ISSN / EISSN: 02681161 / 14602350
Published by: Oxford University Press (OUP)
Total articles ≅ 22,255
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 30 May 2023
Human Reproduction; https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dead102
Sir, We read with great interest the article by Vasconcelos et al. (2022) in Human Reproduction regarding the compliance of the published studies on WHO5 recommendations for basic semen analysis. In this article, the authors retrospectively assessed whether the publications that mentioned a basic semen analysis, published in Human Reproduction and Fertility & Sterility between 2011 and 2020, gave sufficient evidence in their methodology to demonstrate that they followed the technical methods recommended in the WHO5 laboratory manual. The results showed that 70% of the papers included for analysis declared that they followed WHO5 recommendations. This article is of great clinical significance for solving the problem of basic semen analysis standardization, and beneficial to promote strict adherence to semen analysis methods to reduce technical errors. However, some concerns still need to be discussed. In this article, the literature selected for analysis by the authors were only those published in the two leading journals in the field of reproductive biomedicine, Human Reproduction and Fertility & Sterility. However, there may be a fact that many papers associated with male reproduction are published in other professional journals, such as World J Mens Health, WORLD J UROL, and Andrology etc. The relevant articles published in those classical journals should be also included for analysis, in order to verify a more accurate assessment on the detailed citation of WHO5 recommendations for basic semen analysis. In addition, generally, many journals have no mandatory requirements on describing the specific procedures of semen inspection. As a result, the majority of papers investigated disclosed the details about the manipulations on semen examination (as shown in Tables I–V in Vasconcelos et al.). If possible, the investigators may need to further determine the actual situation by inquiring with the authors who published the papers. As the declarations mentioned by Vasconcelos et al., we also hope there will be a standard requirement or writing format about describing the procedures of basic semen analysis in these professional journals.
Published: 30 May 2023
Human Reproduction; https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dead103
Sir, We thank Zhang and Dong (2023) for their interest in our work and their valuable comments. We agree with the authors that our findings are ‘of great clinical significance for solving the problem of basic semen analysis standardization’ and that following the up-to-date evidence-based recommendations provided by the WHO manual for semen analysis is critically important if you want to minimize technical errors when assessing the different semen characteristics ( Vasconcelos et al., 2022). As the authors note, our article focused on manuscripts published in Human Reproduction and Fertility & Sterility only. We agree with the authors that our finding that the majority of manuscripts did not fully illustrate that they followed WHO recommendations for semen analysis, despite citing that they did, may be just the tip of the iceberg, with the problem likely to be present in manuscripts published in other human reproductive biomedicine journals. We chose to focus on the two leading journals first to see whether (i) we could identify a problem with transparent reporting of the technical methods used to perform a semen analysis and (ii) whether future research is therefore needed. Given our findings, we therefore consider further study of manuscripts published in other human reproductive biomedicine journals, including the ones highlighted by Zhang and Dong (2023), an important area of research as it will allow us to gauge fully the extent of the problem.
Published: 23 May 2023
Human Reproduction; https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dead100
STUDY QUESTION: To what extent is male fatty acid intake associated with fecundability among couples planning pregnancy? SUMMARY ANSWER: We observed weak positive associations of male dietary intakes of total and saturated fatty acids with fecundability; no other fatty acid subtypes were appreciably associated with fecundability. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Male fatty acid intake has been associated with semen quality in previous studies. However, little is known about the extent to which male fatty acid intake is associated with fecundability among couples attempting spontaneous conception. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We conducted an internet-based preconception prospective cohort study of 697 couples who enrolled during 2015–2022. During 12 cycles of observation, 53 couples (7.6%) were lost to follow-up. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Participants were residents of the USA or Canada, aged 21–45 years, and not using fertility treatment at enrollment. At baseline, male participants completed a food frequency questionnaire from which we estimated intakes of total fat and fatty acid subtypes. We ascertained time to pregnancy using questionnaires completed every 8 weeks by female participants until conception or up to 12 months. We used proportional probabilities regression models to estimate fecundability ratios (FRs) and 95% CIs for the associations of fat intakes with fecundability, adjusting for male and female partner characteristics. We used the multivariate nutrient density method to account for energy intake, allowing for interpretation of results as fat intake replacing carbohydrate intake. We conducted several sensitivity analyses to assess the potential for confounding, selection bias, and reverse causation. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Among 697 couples, we observed 465 pregnancies during 2970 menstrual cycles of follow-up. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy during 12 cycles of follow-up after accounting for censoring was 76%. Intakes of total and saturated fatty acids were weakly, positively associated with fecundability. Fully adjusted FRs for quartiles of total fat intake were 1.32 (95% CI 1.01–1.71), 1.16 (95% CI 0.88–1.51), and 1.43 (95% CI 1.09–1.88) for the second, third, and fourth vs the first quartile, respectively. Fully adjusted FRs for saturated fatty acid intake were 1.21 (95% CI 0.94–1.55), 1.16 (95% CI 0.89–1.51), and 1.23 (95% CI 0.94–1.62) for the second, third, and fourth vs the first quartile, respectively. Intakes of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, trans-, omega-3, and omega-6 fatty acids were not strongly associated with fecundability. Results were similar after adjustment for the female partner’s intakes of trans- and omega-3 fats. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Dietary intakes estimated from the food frequency questionnaire may be subject to non-differential misclassification, which is expected to bias results toward the null in the extreme categories when exposures are modeled as quartiles. There may be residual confounding by unmeasured dietary, lifestyle, or environmental factors. Sample size was limited, especially in subgroup analyses. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our results do not support a strong causal effect of male fatty acid intakes on fecundability among couples attempting to conceive spontaneously. The weak positive associations we observed between male dietary fat intakes and fecundability may reflect a combination of causal associations, measurement error, chance, and residual confounding. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health, grant numbers R01HD086742 and R01HD105863. In the last 3 years, PRESTO has received in-kind donations from Swiss Precision Diagnostics (home pregnancy tests) and Kindara.com (fertility app). L.A.W. is a consultant for AbbVie, Inc. M.L.E. is an advisor to Sandstone, Ro, Underdog, Dadi, Hannah, Doveras, and VSeat. The other authors have no competing interests to report. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.
Published: 22 May 2023
Human Reproduction; https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dead090
STUDY QUESTION: Can multiple-site low-pass genome sequencing (GS) of products of conception (POCs) improve the detection of genetic abnormalities, especially heterogeneously distributed mosaicism and homogeneously distributed mosaicism in first-trimester miscarriage? SUMMARY ANSWER: Multiple-site sampling combined with low-pass GS significantly increased genetic diagnostic yield (77.0%, 127/165) of first-trimester miscarriages, with mosaicisms accounting for 17.0% (28/165), especially heterogeneously distributed mosaicisms (75%, 21/28) that are currently underappreciated. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Aneuploidies are well known to cause first-trimester miscarriage, which are detectable by conventional karyotyping and next-generation sequencing (NGS) on a single-site sampling basis. However, there are limited studies demonstrating the implications of mosaic genetic abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriages, especially when genetic heterogeneity is present in POCs. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This is a cross-sectional cohort study carried out at a university-affiliated public hospital. One hundred seventy-four patients diagnosed with first-trimester miscarriage from December 2018 to November 2021 were offered ultrasound-guided manual vacuum aspiration (USG-MVA) treatment. Products of conception were subjected to multiple-site low-pass GS for the detection of chromosomal imbalances. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: For each POC, multiple sites of villi (three sites on average) were biopsied for low-pass GS. Samples with maternal cell contamination (MCC) and polyploidy were excluded based on the quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) results. The spectrum of chromosomal abnormalities, including mosaicism (heterogeneously distributed and homogeneously distributed) and constitutional abnormalities was investigated. Chromosomal microarray analysis and additional DNA fingerprinting were used for validation and MCC exclusion. A cross-platform comparison between conventional karyotyping and our multiple-site approach was also performed. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: One hundred sixty-five POCs (corresponding to 490 DNA samples) were subjected to low-pass GS. Genetic abnormalities were detected in 77.0% (127/165) of POCs by our novel approach. Specifically, 17.0% (28/165) of cases had either heterogeneously distributed mosaicism (12.7%, 21/165) or homogeneously distributed mosaicism (6.1%, 10/165) (three cases had both types of mosaicism). The remaining 60.0% (99/165) of cases had constitutional abnormalities. In addition, in the 71 cases with karyotyping performed in parallel, 26.8% (19/71) of the results could be revised by our approach. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Lack of a normal gestational week-matched cohort might hinder the establishment of a causative link between mosaicisms and first-trimester miscarriage. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Low-pass GS with multiple-site sampling increased the detection of chromosomal mosaicisms in first-trimester miscarriage POCs. This innovative multiple-site low-pass GS approach enabled the novel discovery of heterogeneously distributed mosaicism, which was prevalent in first-trimester miscarriage POCs and frequently observed in preimplantation embryos, but is currently unappreciated by conventional single-site cytogenetic investigations. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was supported partly by Research Grant Council Collaborative Research Fund (C4062-21GF to K.W.C), Science and Technology Projects in Guangzhou (202102010005 to K.W.C), Guangdong-Hong Kong Technology Cooperation Funding Scheme (TCFS), Innovation and Technology Fund (GHP/117/19GD to K.W.C), HKOG Direct Grant (2019.050 to J.P.W.C), and Hong Kong Health and Medical Research Fund (05160406 to J.P.W.C). The authors have no competing interests to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.
Human Reproduction; https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dead101
How often do patients undergoing frozen embryo transfer (FET) after preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) choose to select for sex and do sex selection rates differ before and after successful delivery of a first baby? When a choice was available between male and female embryos, patients selected the sex more frequently when trying to conceive the second child (62%) as compared to the first child (32.4%) and most commonly selected for the opposite sex of the first child. Sex selection is widely available in US fertility clinics. However, the rate of sex selection for patients undergoing FET after PGT-A is unknown. This is a retrospective cohort study of 585 patients that took place between January 2013 and February 2021. The study took place at a single, urban academic fertility center in the USA. Patients were included if they had a live birth after single euploid FET and returned for at least one subsequent euploid FET. The primary outcomes were the rates of sex selection for first versus second baby. Secondary outcomes were rate of selection for same versus opposite sex as first live birth and overall rate of selection for males versus females. Five hundred and eighty-five patients underwent a total of 1560 single euploid FETs resulting in either one or two live births. A choice between male and female euploid embryos was available for 919 FETs (first child: 67.5% (519/769) versus second child: 50.6% (400/791), P < 0.01). When a choice was available, patients selected the sex more frequently when trying to conceive the second child (first child: 32.4% (168/519) versus second child: 62.0% (248/400), P < 0.01). When sex was selected after first live birth, the opposite sex of the first child was selected 81.8% (203/248 FETs) of the time. Of transfers that involved sex selection, rates of male and female selection were similar for the first child, but selection for females was greater for the second child (first child: 51.2% (86/168) male versus 48.9% (82/168) female, second child: 41.1% (102/248) male versus 58.9% (146/248) female, P < 0.04). The study was performed at one urban academic medical center in the Northeastern US, which may limit generalizability to other settings where PGT-A may be performed less frequently, or sex selection may be limited or not permitted. In addition, we could not reliably account for whether patients or their partners had prior children and if so, of what sex. Patients undergoing PGT-A with both male and female euploid embryos were more likely to select for sex when attempting a second child and usually selected for the opposite sex of their first child. These findings highlight the potential for family balancing for patients who undergo PGT-A in settings where sex selection is permitted. This study received no funding. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. N/A.
Human Reproduction; https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dead097
STUDY QUESTION: What is the impact of day after rescue ICSI (r-ICSI) on success of fresh and frozen embryo transfers? SUMMARY ANSWER: The use of r-ICSI can virtually allay fears of total fertilization failure (TFF) after conventional IVF (C-IVF) and achieve high live birth rates after frozen blastocyst transfer. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: More infertility clinics have resorted to the use of ICSI in place of C-IVF in IVF treatment owing to fear of TFF or a low fertilization rate. r-ICSI has been attempted either on the day of IVF or the day after. Day after r-ICSI has proved unsuccessful in the past. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A retrospective data analysis was performed of 16 608 qualifying cases between April 2010 and July 2021 conducted at a single private academically affiliated fertility clinic. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: r-ICSI was performed principally on patients with >4 metaphase II oocytes, showing no signs of fertilization 18 h after C-IVF. C-IVF was performed on patients who had >4 million total motile sperm after preparation. r-ICSI was then performed 18–24 h after insemination, using the sperm sample from the previous day. r-ICSI fertilization rates, cryopreservation of cleavage and blastocysts embryos, and pregnancy rates after fresh or frozen transfer were then assessed. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: r-ICSI was performed on 377 patients (2.3% of eligible retrieval cycles) who had a mean (±SD) female and male age of 35.9 ± 4.5 and 38.1 ± 9.1 years, respectively. A total of 5459 oocytes were initially retrieved. Of the oocytes undergoing r-ICSI, 2389 (49.5%) fertilized normally, and 205 (54.4%) patients underwent a fresh embryo transfer. The live birth rates were 23/186 (12.3%) for fresh cleavage and 5/19 (26.3%) for fresh blastocyst stage transfers. In 145 cycles a blastocyst was frozen, and 137 transfers were performed with a 64/137 (46.7%) live birth rate. Of the 377 cycles receiving r-ICSI only, 25 of the qualifying cases failed to have any fertilization, reducing TFF to 25/16 608 (0.15%). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: This was a single-center retrospective study on a specific subset of patients, which may limit its generalizability to other clinics. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: r-ICSI allows a second opportunity to fertilize oocytes despite poor initial outcomes. Patients who had a frozen blastocyst transfer achieved high live birth rates, indicating that a resynchronization of the embryo with the endometrium can optimize r-ICSI cases. r-ICSI allays fears of TFF when using C-IVF, providing evidence that the overuse of ICSI in patients without male factor may not be warranted. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): The study was internally funded by Boston IVF. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest in relation to the data published in the article. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.
Human Reproduction; https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dead105
What is the impact of variants in the genes INSL3 (Insulin Like 3) and RXFP2 (Relaxin Family Peptide Receptor 2), respectively, on cryptorchidism and male infertility? Bi-allelic loss-of-function (LoF) variants in INSL3 and RXFP2 result in bilateral cryptorchidism and male infertility, whereas heterozygous variant carriers are phenotypically unaffected. The small heterodimeric peptide INSL3 and its G protein-coupled receptor RXFP2 play a major role in the first step of the biphasic descent of the testes, and variants in the INSL3 and RXFP2 genes have long been implicated in inherited cryptorchidism. However, only one single homozygous missense variant in RXFP2 has clearly been linked to familial bilateral cryptorchidism, so the effects of bi-allelic variants in INSL3 and heterozygous variants in both genes on cryptorchidism and male infertility remain unclear. Exome data of 2412 men from the MERGE (Male Reproductive Genomics) study cohort including 1902 infertile men with crypto-/azoospermia, of whom 450 men had a history of cryptorchidism, were screened for high-impact variants in INSL3 and RXFP2. For patients with rare, high-impact variants in INSL3 and RXFP2, detailed clinical data were collected and the testicular phenotype was determined. Genotyping of family members was performed to analyse the co-segregation of candidate variants with the condition. Immunohistochemical staining for INSL3 in patient testicular tissue and measuring serum INSL3 concentration was performed to analyse the functional impact of a homozygous loss-of-function variant in INSL3. For a homozygous missense variant in RXFP2, its impact on the protein’s cell surface expression and ability to respond to INSL3 in CRE reporter gene assay was determined. This study presents homozygous high-impact variants in INSL3 and RXFP2 and clearly correlates these to bilateral cryptorchidism. Functional impact of the identified INSL3 variant was demonstrated by absence of INSL3-specific staining in patients’ testicular Leydig cells as well as undetectable blood serum levels. The identified missense variant in RXFP2 was demonstrated to lead to reduced RXFP2 surface expression and INSL3 mediated receptor activation. Further investigations are needed to explore a potential direct impact of bi-allelic INSL3 and RXFP2 variants on spermatogenesis. With our data, we cannot determine whether the infertility observed in our patients is a direct consequence of the disruption of a possible function of these genes on spermatogenesis or whether it occurs secondarily due to cryptorchidism. In contrast to previous assumptions, this study supports an autosomal recessive inheritance of INSL3- and RXFP2-related bilateral cryptorchidism while heterozygous LoF variants in either gene can at most be regarded as a risk factor for developing cryptorchidism. Our findings have diagnostic value for patients with familial/bilateral cryptorchidism and additionally shed light on the importance of INSL3 and RXFP2 in testicular descent and fertility. This study was carried out within the frame of the German Research Foundation (DFG) funded by Clinical Research Unit ‘Male Germ Cells: from Genes to Function’ (DFG, CRU326). Research at the Florey was supported by an NHMRC grant (2001027) and the Victorian Government Operational Infrastructure Support Program. A.S.B. is funded by the DFG (‘Emmy Noether Programme’ project number 464240267). The authors declare no conflict of interest. N/A.
Published: 18 May 2023
Human Reproduction; https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dead098
STUDY QUESTION: Does a personalized embryo transfer (pET) guided by tests for endometrial receptivity (TER) increase the effectiveness of ART procedures? SUMMARY ANSWER: The use of TER-guided pET is not supported by current published evidence in women without repeated implantation failure (RIF), while in women with RIF more research is needed to assess a potential benefit. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Implantation rates are still far from ideal, especially in some patients that have RIF with good-quality embryos. As a potential solution, a wide range of diverse TER use different sets of genes to identify displacements of the window of implantation to adjust the individual length of progesterone exposure in a pET. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A systematic review with meta-analysis was performed. Search terms included endometrial receptivity analysis, ERA, personalized embryo transfer. CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, reference lists, clinical trials registers, and conference proceedings (search date October 2022) were searched, with no language restrictions. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies comparing a pET guided by TER vs standard embryo transfer (sET) in different subgroups that undergo ART were identified. We also investigated pET in non-receptive-TER vs sET in receptive-TER, and pET in a specific population vs sET in a general population. Risk of bias (RoB) was assessed with the Cochrane tool and ROBINS-I. Only those with low/moderate RoB underwent meta-analysis. The GRADE approach was used to evaluate the certainty of evidence (CoE). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: We screened 2136 studies and included 35 (85% used ERA and 15% used other TER). Two studies were RCTs comparing endometrial receptivity analysis (ERA)-guided pET vs sET in women with no history of RIF. In women without RIF, no important differences (moderate-CoE) were found in live birth rates and clinical pregnancy rates (CPR). We also performed a meta-analysis of four cohort studies that were adjusted for confounding. In agreement with the RCTs, no benefits were found in women without RIF. However, in women with RIF, low CoE suggests that pET might improve the CPR (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.42–4.40). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: We found few studies with low RoB. Only two RCTs in women without RIF were published, and none in women with RIF. Furthermore, the heterogeneity observed in populations, interventions, co-interventions, outcomes, comparisons, and procedures limited the pooling of many of the included studies. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: In the population of women without RIF, in agreement with previously published reviews, pET did not prove to be more effective than sET and, therefore, it precludes the routine use of this strategy in this population until more evidence is available. However, more research is advisable in women with RIF as low-certainty evidence from observational studies adjusted for confounders suggests that the CPR might be higher with pET guided by TER in this population. Although this review presents the best available evidence, it is still insufficient to change current policies. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): No specific funding was obtained for this study. There are no conflicts of interest to declare. REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42022299827.
Published: 17 May 2023
Human Reproduction; https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dead099
What are the similarities and differences in the systemic proteomic profiles by endometriosis-associated pain subtypes among adolescents and young adults with endometriosis? Endometriosis-associated pain subtypes exhibited distinct plasma proteomic profiles. Endometriosis patients, especially those diagnosed in adolescents and young adults, are often plagued by various pain symptoms. However, it is not clear what biological processes underlie this heterogeneity. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data and plasma samples from 142 adolescent or young adult participants of the Women’s Health Study: From Adolescence to Adulthood cohort with laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis. We measured 1305 plasma protein levels by SomaScan. We classified self-reported endometriosis-associated pain into subtypes of dysmenorrhea, acyclic pelvic pain, life impacting pelvic pain, bladder pain, bowel pain, and widespread pain phenotype. We used logistic regression to calculate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for differentially expressed proteins, adjusting for age, BMI, fasting status, and hormone use at blood draw. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified enriched biological pathways. Our study population consisted mainly of adolescents and young adults (mean age at blood draw = 18 years), with nearly all (97%) scored as rASRM stage I/II at laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis, which is a common clinical presentation of endometriosis diagnosed at a younger age. Pain subtypes exhibited distinct plasma proteomic profiles. Multiple cell movement pathways were downregulated in cases with severe dysmenorrhea and life impacting pelvic pain compared to those without (P < 7.5×10−15). Endometriosis cases with acyclic pelvic pain had upregulation of immune cell adhesion pathways (P < 9.0×10−9), while those with bladder pain had upregulation of immune cell migration (P < 3.7×10−8) and those with bowel pain had downregulation (P < 6.5×10−7) of the immune cell migration pathways compared to those without. Having a wide-spread pain phenotype involved downregulation of multiple immune pathways (P < 8.0×10−10). Our study was limited by the lack of an independent validation cohort. We were also only able to explore any presence of a pain subtype and could not evaluate multiple combinations by pain subtypes. Further mechanistic studies are warranted to elucidate the differences in pathophysiology by endometriosis-pain subtype. The observed variation in plasma protein profiles by pain subtypes suggests different underlying molecular mechanisms, highlighting the need for potential consideration of pain subtypes for effectively treating endometriosis patients presenting with various pain symptoms. This study was supported by the Department of Defense W81XWH1910318 and the 2017 Boston Center for Endometriosis Trainee Award. Financial support for establishment of and data collection within the A2A cohort were provided by the J. Willard and Alice S. Marriott Foundation. N.S., A.F.V., S.A.M., and K.L.T. have received funding from the Marriott Family Foundation. C.B.S. is funded by an R35 MIRA Award from NIGMS (5R35GM142676). S.A.M. and K.L.T. are supported by NICHD R01HD094842. S.A.M. reports serving as an advisory board member for AbbVie and Roche, Field Chief Editor for Frontiers in Reproductive Health, personal fees from Abbott for roundtable participation; none of these are related to this study. Other authors report no conflict of interest. N/A.
Published: 17 May 2023
Human Reproduction; https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dead092
Do the perinatal outcomes of patients following hysteroscopic treatment for Asherman syndrome (AS) differ from that of a control population? Perinatal complications including placental issues, high blood loss, and prematurity in women after treatment for AS should be considered as moderate to high risk, especially in patients who have undergone more than one hysteroscopy (HS) or repeated postpartum instrumental revisions of the uterine cavity (Dilation and Curettage; D&C). The detrimental impact of AS on obstetrics outcomes is commonly recognized. However, prospective studies evaluating perinatal/neonatal outcomes in women with AS history are sparse, and the characteristics accounting for the respective morbidity of AS patients remain to be elucidated. We conducted a prospective cohort study utilizing data from patients who underwent HS treatment for moderate to severe AS in a single tertiary University-affiliated hospital (enrolled between 01 January 2009 and March 2021), and who consequently conceived and progressed to at least 22nd gestational week of pregnancy. Perinatal outcomes were compared to a control population without an AS history, retrospectively enrolled concomitantly at the time of delivery for each patient with AS. Maternal and neonatal morbidity was assessed as well as the characteristics-related risk factors of AS patients. Our analytic cohort included a total of 198 patients, 66 prospectively enrolled patients with moderate to severe AS and 132 controls. We used multivariable logistic regression to calculate a propensity score to match 1–1 women with and without AS history based on demographic and clinical factors. After matching, 60 pairs of patients were analysed. Chi-square test was used to compare perinatal outcomes between the pairs. Spearman’s correlation analysis was utilized to investigate the correlation between perinatal/neonatal morbidity and the characteristics-related factors of AS patients. The odds ratio (OR) for the associations was calculated by logistic regression. Among the 60 propensity matched pairs, the AS group more frequently experienced overall perinatal morbidity, including abnormally invasive placenta (41.7% vs 0%; P < 0.001), retained placenta requiring manual or surgical removal (46.7% vs 6.7%; P < 0.001), and peripartum haemorrhage occurrence (31.7% vs 3.3%; P < 0.001). Premature delivery (<37 gestational weeks) was reported more frequently also for patients with AS (28.3% vs 5.0%; P < 0.001). However, no increased frequency of intra-uterine growth restriction or worsened neonatal outcomes were observed in AS group. Univariable analysis of risk factors for AS group morbidity outcomes revealed that the main factor related to abnormally invasive placenta was two or more HS procedures (OR 11.0; 95% CI: 1.33–91.23), followed by two or more D&Cs preceding AS treatment (OR 5.11; 95% CI: 1.69–15.45), and D&C performed postpartum as compared to post abortion (OR 3.0; 95% CI: 1.03–8.71). Similarly, two or more HS procedures were observed as the most important factor for retained placenta (OR 13.75; 95% CI: 1.66–114.14), followed by two or more preceding D&Cs (OR 5.16; 95% CI: 1.67–15.9). Premature birth was significantly associated with the number of preceding D&Cs (OR for two or more, 4.29; 95% CI: 1.12–14.91). Although the cohort of patients with AS was enrolled prospectively, a baseline imbalance was intrinsically involved in the retrospective enrolment of the control group. However, to reduce the risk of bias, confounding factors were adjusted for using propensity score matching. The limitation to the generalization of our reported results is the single institution design in which all patients were treated for AS in one tertiary medical centre. Within our search scope, our study represents one of the first and largest prospective studies of perinatal and neonatal outcomes in moderate to severe AS patients with a prospectively analysis of the risks factors of characteristics significantly influencing reported morbidities among patients with AS. The study was supported by the Charles University in Prague [UNCE 204065] and by the institutional grant of The General Faculty Hospital in Prague . No competing interests were declared. N/A.