Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks

Journal Information
EISSN: 22242708
Published by: MDPI
Total articles ≅ 453

Latest articles in this journal

Published: 29 November 2022
by MDPI
Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040083

Abstract:
Reliable and efficient transmission of emergency calls during a massive network failure is both an indispensable and challenging task. In this paper, we propose a novel fully 3GPP and 5G compatible emergency call protocol named 5G StandalOne Service (5G-SOS). A 5G-SOS-enabled emergency service provides potential out-of-coverage victims’ devices with a way to contact the 4G/5G core network through D2D multi-hop relaying protocol. The objective of 5G-SOS is to maintain this connection even when a large fraction of the network infrastructure is destroyed. 5G-SOS is a fully distributed protocol designed to generate zero additional control traffic and to adapt its parameters based on the local emergency call congestion. Therefore, devices behave as an ad-hoc network with the common purpose to ensure the best chances for emergency call transfer within a reasonable delay. A densely populated Traverse city of Michigan, USA, with a 15,000 population, is used to evaluate 5G-SOS under extreme emergency scenarios. The performance of 5G-SOS is shown to be significant when compared with existing protocols, namely, M-HELP and FINDER, in terms of transmission success rate, end-to-end latency, network traffic control, and energy management. 5G-SOS provides satisfactory performance (success rate of 50%) even when the number of simultaneous emergency calls is very high (5000 calls over 10 min). On average, 5G-SOS performs 24.9% better than M-HELP and 73.9% than FINDER in terms of success rate. Additionally, 5G-SOS reduces the average end-end latency of the emergency calls transfer by 20.8% compared to M-HELP and 61.7% compared to FINDER.
Published: 29 November 2022
by MDPI
Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040082

Abstract:
The goal of 5G wireless networks is to address the growing need for network services among users. User equipment has progressed to the point where users now expect diverse services from the network. The latency, reliability, and bandwidth requirements of users can all be classified. To fulfil the different needs of users in an economical manner, while guaranteeing network resources are resourcefully assigned to consumers, 5G systems plan to leverage technologies like Software Defined Networks, Network Function Virtualization, and Network Slicing. For the purpose of ensuring continuous handover among network slices, while catering to the advent of varied 5G application scenarios, new mobility management techniques must be adopted in Sliced 5G networks. Users want to travel from one region of coverage to another region without any fading in their network connection. Different network slices can coexist in 5G networks, with every slice offering services customized to various QoS demands. As a result, when customers travel from one region of coverage to another, the call can be transferred to a slice that caters to similar or slightly different requirements. The goal of this study was to develop an intra- and inter-slice algorithm for determining handover decisions in sliced 5G networks and to assess performance by comparing intra- and inter-slice handovers. The proposed work shows that an inter-slice handover algorithm offers superior quality of service when compared to an intra-slice algorithm.
Published: 28 November 2022
by MDPI
Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040081

Abstract:
Modern constructions are often characterized by the presence of slender and aesthetically fascinating components and assemblies. For pedestrian systems in particular, such constructions are notoriously associated with possible vibration issues, and thus require special calculations. When these slender systems are made of structural glass, additional effects due to transparency may also affect human behaviours and motions. In this paper, based on a single body motion, a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensor in the body’s centre of mass (CoM) is introduced, an extended, original experimental investigation is presented, and human-induced effects on slender transparent floors are discussed. Major attention is given to the well-known dynamic load factor (DLF) induced by a single pedestrian’s normal walk; a fixed walking rate is assigned, and different substructures (with major variations in their structural dynamic parameters) are taken into account. A discussion of experimental results is proposed for rigid reinforced concrete (RC), and a laboratory contrast system (SLAB#1), which is used as a reference for the analysis of DLF trends on relatively light and flexible transparent glass flooring systems (SLAB#2 and SLAB#3). It is shown that structural frequency and mass, but also possibly transparency, can affect human motion and result in a quantitative modification of measured DLF values, especially for the first and second harmonics of vertical force components.
Published: 24 November 2022
by MDPI
Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040080

Abstract:
The dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP) servers are forms of an Internet of Things (IoT) address management server (IoTAMS) that gives network configuration settings to newly connected hosts. Administrators of a network may save time by setting DHCP servers instead of every network node. However, the absence of a more robust authentication method for DHCP servers makes hosts susceptible to attacks since neither the server nor the users are able to check the other’s authenticity during DHCP connections. These concerns result in both internal and external threats to the system that have the potential to impair network services. Among these threats are malicious DHCP servers and DHCP starvation. This paper aims to provide a novel approach for tackling these issues and protect the DHCP protocol. The proposed model uses the Diffie–Hellman key exchange mechanism, the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem (ECDLP), a one-way hash function, blockchain technology, and a smart contract. In addition, registration and validation processes provide support for the proposed model in combating DHCP risks for both internal and external system threats. Results from this study show that the proposed model has an average of 21.1% more resistance to a growing number of adversaries than the benchmark models, thus revealing that the model is better suited for the security of IoT address management servers in smart homes, thereby enhancing resilience against related threats and the success of IP address management.
Published: 23 November 2022
by MDPI
Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040079

Abstract:
Traditional medical sensors/monitors can measure pressure, airflow, force, oxygen, pulse, temperature, etc
Published: 22 November 2022
by MDPI
Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040078

Abstract:
In recent years, with the rapid development of Internet technology and applications, the scale of Internet data has exploded, which contains a significant amount of valuable knowledge. The best methods for the organization, expression, calculation, and deep analysis of this knowledge have attracted a great deal of attention. The knowledge graph has emerged as a rich and intuitive way to express knowledge. Knowledge reasoning based on knowledge graphs is one of the current research hot spots in knowledge graphs and has played an important role in wireless communication networks, intelligent question answering, and other applications. Knowledge graph-oriented knowledge reasoning aims to deduce new knowledge or identify wrong knowledge from existing knowledge. Different from traditional knowledge reasoning, knowledge reasoning methods oriented to knowledge graphs are more diversified due to the concise, intuitive, flexible, and rich knowledge expression forms in knowledge graphs. Based on the basic concepts of knowledge graphs and knowledge graph reasoning, this paper introduces the latest research progress in knowledge graph-oriented knowledge reasoning methods in recent years. Specifically, according to different reasoning methods, knowledge graph reasoning includes rule-based reasoning, distributed representation-based reasoning, neural network-based reasoning, and mixed reasoning. These methods are summarized in detail, and the future research directions and prospects of knowledge reasoning based on knowledge graphs are discussed and prospected.
Published: 22 November 2022
by MDPI
Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040077

Abstract:
This paper presents the implementation of the mono-objective Switch Allocation Problem (SAP) optimization model for electric power distribution networks, considering the equivalent interruption duration per consumer unit EIDCU and non-distributed energy END reliability indexes. We use the current summation algorithm to solve the power flow, and we employ an intelligent bee colony algorithm to solve the model. Two network topologies, one with 43 and another with 136 bars, adapted from the literature, are used to illustrate the solution. Results show a significant reduction in the financial cost of planning a power distribution network.
Published: 21 November 2022
by MDPI
Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040076

Abstract:
Internet of things (IoT) devices are often located in difficult-to-access places without connection to the electrical grid. For this reason, some IoT devices usually incorporate a small stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system to power only the IoT device. However, several IoT applications involve using other components, such as instrumentation, electrical motors, lighting bulbs, etc., which require additional electrical power. The objective of this study was to design and implement a battery controller integrated into a constrained resource device that allows powering not only other components of the IoT application but also the IoT device. In this way, the IoT device controls and monitors the PV system and executes other IoT applications such as lighting. Results show that the designed controller exhibits efficient behavior when compared with other regulators and can be integrated into resource-constrained devices, improving the life of batteries and reducing cost.
Published: 16 November 2022
by MDPI
Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040075

Abstract:
Opportunistic networks are an enabler technology for typologies without centralized infrastructure. Portable devices, such as wearable and embedded mobile systems, send relay messages to the communication range devices. One of the most critical challenges is to find the optimal route in these networks while at the same time preserving privacy for the participants of the network. Addressing this challenge, we presented a novel routing algorithm based on device clusters, reducing the overall message load and increasing network performance. At the same time, possibly identifying information of network nodes is eliminated by cloaking to meet privacy requirements. We evaluated our routing algorithm in terms of efficiency and privacy in opportunistic networks of traditional and structured cities, i.e., Venice and San Francisco by comparing our approach against the PRoPHET, First Contact, and Epidemic routing algorithms. In the San Francisco and Venice scenarios, Blossom improves messages delivery probability and outperforms PRoPHET, First Contact, and Epidemic by 46%, 100%, and 160% and by 67%, 78%, and 204%, respectively. In addition, the dropped messages probability in Blossom decreased 83% compared to PRoPHET and Epidemic in San Francisco and 91% compared to PRoPHET and Epidemic in Venice. Due to the small number of messages generated, the network overhead in this algorithm is close to zero. The network overhead can be significantly reduced by clustering while maintaining a reliable message delivery.
Published: 8 November 2022
by MDPI
Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan11040074

Abstract:
Due to its potential benefits in data transparency, maintenance, and optimization of operation, the Internet of Things (IoT) has recently emerged in the building automation system (BAS) domain. However, while various IoT devices have been developed, the integration into BAS remains a challenging task due to the variety of conventional interfaces used in existing BAS. From an objective point of view, integrating IoT connectivity on existing devices’ printed circuit boards (PCBs) would be the most efficient option in terms of cost and resources, but requires adaptation of product lines, and vendors would often couple this with their own services and without an option for customization. By contrast, the majority of research activities focus on developing alternative or additional measurement systems, rather than connecting with legacy system components. Furthermore, most research applications cover very simple and individual use-cases with a do-it-yourself character and limited applicability in industrial applications. In this study, we present a scalable, industrial-like embedded solution to connect to common interfaces in BAS applications and share all the hardware and software design as an open-source platform for public use, customization, and further enhancement. Moreover, a thorough measurement performance analysis was conducted, suggesting an acceptable trade-off among accuracy, flexibility, and costs, e.g., achieving a performance increase by over 75% and a cost reduction by roughly 34% compared to a previous design.
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