Clinical Infectious Diseases
ISSN / EISSN: 10584838 / 15376591
Published by: Oxford University Press (OUP)
Total articles ≅ 34,385
Latest articles in this journal
Clinical Infectious Diseases; https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciad194
Clark D Russell, MBChB PhD; Patient stratification for oral transitional therapy in bacterial endocarditis, Clinical Infectious Diseases, , ciad194, https://doi
Clinical Infectious Diseases; https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciad190
Background: Antibiotics are frequently prescribed unnecessarily in outpatients with COVID-19. We sought to evaluate factors associated with antibiotic prescribing in those with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: We performed a population-wide cohort study of outpatients 66 years or older with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 from January 1st 2020 to December 31st 2021 in Ontario, Canada. We determined rates of antibiotic prescribing within 1-week before (pre-diagnosis) and 1-week after (post-diagnosis) reporting of the positive SARS-CoV-2 result, compared to a self-controlled period (baseline). We evaluated predictors of prescribing, including a primary series COVID-19 vaccination, in univariate and multivariable analyses. Results: We identified 13,529 eligible nursing home residents and 50,885 eligible community dwelling adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of the nursing home and community residents, 3,020 (22%) and 6,372 (13%) received at least one antibiotic prescription within 1 week of a SARS-CoV-2 positive result, respectively. Antibiotic prescribing in nursing home and community residents occurred at 15.0 and 10.5 prescriptions per 1000 person-days pre-diagnosis and 20.9 and 9.8 per 1000 person-days post-diagnosis, higher than the baseline rates of 4.3 and 2.5 prescriptions per 1000 person-days. COVID-19 vaccination was associated with reduced prescribing in nursing home and community residents, with adjusted post-diagnosis IRRs of 0.7 (95%CI 0.4-1) and 0.3 (95%CI 0.3-0.4) respectively. Conclusions: Antibiotic prescribing was high and with little or no decline following SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, though was reduced in COVID-19 vaccinated individuals, highlighting the importance of vaccination and antibiotic stewardship in older adults with COVID-19.
Clinical Infectious Diseases; https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciad189
Days of therapy (DOT) currently serve as the standard antimicrobial utilization metric; however, by assigning the same weight to each agent rather than accounting for differences in spectrum of activity, DOT ignore key differences between agents that are fundamental to infectious diseases and critical to antimicrobial stewardship. Spectrum scoring assigns numeric values to individual antibiotic agents to quantify their spectrum of activity, allowing for normalization of antibiotic utilization data. When used in conjunction with traditional metrics, spectrum scores may offer further clarity to the picture of antibiotic utilization; however, issues related to development, application, and standardization of spectrum scores remain. Despite these challenges, the potential applications of spectrum scores are vast. Herein, we summarize existing data and explore the future of spectrum scoring, including application to both data analysis and routine patient care, use in inpatient and outpatient settings, integration within the electronic medical record, and opportunities for future research.
Clinical Infectious Diseases; https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciad192
Background: Cerebral embolic events (CEEs) are common complications of infective endocarditis (IE) and their presence can modify diagnosis and therapeutic plans. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of cerebral imaging (Cer-Im) on diagnosis and management of patients with suspected IE. Methods: This study was conducted at the Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland, from January 2014 to June 2022. CEEs and IE were defined according to modified Duke criteria of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Results: Among 573 patients with IE suspicion and Cer-Im, 239 (42%) patients had neurological symptoms. At least one CEE was found in 254 (44%) episodes. Based on Cer-Im findings, episodes were reclassified from rejected to possible or from possible to definite IE in 3 (1%) and 25 (4%) patients, respectively (0% and 2% in asymptomatic patients, respectively). Among the 330 patients with possible or definite IE, at least one CEE was found in 187 (57%) episodes. A new surgical indication (in association with left-side vegetation >10mm) was established in 74/330 (22%) IE patients; 30/155 (19%) asymptomatic IE patients, respectively. Conclusions: Cer-Im in asymptomatic patients with IE suspicion showed limited potential for improving the diagnosis of IE. Contrariwise, performing Cer-Im in asymptomatic patients with IE may be useful for decision making, since Cer-Im findings led to the establishment of new operative indication for valvular surgery in one fifth of patients according to ESC guidelines.
Clinical Infectious Diseases; https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciad193
Marco Bongiovanni, Beatrice Barda, Gladys Martinetti Lucchini, Valeria Gaia, Giorgio Merlani, Enos Bernasconi; Invasive listeriosis in Southern Switzerland: a l
Clinical Infectious Diseases; https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciad178
Mutations accumulated by novel SARS-CoV-2 Omicron sublineages contribute to evasion of previously effective monoclonal antibodies for treatment or prevention of COVID-19. Other authorized or approved antiviral drugs such as nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, remdesivir, and molnupiravir are, however, predicted to maintain activity against these sublineages and are key tools to reduce severe COVID-19 outcomes in vulnerable populations. A stepwise approach may be taken to target the appropriate antiviral drug to the appropriate patient, beginning with identifying whether a patient is at high risk for hospitalization or other complications of COVID-19. Among higher-risk individuals, patient profile (including factors such as age, organ function, and comedications) and antiviral drug access inform suitable antiviral drug selection. When applied in targeted fashion, these therapies serve as a complement to vital ongoing non-pharmaceutical interventions and vaccination strategies that reduce morbidity and maximize protection against COVID-19.
Published: 30 March 2023
Clinical Infectious Diseases; https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciad187
Background: The vast majority of COVID-19 disease occurs in outpatients where treatment is limited to anti-virals for high-risk subgroups. Acebilustat, a leukotriene B4 (LTB4) inhibitor, has potential to reduce inflammation and symptom duration. Methods: In a single-center trial spanning Delta and Omicron variants, outpatients were randomized to 100 mg of oral acebilustat or placebo for 28 days. Patients reported daily symptoms via electronic query through Day 28 with phone follow-up on Day 120 and collected nasal swabs on Days 1-10. The primary outcome was sustained symptom resolution to Day 28. Secondary 28-day outcomes included time to first symptom resolution, area under the curve (AUC) of longitudinal daily symptom scores; duration of viral shedding through Day 10; and symptoms on Day 120. Results: Sixty participants were randomized to each study arm. At enrollment, median duration and number of symptoms were 4 (IQR 3-5) days and 9 (IQR 7-11) symptoms. Most patients (90%) were vaccinated with 73% having neutralizing antibodies. A minority (44%) of participants (35% in the acebilustat arm and 53% in placebo) had sustained symptom resolution at Day 28 (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.34-1.04, p = 0.07 favoring placebo). There was no difference in mean AUC of symptom scores over 28 days (difference in mean of AUC 9.4, 95% CI -42.1-60.9, p=0.72). Acebilustat did not impact viral shedding or symptoms at Day 120. Conclusions: Sustained symptoms through Day 28 were common in this low-risk population. Despite this, LTB4 antagonism with acebilustat did not shorten symptom duration in outpatients with COVID-19.
Clinical Infectious Diseases; https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciad188
Russell R Kempker, Maia Kipiani, Charles A Peloquin; Reply to Upton, et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases, , ciad188, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciad188
Clinical Infectious Diseases; https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciad186
Caryn M Upton, Lubbe Wiesner, Kelly E Dooley, Gary Maartens; Cerebrospinal Fluid and Tuberculosis Meningitis, Clinical Infectious Diseases, , ciad186, https://d
Clinical Infectious Diseases; https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciad185
COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) use between October-December 2020 was characterized using the National Inpatient Sample database. CCP was administered in 18.0% of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, and was strongly associated with older age and increased disease severity. There were disparities in the receipt of CCP by race and ethnicity, geography, and insurance.