Tenside Surfactants Detergents
ISSN / EISSN: 09323414 / 21958564
Published by: Walter de Gruyter GmbH
Total articles ≅ 5,003
Latest articles in this journal
Tenside Surfactants Detergents; https://doi.org/10.1515/tsd-2022-2466
Polyester fibers tend to generate and accumulate electrical charges under friction and induction. This significantly affects the production and use process and even poses the risk of electric shocks and fire. Quaternary ammonium salt surfactants with a positive charge can be adsorbed on negatively charged polyester fibers and have excellent antistatic properties. Therefore, we have synthesised a cationic antistatic surfactant functionalised with hydroxyl and ether groups: N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-butanoxy glycerol ether ammonium chloride (HDBGA). The structure was characterized by 1H NMR, FTIR and ESI/MS. The excellent properties of HDBGA in aqueous solution were investigated by measuring the Krafft point (TK), surface tension, conductivity, and steady-state fluorescence. Also antistatic tests were carried out. The results show that the TK of HDBGA is below 0 °C indicating that it can still be applied in cold water. The new quaternary ammonium compound could effectively decrease the surface tension of aqueous solution to 31.28 mN m−1, where the critical micelle concentration (CMC) at 298.15 K was 3.83 × 10−4 mol L−1. In addition, the static electricity and static half-life values of the polyester cloths treated with the HDBGA solutions were also measured, as well as the effects on the fabric properties. The product exhibited excellent antistatic properties and satisfactory wash resistance, and the fabric fibers were not damaged.
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 59, pp 492-500; https://doi.org/10.1515/tsd-2022-2433
In this work, sodium N-lauroyl glutamate (SLG) was mixed with cationic cellulose JR30 M. The rapidly occurring change in surface tension and the mass action law of the mixed (compound) system were investigated using dynamic and equilibrium surface tension methods. The behaviour of the system during phase separation was investigated by turbidimetry. The results showed that in the presence of JR30 M, the surface tension of SLG was reduced to a lower level in the given time interval due to the strong interaction compared to that of a solution with the same concentration of SLG but without JR30 M. The largest decrease was obtained with a JR30 M concentration of 0.2 g L−1, which reduced the equilibrium surface tension of SLG from 38.4 mN m−1 to 31.7 mN m−1. The rate of decrease in surface tension increased from 37.61 mN m−1 s−1 to 74.7 mN m−1 s−1. An association complex formed between SLG and JR30 M, and the equilibrium surface tension curve showed a double platform. As the concentration of JR30 M increased, the first platform broadened and the CMC value increased. The phase separation behaviour of the compound system disappeared with the increase of SLG concentration, and the area became narrower with the decrease of JR30 M concentration.
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 59, pp 451-459; https://doi.org/10.1515/tsd-2022-2478
We developed a new, innovative foam-based cleaning method with which the amount of detergent can be reduced by up to 90%. In addition, foams generate physical cleaning mechanisms, namely imbibition and wiping. The combination of imbibition and wiping is so efficient that it is sufficient to simply let the foam sit on the surface for a while before removing it by vacuuming. No additional mechanical action is needed! This publication describes how we managed to clean the historic carriages of kings and emperors of past centuries in the “Marstallmuseum” in Nymphenburg Palace in cooperation with the “Bavarian Administration of State-Owned Palaces, Gardens and Lakes”.
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 59, pp 501-510; https://doi.org/10.1515/tsd-2022-2448
Due to the amphiphilic structure of surfactants, aqueous surfactant solutions can behave like very good solvents and dissolve both polar and non-polar solutes. This study reports on the solubilisation of a direct dye (Direct Blue 86) in a micellar medium using the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Solubilisation of dyes is important for their subsequent removal from aqueous media. UV spectroscopy and conductometry, among others, were used to quantitatively evaluate this process. The extent of solubilisation, the interaction between the molecules and the stability of the processes were checked using the partition coefficient (Kx), the binding constant (Kb) and the corresponding thermodynamic parameters. From the results, it could be concluded that the solubilisation of Direct Blue 86 is a spontaneous process supported by an increase in entropy. It was also found that the micellar medium CTAB is efficient for solubilisation and binding of the dye and can be used economically.
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 59; https://doi.org/10.1515/tsd-2022-frontmatter6
Article Frontmatter was published on November 1, 2022 in the journal Tenside Surfactants Detergents (volume 59, issue 6).
Tenside Surfactants Detergents; https://doi.org/10.1515/tsd-2022-2471
In the stone industry, about 73% of the total production is generated as solid waste. In the processing phase, only 20% is produced as harmful ultra-fine sawdust sludge. In the Turah area, Cairo, Egypt, an estimated 448,000 tons are produced annually. About 60% of the total production of dimension stones is carbonate stones. The objective of this study is to properly dispose of the ultrafine pollutants and produce value-added products. The ultrafine marble waste was characterized by different methods such as XRD, XRF, FTIR, particle size analysis and zeta potential. Calcite and dolomite minerals were the main constituents of this waste (91%). The average particle size was 6.656 µm. The fine fraction with a particle size of less than 25 µm contains 97.6% calcite with 81% weight. Sodium N-lauroyl sarcosinate (SNLS) was used as a selective flotation collector for calcite as a calcium mineral. A flotation concentrate with a purity of 99.6% and an overall yield of 80% was obtained at a pH of 9. The bleached product meets ASTM standard specifications for paint and paper applications.
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 59, pp 511-523; https://doi.org/10.1515/tsd-2022-2445
In this study, three oligomeric cationic Gemini surfactants (Ⅲ1, Ⅲ2, and Ⅲ3) were prepared from different major raw materials, including long-chain alkyl amine (dodecyl amine, tetradecyl amine or cetyl amine), formic acid, formaldehyde, diethyl amine hydrochloride and epichlorohydrin. The synthesis conditions for one of the three surfactants, bis-[2-hydroxy-3-(N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecyl)propyl]dipropylammonium chloride (Ⅲ1), were optimised by orthogonal experiments. The optimum synthesis conditions were: molar ratio of intermediate Ⅱ to intermediate Ⅰ1 = 1.0:2.2, reaction temperature = 85 °C and reaction time = 16 h. The structures of the three prepared compounds were characterised by FTIR and 1H NMR. Their thermal properties were evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The Geminisurfactants prepared exhibited better surface active properties than conventional single chain cationic surfactants. With increasing carbon chain length from C12 to C16, both CMC and surface tension γCMC decreased, while the viscosity of the thickening solution prepared with the synthesised oligomeric cationic Gemini surfactants as the main component increased. The optimum thickening formula was: 2.0 wt% Ⅲ3 + 0.8 wt% sodium salicylate (NaSal) + 0.6 wt% KCl. The viscosity of the optimum thickening formulation was 190.4 mPa s. Gemini oligomeric cationic surfactants could be used as thickeners in the production of fracturing fluids, flooding agents and drilling fluids for oil and gas production in oil fields.
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 59, pp 524-533; https://doi.org/10.1515/tsd-2022-2435
Bacillus subtilis was used as a bio-surface modifier to improve the floatability of talc mineral (Mg3Si4O10(OH)2) in the talc ore. The surface behavior of chlorite mineral as the main associated gangue with talc mineral was studied in the presence of B. subtilis using zeta potential, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. The floatability of both minerals was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, and concentration of B. subtilis. The results showed that the zeta potential of the talc mineral was strongly influenced by the treatment with B. subtilis. The maximum separation efficiency of talc from chlorite was achieved at pH 4. A talc concentrate with 98% quality and about 95% recovery was prepared from a binary talc-chlorite mixture containing 85% talc under optimum conditions of 8 × 105 cells/mL B. subtilis, pH 4, 35°C, and a contact time of 10 min.
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 59, pp 474-484; https://doi.org/10.1515/tsd-2022-2473
A thermodynamic approach was developed to predict the precipitation conditions of surfactants using the solubility product relationship between surfactant monomer concentrations, in order to calculate the monomer-precipitate equilibrium. This approach provides an explicit equation which predicts the amount of solid phase which forms in any surfactant mixture. All calculations of the total change in Gibbs energy (ΔG) were performed for concentrations of both surfactants that were below their CMC values. The elaborated ΔG-pH diagrams offer the possibility to determine the areas of thermodynamic stability of the solid phases depending on the chemical composition and acidity of the studied system. It was shown that with increasing concentration of the surfactant and the metal ion, the range of precipitate formation, either as slightly soluble salt or as slightly soluble acid, was extended by a few pH units in all cases.
Tenside Surfactants Detergents, Volume 59, pp 460-473; https://doi.org/10.1515/tsd-2022-2465
Dow Home and Personal Care has developed a protocol using a custom imaging station and software suite to standardize data collection and automated analysis in automatic dishwashing. Previously, a panel rating based on ASTM D3556-14 was used to provide a score for filming and spotting on glassware. Progress has been made toward a standardized and semi-automated method utilizing a combination of a custom imaging station built in house, image analysis techniques, and a statistical model. The statistical model was built using a series of panel ratings from an array of glasses, giving computed ratings which agree closely with experimental scores assigned by human raters.