Tropical Plant Research
ISSN / EISSN: 23499265 / 23491183
Published by: AkiNik Publications
Total articles ≅ 306
Latest articles in this journal
Tropical Plant Research, Volume 7, pp 715-719; https://doi.org/10.22271/tpr.2020.v7.i3.090
Three species of red algae belonging to the class Rhodophyceae viz. Amphiroa fragilissima, Centroceras clavulatum and Gracilaria canaliculata were collected from seven localities in the southeast coast of India. The collected red algae were analysed for elemental composition (Al, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Fb, Zn) using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP - AES) from May 2018 to April 2019 at three months interval. The seasonal variation in the elemental composition of the three red algae species showed that most of the minerals were found to accumulate during the summer season followed by pre-monsoon season. This could perhaps be due to the ambient concentration of these minerals were high during these seasons; thereby facilitating their uptake by seaweeds. The accumulation factor of certain irons by the algae were also discussed in this paper.
Tropical Plant Research, Volume 7, pp 696-701; https://doi.org/10.22271/tpr.2020.v7.i3.088
The roadsides of the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana are lined with the several species of trees, such as, Terminalia catappa, Mangifera indica, Ficus platyphylla and Polyalthia longifolia. The people use them for their health care needs. The vehicle emissions results in oxidative injury in these plants, due to the production of reactive oxygen species. The present study assessed the antioxidant potential of leaves of these tree species subjected to vehicular pollutants. The free radical scavenging activity of leaf extracts of the four tree species were measured using 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH). The total phenolic content (TPC) of the extract was determined by a spectrophotometric assay using the Folin-Ciocalteau’s reagent. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured using Phosphomolybdate assay. In this study, the medicinal properties of leaves of Terminalia catappa, Mangifera indica, Ficus platyphylla and Polyalthia longifolia sampled from the control sites showed better medicinal properties. DPPH scavenging activity at concentration 2.7 ug ml-1 was lower at the arterial road sites in all the four tree species. A higher DPPH percentage inhibition was recorded at the control sites. The IC50 values were higher for the leaf sample extracts from the arterial road sites and lower for the Control site. The total phenolic content of leaf samples of all the four tree species at the arterial road sites were lower than and significantly different from those at the Control site (p=0.000). The TAC values were lower at the arterial road sites in comparison to the control sites. There was a significant difference among the arterial road sites and also when compared with the control (P<0.05). It could be suggested from this study that variability exists in the antioxidant activities of plants due to a decrease in the medicinal properties of plants subjected to constant auto vehicular pollution.
Tropical Plant Research, Volume 7, pp 684-688; https://doi.org/10.22271/tpr.2020.v7.i3.086
Carbohydrates were analysed in 40 species of marine macroalgae belonging to three classes collected at seasonal intervals between April 2018 to March 2019 from the intertidal habitats in Gulf of manner coastal regions.Among the 40 dominant seaweeds 11 species belonged to Chlorophyceae, 13 species to Phaeophyceae and the remaining 16 species to Rhodophyceae. The carbohydrate content of seaweeds varied from 4.50±0.12 to 72.25±3.15 % of DW during the summer season. The percentage of carbohydrate content was maximum in Gracilaria verrucosa (72.25±3.15 % of DW) during the summer season and minimum in Turbinaria ornata (4.50±0.12 DW) during the summer season. The carbohydrate content of seaweeds varied from 5.50±0.17 to 48.38±3.04 % of DW during the pre-monsoon season. The maximum values were observed in Gracilaria corticata var. corticata the minimum content was observed in Padina pavonica. The carbohydrate content of seaweeds varied from 4.83±0.12 to 58.18±4.56 % of DW during the monsoon season. The maximum value was observed in Gracilaria corticata var corticata and the minimum was in Padina pavonica. The carbohydrate content of seaweeds varied from 7.36±0.16 to 67.25±2.41 % of DW during the post-monsoon season. The maximum value was observed in Acanthophora spicifera and the minimum content was observed in Sargassum ilicifolium.
Tropical Plant Research, Volume 7, pp 669-677; https://doi.org/10.22271/tpr.2020.v7.i3.084
Firewood serves as the principal source of energy for cooking and heating, for many rural communities, but the impact of firewood extraction on the forest is often undermined. The present study was undertaken to assess the firewood consumption pattern by households living near community forests of East Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya and the impact of such activity on species diversity and population structure on such forests. Data on firewood consumption and preferred firewood species, and impacts of firewood harvesting on species diversity and population structure were collected through household surveys and phytosociological studies respectively. The surveyed households showed high dependency on firewood and the consumption pattern varies with the family size. The preferred firewood species are those of hardwood trees such as Quercus spp., Lithocarpus spp., Castanopsis spp. and Myrica spp. Firewood extraction have negative impact on forests, resulting in decrease in species diversity and population of the preferred firewood species. Statistical analysis revealed that species richness and diversity and density differ significantly in protected and unprotected forests. Despite low per capita consumption of firewood and precautionary measures like regulated harvesting in the study area, firewood harvesting cannot be ignored as an important cause of forest degradation and biodiversity loss. More research into local ecological and cultural contexts and perceptions concerning costs and benefits can help devise sustainable management options, including alternative sources of fuel.
Tropical Plant Research, Volume 7, pp 650-653; https://doi.org/10.22271/tpr.2020.v7.i3.082
The specimen was collected during the rainy season in June, 2018 from Botanical garden Rain Forest Research Institute, Jorhat. Morphological characters of the specimen were recorded in the field and micromorphological characters were studied in the laboratory under the optical microscope. After a thorough examination of the specimen and its spores and capillitial threads, it is confirmed that the specimen is wild edible puffball named Calvatia craniiformis belongs to family Agaricaceae. It is also ensured after consultation with available literature that Calvatia craniiformis is the first report in North-East India.
Tropical Plant Research, Volume 7, pp 702-714; https://doi.org/10.22271/tpr.2020.v7.i3.089
The climate change and carbon mitigation through forest ecosystems play an important role in the global perspective. Soil is a huge carbon reservoir and its storage capacity varied greatly with forest type and altitude. The mountain ecosystem varies in soil organic carbon stock (SOC) due to variations in soil types, climatic conditions, vegetation patterns and elevational gradients. Soil organic carbon stockswere measured at three depths (0–10, 10–20, and 20–30 cm) in five different forest elevation (200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 m asl) on Courtallam hills, Southern Western Ghats, India. SOC stocks increased significantly with the increase in altitude (P<0.05) at all the three layers (0–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm). A total of SOC stocks ranged from 42.79 mg ha-1at 0–30 cm depth were observed in lower altitude (200 m) and the highest value of 50.25 mg ha-1 at 0–30 cm depth was observed in mid-elevation 600 m, while in other elevational showed 46.45, 48.49 and 45.05 mg ha-1 in 400, 800 and 1000 m respectively. SOC ranged from 17.89 to 22.37 mg ha-1 in soil surface layer (0–10 cm), 14.00 to 16.573 mg ha-1 in middle layer (10–20 cm) and 9.08 to 11.35 mg ha-1 in the bottom layer (20–30 cm). These results would also enhance our ability to assesses the role of these forest types in soil carbon sequestration and for developing and validating the SOC models for tropical forest ecosystems.
Tropical Plant Research, Volume 7, pp 638-644; https://doi.org/10.22271/tpr.2020.v7.i3.080
The nature of the soil is a very important factor in the growth and development of a crop. Crop plants suffer a decline in growth and yield, when exposed to the saline condition. Pea considers one of the main leguminous crops, due to its ability to produce significant quantities of protein, carbohydrates and nutrient-rich seeds. Plants were subjected to four salt treatments, 4, 8, 12 and 16 mmhos cm-1 of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate and the biomass and biochemical responses were measured. All growth attributes such as stem, root and leaf fresh and dry weight decrease with the increased salinities doses. Salt treatments were no significant effects on the biomass and quantitative changes in starch, protein and soluble sugar in seeds of pea. But it was noted that the starch contents were much reduced in 16 mmhos cm-1, the salinity level of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate as compared to control. The protein content and sugar content value were increased in a higher concentration of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate, when compared to control in Pea, CV. Azad P-1. The proline content increased with salt stress up to 8 mmhos cm-1 in CV-Azad P-1. It was also observed that the high dose of sodium sulfate is declined biomass and quantitative changes in starch, than that of sodium chloride solution in pea seeds.
Tropical Plant Research, Volume 7, pp 678-683; https://doi.org/10.22271/tpr.2020.v7.i3.085
Yield models are very important to forest management, especially for site quality assessment, subsequent inventories, timber valuation and assessment of stand growth. This study developed yield models for the young Tectona grandis stands in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Southeastern Nigeria. These models were necessary to the guide forest managers in timber valuation as well as monitoring growth of the stand. Data for this study was collected through complete enumeration method, tree height and stem diameters of the 295 Teak stands were measured. Non-destructive method (Newton’s formula) was used in computing individual tree volumes. The tree growth variables data were subjected to descriptive statistics and used for fitting five nonlinear regression functions. The mean stem height, diameter at breast height and volume were 10.6 m, 8.9 cm, 0.032 m3, respectively. Out of the five yield equations fitted; the generalized combined variable model had the best predictive ability; with the lowest root mean square error (0.0084 m3) and Akaike information criterion (-2809). Therefore, the generalized combined variable model was recommended for yield estimation of Tectona grandis.
Tropical Plant Research, Volume 7, pp 654-668; https://doi.org/10.22271/tpr.2020.v7.i3.083
Mangroves are a diverse group of highly salt-tolerant woody plants, which grow in the inter-tidal zones in tropical and subtropical latitudes. Despite its unique services to the people, coastal and marine systems, mangroves have become one of the most rapidly disappearing ecosystems in the world. This paper reviews the available information on distribution, current status and challenges of mangroves in Sri Lanka. Today, around 160 km2 of mangrove vegetation is available in Sri Lanka and distributed mainly in Jaffna, Batticaloa, Kalpitiya, Rekawa and Trincomalee and is composed of 21 species of true mangroves and 24 species of mangrove associates. Mangroves in the island have been adversely affected due to the numerous anthropogenic activities, including land reclamation, tourism, coastal aquaculture and agriculture and other industrial activities etc. Proper conservations of mangroves are urgently required to the island to avoid further decline of mangrove ecosystem. It is imperative to evaluate policies, legal instruments and development strategies to effectively protect this valuable ecosystem.
Tropical Plant Research, Volume 7, pp 645-649; https://doi.org/10.22271/tpr.2020.v7.i3.081
Successful production of healthy seedlings in a forest nursery can be ensured through seed treatment to enhance germination. This study assessed the effects of pre-sowing treatments on the germination of Jatropha curcas; to provide the best treatment for enhancing seedling production. The experiment was laid in a completely randomized design with four treatments: (i) control (T1), (ii) soaking in; water at room temperature at room temperature for 16 hours (iii) cow-dung slurry for 16 hours (iv) 98% concentrated sulphuric acid for 5 minutes Each treatment received 10 seeds and was replicated 5 times giving a total of 200 seeds sown in sterilized river bank sand. Germinated seeds were counted, converted to percentages and arsine values. The data were further subjected to analysis of variance and significant means were separated using Duncan multiple range test (DMRT) at 0.05 level of significance. The results showed that seeds with no pre-sowing treatment had the highest mean germination (66%), DMRT revealed that significant difference (P<0.05) existed between seeds with no pre-sowing treatment and other treatments. The study concluded that viable Jatropha curcas seeds have no germination problem; the seeds could be germinated without pre-sowing treatment.