE staining after intravenous injection, and the effect of targeted release of NP on animal model was evaluated. To analyze the effect of NPs on wound healing, the mouse models were rolled into different groups. They were sacrificed two weeks after the wound healing was completed, the blood vessels were fixed with perfusion solution, and the common artery where the wound was located was taken for follow-up study. The results suggested that the NPs exhibited a PS of 122.57±18.33 nm, a loading rate of 1.7%, and spherical and uniform surfaces. The IVR tests showed that the NPs could release rapidly under high ROS conditions. The wound model of mice was established, and the injection of NP solution revealed that it could target the wound area. The healing speed in the NP group was the fastest (P <0.05). Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) were isolated from common artery, and proliferation of them in the NP group was found to be obvious (P <0.05), and the adhesion of vascular SMCs could be accelerated at the same time.
Science of Advanced Materials, Volume 15, pp 339-348; https://doi.org/10.1166/sam.2023.4444
There are many researches on the preparation of rare earth metals (REM) materials and bactericidal materials, but there are few researches on the preparation of REM oxides based on the laser evaporation (LE) method in the field of bactericidal. In this research, ZnO–CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained by the LE method with 100 W single-mode CW CO2 laser as the light source and cerous carbonate and zinc acetate as the target materials. While physical characterization of the ZnO–CeO2 NPs, Staphylococcus aureus (SA), Bacillus subtilis var niger (BSVN), and pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAE) were undertaken as test objects to verify the bactericidal performance of the nanomaterial. A PAE mediated inflammation model of bronchiectasis rats was established, and 40 SD rats were screened and rolled into 4 groups: a control (Ctrl) group, a sham group, a model group without nano solution injection (Model group), and a model group injected with nano solution (Model +NPs group). The effects of nanomaterials on inflammation were analyzed. The results suggested that ZnO–CeO2 NPs were scattered rod particles with uniform morphological distribution. XRD tests revealed that with the increase of ZnO content, its characteristic peaks in the NPs also increased. The preparation of NPs exhibited good bactericidal performance against SA and BSVN, and increasing the concentration of NPs greatly inhibited the activity of PA. By comparing with the model group, the upregulated IL-17 and IL-6 were inhibited (P <0.01), while the downregulated IL-10 and TGF-β were reversed (P <0.01). It meant that the NPs alleviated the inflammation of bronchiectasis mediated by PA, and thus improved the lung function damaged by inflammation.
Science of Advanced Materials, Volume 15, pp 412-422; https://doi.org/10.1166/sam.2023.4432
Motivated by the unique combination of copper oxide (CuO) and GO (graphene oxide) nano-fillers with optimized composition in the PVA (poly vinyl alcohol) polymer, the studies in this paper have been directed towards the synthesis and characterization of (PVA-CuO-GO) polymer nanocomposites. The polymer nanocomposites, i.e., PVA-CuO-GO have been prepared by melt blending technique considering GO and CuO with variable wt.% (ranging from 0.5 to 3 wt.%). The composite was made in the shape of a dumble-like structure. To get the structural information, optical properties, surface morphology and available functional groups in the composites and their mechanisms, XRD (x-ray diffraction), UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer, photoluminescence (PL), FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscope) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) techniques have been used, respectively. From XRD data, the effect of wt.% of nano-fillers on crystalline size and micro-strain has been studied. The average crystalline size and micro-strain were calculated as ∼32 nm and ∼0.0250, respectively. From UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer data, tauc plots have been studied which tells that the increment in wt.% of nano-fillers causes the optical band gap to increase. On increasing the concentration of nano-fillers from 0.5 to 3 wt.%, the bandgap was increased from 2.5 to 2.8 eV. This tuning of bandgap can be supposed as fine tuning in near UV region. According to PL results, all the composites show a wide emission band in the UV-Vis region with the maximum at 487 nm when excited by 415 nm wavelength. Further, the luminescence intensity has been found to decrease with the addition of wt.% of the loading. The smoothness of the surfaces of the composites has also been studied with EDAX analysis. According to FTIR spectra, the available functional groups were found as: C–O, C–H stretch, C–H asymmetric stretch, C=O carbonyl stretch and C–H bending and deformation vibrations. In view of the characterizing results, the synthesized polymer nanocomposites can be used in several kinds of optoelectronics applications.
Science of Advanced Materials, Volume 15, pp 400-404; https://doi.org/10.1166/sam.2023.4416
In this work, a novel Ba(II) coordination polymer (CP) loaded with paroxetine was synthesized and successfully loaded into the hyaluronic acid/carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogels. The scanning electron microscopy showed that the hydrogels had a typical macroporous structure. In the biological section, the as-created treatment activity on the depression therapy and the corresponding mechanism were investigated. Experimental results showed that the new system significantly increased not only the amount of glutamate released into the brain but also the relative expression of glutamate receptors in the brain, and is a promising material for use as a novel material in the treatment of depression.
Science of Advanced Materials, Volume 15, pp 386-391; https://doi.org/10.1166/sam.2023.4451
Herein, the synergistic healing activity of treadmill exercise and curcumin-delivering hydrogel was evaluated in a rat model of skeletal muscle injury. In Vitro experiments were utilized to characterize the filler material and the healing potential of the treatment strategy was investigated in a rat model of anterior tibialis muscle injury. Study showed excellent biocompatibility of the hydrogel system. In Vivo study showed that the developed hydrogel and treadmill sport regimen significantly augmented muscle function recovery as evidenced by histopathological analysis. Gene expression studies showed that tissue expression levels of NFK-B and collagen type 1 genes were significantly downregulated in the animals treated with curcumin-loaded hydrogels with and without exercise.
Science of Advanced Materials, Volume 15, pp 285-318; https://doi.org/10.1166/sam.2023.4438
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the primary causes of death among females worldwide. It can affect a woman at any age after puberty, but the risk of developing the disease increases with age. An early diagnosis and the implementation of an appropriate therapeutic strategy are the two most essential aspects in assuring a favorable prognosis for patients diagnosed with any cancer. There has been significant development in cancer immunotherapy over the past few years. It is among the most effective approaches to fighting cancer and boosts the immune system. In the preclinical setting, immunotherapy using checkpoint blockade antibodies and antigen receptor T cells has shown promising results in BC. Despite this, developing safe and effective immunotherapy against breast cancer is challenging because several novel antigens are poorly immunogenic. Regrettably, conventional immunotherapy confronts further obstacles, such as its inability to trigger the anti-tumor response sufficiently. Most tumors have low immunogenicity due to their origin in healthy cells, making it difficult for the immune system to recognize them as foreign invaders. Additionally, the clinical use of immunotherapy for BC has experienced significant drawbacks, including poor immune responses due to insufficient antigen delivery to the immune cells and uncontrolled immune system regulation, which can promote autoimmunity and nonspecific inflammation. To address these challenges, nanomaterial-based immunotherapy has recently emerged as a potent tool against BC. Scientists have been enthralled by the potential of nanomaterial in BC immunotherapy for decades due to its significant benefits over traditional immunotherapy. Over the past few decades, there has been a considerable increase in the research and application of nanomaterial-based antigens/adjuvants in BC immunotherapy. This review focuses on current advances in BC immunotherapy strategies by focusing on recent breakthroughs in nano immunotherapy.