The International Journal of Aerospace Psychology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 24721840 / 24721832
Published by: Informa UK Limited
Total articles ≅ 79

Latest articles in this journal

The International Journal of Aerospace Psychology pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.1080/24721840.2021.1945928

Abstract:
Objective: The main goals of this study are to identify the possible factors that may affect the level of passion that aircraft technicians have for their job and how job passion may lead to safety motivation.Background: Aircraft maintenance technicians play an essential role in ensuring flight safety since they are obligated to carry out critical responsibilities related to maintaining flight devices. However, the significance and professionalism of civil aircraft technicians tend to be underestimated due to limited academic discussion of job-related issues. In practice, the particular job characteristics and working environment have led to various job demands and requirements for job resources, which may be related to the level of passion of the aircraft maintenance crews.Method: Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the empirical data collected with the questionnaire survey. The sealable stamped addressed envelopes were attached to guarantee for the innominate approach, and a total of 411 usable samples was returned.Results: Significant relations found between work-family conflict, professional development and job passion in the expected directions, while non-significant results were presented between work-load, social support, and job passion. In addition, job passion significantly and positively related to air technicians’ safety motivation.Conclusion: Aircraft technicians undertake their workload without responding to it in a significantly negative manner, unless the designated work causes work-family conflict. A vision of career development is crucial to continuously elevate job passion in these individuals. Passionate aircraft technicians are motivated to contribute to aviation safety.
, Maureen Lassen, Allen Cornelius
The International Journal of Aerospace Psychology pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1080/24721840.2021.1931227

Abstract:
Objective: Current evidence-based guidelines to mitigate fatigue and protect against adverse events in the emergency medical service industry are minimally effective. Since flight medicine is a team event, the performance-cohesion relationship is examined as a potential countermeasure against fatigue-related errors in aeromedicine. Background: Fatigue has been implicated in decision-making errors, suggesting that it impacts cognitive abilities and clinical performance. Although the impact of fatigue on medical performance in aeromedicine has yet to be examined, it is intuitive flight providers are also susceptible to fatigue-induced errors. Given the additional fatiguing effects of flight, research is needed to elucidate protective factors that can reduce the likelihood of fatigue-induced errors in flight medicine. Method: A comprehensive review of literature was conducted on the relationship between fatigue and medical performance. The multidimensional construct of team cohesion (i.e., including task and social subdimensions) was also examined to understand the potential moderating effect of team cohesion on the relationship between fatigue and error. Results: The empirical evidence on the relationship between fatigue and error is robust. Although the performance-cohesion relationship is strong, the distinctive subdimensions of team cohesion, including task and social, may differentially impact team performance. Conclusion: Whereas higher levels of social cohesion may contribute to groupthink and degradations in performance when fatigued, evidence suggests that task cohesion is an area for future investigation as a possible countermeasure against fatigue-induced errors.
, Marianne Hojem Rustad
The International Journal of Aerospace Psychology pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1080/24721840.2021.1927733

Abstract:
Objective: To investigate possible gender differences in psychosocial job strain (PSYJS) and single and multi-site musculoskeletal pain (MSP) in cabin crew. Background: In recent years the proportion of male cabin crew has increased, still few studies have investigated gender differences in PSYJS and MSP in this occupational group. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire concerning work-related psychosocial demands, control, social support, and MSP was answered by 107 male and 329 female cabin crew members from the three major airline companies in Norway. Binary logistic regression models were used for the analysis. Results: There were no gender differences in PSYJS, but female cabin crew reported higher levels of social support from colleagues (p = .001) and nearest supervisor (p = .006). Multi-site MSP was reported by 70%. No gender differences in prevalence of single-site or multi-site MSP were found, except from a higher prevalence of pain in feet in female cabin crew (p = .020). Both a high strain (33%) and a passive (17%) work situation were associated with significantly higher risks of most single and multi-site MSP. Conclusion: Even though few gender differences were found, both male and female cabin crew reported high prevalence of MSP and high PSYJS. Attention should be given to create a healthier psychosocial work environment for this occupational group, with a special emphasis on support at work for male cabin crew.
Man Fung Cheung,
The International Journal of Aerospace Psychology pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1080/24721840.2021.1926251

Abstract:
Objective: This study examines the effect of “tone of feedback” on student pilot flight performance. Background: Corrective feedback is primarily given verbally in flight training to facilitate trainee pilot performance. Such feedback can be provided using different vocal tones (i.e., positive, neutral, negative). How the effectiveness of the feedback varies based on changes in vocal tone remains unknown. Method: Thirty-eight student pilots completed two simulated flights, both involving a right-hand circuit. Following the first flight, the student pilots listened to prerecorded verbal feedback in either a positive, neutral or negative tone about their flight performance, in terms of mean altitude during the downwind leg. Deviation from the target altitude during downwind in the second flight was examined. Self-efficacy and self-esteem were also measured to examine their mediating effect. Results: The results revealed that student pilots who received a positive tone of feedback performed significantly worse than pilots who received neutral or negative tones of feedback. No mediating effects were found for self-efficacy or self-esteem. Conclusion: These findings provide aviation authorities and training organizations insight into the effect of tone of feedback on trainee pilots’ performance. Understanding this effect has the potential to improve student pilot learning outcomes and performance.
Burcu Şahinkaya,
The International Journal of Aerospace Psychology, Volume 31, pp 269-282; https://doi.org/10.1080/24721840.2021.1925120

Abstract:
Objective: In this study, the aircrew rostering problem is evaluated in conjunction with fatigue factors. Background: In the mathematical models developed for crew rostering problems, the fatigue level of aircrew members is evaluated only within the scope of the flight and duty time limitations defined by the civil aviation authorities. In this study, a new model is developed in which the fatigue risk factors such as the number of flight legs, additional workload, circadian rhythm, and consecutive flights are added to the crew rostering problem. Method: A linear mathematical programming model was developed for the aircrew rostering problem. The General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) is used in the solution of the model. The problem is solved and the effects of the fatigue risk factors on crew rostering problems are examined by using the weekly and monthly real flight data of a Turkish air carrier. The results obtained are demonstrated in Gantt charts. Results: Although the results obtained are within the limits of flight and duty time defined by civil aviation authorities, it is found that many flight duties exceed the limits considering the fatigue risk factors. Conclusion: The model proposed can be used to minimize human error, predict the fatigue risk in various duties, and increase productivity and safety.
, Christopher D. Wickens, Muhammad Kusumawan Herliansyah, Mifta Priani Fatika Sari, Gharsina Tissamodie
The International Journal of Aerospace Psychology pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1080/24721840.2021.1925119

Abstract:
Objective: This study aimed to reveal the causal reasons for maneuver preferences on the basis of the objective measures. Background: Although the effects of conflict geometry have been well documented in previous literature, empirical evidence on the influence of conflict geometry on the operator’s workload, maneuver choice, and success is still lacking. Method: Thirteen undergraduate students with air traffic control (ATC) knowledge were requested to complete ATC tasks and resolve six different conflicts that were generated by manipulating two geometric features, namely, lateral (i.e., crossing, converging, and overtaking) and vertical (i.e., level and nonlevel) conflicts. Results: Crossing (p< .01) and converging (p = .05) conflicts resulted in higher workload than overtaking conflicts because of the higher geometric dimensions involved. Workload (p< .01) and performance (p< .03) were worse during nonlevel conflicts than during level conflicts. Notably, vertical maneuver led to a higher workload than other maneuver choices despite the higher preference for this maneuver. These findings were associated with visualization load. Conclusion: We failed to confirm that the resolution maneuver was chosen because of its good performance and low workload. Instead, predetermined rules (i.e., altitude, speed, and heading) were used, regardless of the workload, and the safety of the chosen maneuver for a particular conflict geometry was verified.
, Scott R. Winter, Stephen Rice, Valerie Gawron, John M. Robbins
The International Journal of Aerospace Psychology pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.1080/24721840.2021.1896365

Abstract:
Background: Considerable research is underway on how to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) safely and securely into the National Airspace System (NAS). While there is some ongoing research on public acceptance, privacy concerns, and consumer willingness to fly in autonomous aircraft, little literature exists on pilots’ perceptions about operating to/from airports and in airspace with UAS integrated operations. Objective: The goal of this exploratory research study was to assess the effect of airspace classification, type of UAS integration, and type of UAS operation on pilots’ willingness to operate with UAS integrated operations. Method: Pilots’ attitudes about flying in UAS integrated airspace were collected using hypothetical scenarios in a factorial survey experiment and qualitative perspectives through open-ended and multiple-choice questions. Results: Results from the mixed analysis of variance indicated a significant two-way interaction between airspace classification and type of integration and a significant main effect for airspace. Differences were observed for all classes of airspace except Class B and Class C for segregated operations and Class D and Class E for integrated operations. Conclusion: The effect size for the two-way interaction was small, and overall airspace had a significant influence on willingness with the highest score for Class B operations and the lowest score for Class G operations. Results from the study are expected to support the development of better policies, procedures, and training methods.
The International Journal of Aerospace Psychology pp 1-24; https://doi.org/10.1080/24721840.2021.1896951

Abstract:
To illustrate how fatigue affects the workload, situation awareness, and control strategy of air traffic controllers.As air traffic control becomes more complex and demanding due to the increasing ...
, Dee H. Andrews
The International Journal of Aerospace Psychology pp 1-24; https://doi.org/10.1080/24721840.2021.1895797

Abstract:
Objective: Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) pilots must possess a variety of cognitive skills in order to successfully perform diverse missions. They must accurately assess situations, make judgments and decisions, understand cues that may not be immediately obvious, and develop effective solutions. How may we gain perspective on how UAS pilots make decisions when higher order cognitive skills are needed to solve problems and accomplish their missions? Background: Previous UAS task analyses, both behavioral and cognitive, have seldom examined experienced, high-hour UAS operators. It is important to know how these pilots address and solve problems to improve training and design. METHOD: The Applied Cognitive Task Analysis method (ACTA) was utilized to define and examine a sampling of the cognitive task requirements of operating a civilian UAS. The task analysis included sixteen UAS journeymen and expert pilots who had between 240 and 2000 + hours of experience. Tasks such as communication, search and rescue mission planning, coping with equipment malfunction, and developing situational awareness of their environment were analyzed. Result: The analysis produced six task diagrams, which identified key cognitive considerations, captured pilot insights after flying simulated missions, and documented examples where pilots used their expertise to solve operational problems. Conclusion: This ACTA method and resulting products may contribute to the design of new training courses/programs for novice UAS pilots.
, Chris M. Herdman
The International Journal of Aerospace Psychology pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.1080/24721840.2021.1890599

Abstract:
Objective: To assist stakeholders apply targeted safety strategies, we developed and tested a two-stage model of diversion knowledge and skills. Background: Understanding pilot factors in weather-related diversions is integral to reducing the phenomenon of visual flight rules flight into meteorological conditions. Method: Thirty-six general aviation pilots flew a cross-country flight in a Cessna 172 simulator where they encountered an ATC-directed diversion due to deteriorating weather. Path analyses quantified effects in a two-stage model based on criteria specified by aviation regulations. Results: In stage 1, low cognitive flexibility and fewer recent pilot-in-command hours were associated with greater likelihood of ignoring the diversion instruction. Low cognitive flexibility was also associated with errors in locating the alternate aerodrome and incorrect procedures at the alternate. At stage 2, there were significant positive paths from a diversion efficiency variable to all aspects of pilotage. Pilotage positively predicted awareness of ownship and traffic, and was associated with fewer altitude violations. Conclusion: We provide empirical evidence for the association between the cognitive factors related to continuation bias and high-risk responses to diversion instructions. Using a two-stage model to conceptualize pilot performance illuminates the impact of cognitive factors in weather-related diversions. Highlighting the pivotal human factors at two clear junctions of an unexpected diversion can more fully prepare pilots to safely manage these risk-laden events.
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