ISSN / EISSN: 08828245 / 15578976
Published by: Mary Ann Liebert Inc
Total articles ≅ 2,037
Latest articles in this journal
Viral Immunology; https://doi.org/10.1089/vim.2022.0186
Since the beginning of the pandemic, the pre-existing immunity against SARS-CoV-2 has been postulated as one possible cause of asymptomatic infections. Later, various works reported that pre-existing immune response against the two structural conserved antigens: S2 subunit and the nucleocapsid protein, were associated to some level of asymptomatic profile in infected individuals. To explore the Ab background against these two antigens, in the context of vaccine-elicited and hybrid (natural infection plus vaccination induced) immunity of SARS-CoV-2, in this work, we tested sera from inactivated vaccine-immunized donors and from vaccinated and subsequent natural infected donors upon the Omicron variant wave in Guangdong province, China. Serum samples were collected from 27 COVID-19 convalescent, 25 SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated, and 10 negative donors. The IgG cross-reactivity response against these two antigens from another relevant human coronavirus (HCoV) was also evaluated. The findings indicate that IgG response against S2 and N protein was particularly higher in sera with hybrid immunity. The cross-reactive Abs were more significant against SARS-CoV-1, while a wide cross-reactivity was detected for N antigen for one human Alpha coronavirus HCoV-229E even in the negative control samples. The presence of cross-reactive Abs against the two conserved antigens N and S2, particularly in the context of hybrid immunity, could pave the way for future boosted vaccines carrying these conserved regions.
Viral Immunology; https://doi.org/10.1089/vim.2022.0093
Dengue virus (DENV) is the causal agent of dengue fever. The symptoms and signs of dengue vary from febrile illness to hemorrhagic syndrome. IFITM3 and TNFA are genes of the innate immune system. Variants IFITM3 (rs12252 T>C) and TNFA (rs1800629 G > A and rs361525 G>A) might alter gene expression and change the course of the disease. Our first objective was to determine whether these variants were associated with the susceptibility and severity of dengue. The second was to assess the association of these variants with each symptom. We studied 272 cases with suspected dengue infection, of which 102 were confirmed dengue cases (DENV+) and 170 were dengue-like cases without DENV infection (DENV−). Samples of 201 individuals from the general population of Mexico were included as a reference. Genotyping was performed by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated using Pearson's chi-square test and later adjusted for age and sex with a binary logistic regression model. Haldane correction is applied when necessary. We found a significantly higher frequency of the A allele of TNFA rs361525 in both the DENV+ and DENV− groups compared with the general population. Focusing on DENV+ and DENV−, the frequency of the A allele of TNFA rs361525 was higher in the DENV+ group. A broad spectrum of symptoms was related to the A allele of both TNFA variants. We conclude that TNFA rs361525 increases the susceptibility to symptomatic dengue but can also be associated with susceptibility to other dengue-like symptoms from unknown causes.
Viral Immunology; https://doi.org/10.1089/vim.2022.0185
Viral Immunology; https://doi.org/10.1089/vim.2022.0122
Coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) initially emerged in December 2019 and has subsequently expanded globally, leading to the ongoing pandemic. The extensive spread of various SARS-CoV-2 variants possesses a serious public health threat. An extensive literature search along with deep analysis was performed to describe and evaluate the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern in relation to the effectiveness of the current vaccines and therapeutics. The obtained results showed that several significant mutations have evolved during the COVID-19 pandemic. The developed variants and their various structural mutations can compromise the effectiveness of several vaccines, escape the neutralizing antibodies, and limit the efficiency of available therapeutics. Furthermore, deep analysis of the available data enables the prediction of the future impact of virus mutations on the ongoing pandemic along with the selection of appropriate vaccines and therapeutics.
Viral Immunology; https://doi.org/10.1089/vim.2022.0101
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic. There are four structural proteins of the virus: spike, envelope, membrane, and nucleocapsid proteins. Various vaccines were designed and are effectively being used against the spike protein of the virus. However, several vaccine-related complications have been reported worldwide. Assuming that the structural integrity of the whole protein might be contributing to these complications, this study was performed to design epitopes using the S2 domain of the spike protein, which could trigger a strong immune response. We have also predicted antigenic and allergenic properties of the selected epitopes. A total of 49 B cell epitopes passing antigenicity and other assessment filters were found using three methods. Among them, RDLICAQ had the highest antigenicity score (1.1443). However, only one cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope, RSFIEDLLF, passed the essential filters with an antigenicity score of 0.5782 to show an appropriate immune response for T cells, while among 21 helper T cell lymphocyte epitopes that were filtered, FAMQMAYRFNGIGVT showed the highest (1.3688) antigenicity score. Conservation analysis revealed that the S2 domain is significantly conserved, thus making it an ideal candidate for vaccine development. We have also designed a vaccine construct based on the best suiting components found during the whole study. This construct and S2 domain solely can be future subjects of interest or might be included in a subunit cocktail formulation for attaining unabridged immunogenicity.
Viral Immunology; https://doi.org/10.1089/vim.2022.0139
Infections with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) are often asymptomatic in healthy adults but can be severe in people with a compromised immune system. While several studies have demonstrated associations between cardiovascular disease in older adults and HCMV seropositivity, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We review evidence published within the last 5 years establishing how HCMV can contribute directly and indirectly to the development and progression of atherosclerotic plaques. We also discuss associations between HCMV infection and cardiovascular outcomes in populations with a high or very high burden of HCMV, including patients with renal or autoimmune disease, transplant recipients, and people living with HIV.
Viral Immunology, Volume 36, pp 1-2; https://doi.org/10.1089/vim.2022.0204
Viral Immunology, Volume 36, pp 63-70; https://doi.org/10.1089/vim.2022.0117
Understanding the functional characteristics of antibodies produced against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) will assist in the determination of disease outcomes for this virus. In this study, the ability of antibodies to inhibit viral entry into the host cell through the interaction of the receptor binding domain of the viral spike protein and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor on the human cell surface was investigated. The SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels in 20 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the samples were further analyzed using a functional binding assay. Inhibition of viral infectivity was also measured using a pseudovirus neutralization assay against a D614G SARS-CoV-2 virus strain. A significant correlation between IgG levels and neutralizing antibody 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) titers was observed (p < 0.05). Similarly, the IC50 titers obtained in the neutralization and binding assays were significantly correlated (p < 0.001). Varying levels of IgG and IC50 titers were observed for the SARS-CoV-2 antibody-positive samples, with one sample not showing any neutralizing capability despite detectable IgG levels. Gender comparisons showed no statistical differences in any of the assays. These results suggest that increased SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels correlate with greater protection against the entry of the virus into cells; however, further investigations in larger studies are needed to confirm the correlates of protection.
Viral Immunology, Volume 36, pp 41-47; https://doi.org/10.1089/vim.2022.0103
Cache Valley virus (CVV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus that is enzootic throughout the new world. Although CVV is known as an important agricultural pathogen, primarily associated with embryonic lethality and abortions in ruminants, it has recently been recognized for its expansion as a zoonotic pathogen. With the increased emergence of bunyaviruses with human and veterinary importance, there have been significant efforts dedicated to the development of bunyavirus vaccines. In this study, the immunogenicity of a candidate live-attenuated vaccine (LAV) for CVV, which contains the deletion of the nonstructural small (NSs) and nonstructural medium (NSm) genes (2delCVV), was evaluated and compared with an autogenous candidate vaccine created through the inactivation of CVV using binary ethylenimine (BEI) with an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant (BEI-CVV) in sheep. Both 2delCVV and BEI-CVV produced a neutralizing antibody response that exceeds the correlate of protection, that is, plaque reduction neutralization test titer >10. However, on day 63 postinitial immunization, 2delCVV was more immunogenic than BEI-CVV. These results warrant further development of 2delCVV as a candidate LAV and demonstrate that the double deletion of the NSs and NSm genes can be applied to the development of vaccines and as a common attenuation strategy for orthobunyaviruses.
Viral Immunology, Volume 36, pp 48-54; https://doi.org/10.1089/vim.2022.0108
To study the clinical significance of manganese (Mn) in the serum of children with infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, we analyzed the correlation between Mn and the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)–stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway and explored the immune pathogenesis of EBV infection. Children diagnosed with IM comprised the IM group, and healthy children during the same period were selected as the normal control group. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of cGAS, STING, Tank-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), and related inflammatory factors, and Mn in serum was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Interferon (IFN)-α and IFN-β expression levels in serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the correlation between Mn levels and clinical manifestations and laboratory tests was analyzed. Mn levels and the expression levels of cGAS, STING, and related inflammatory factors were significantly higher in children with IM than in healthy children. Furthermore, Mn levels in children with IM were positively correlated with the expression levels of cGAS and related inflammatory factors. Thus, Mn, cGAS, STING, and inflammatory cytokines may be involved in the immune mechanism of IM caused by EBV infection.