ISSN / EISSN: 09728988 / 22310916
Published by: Veterinary World
Total articles ≅ 3,223
Latest articles in this journal
Veterinary World; https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2022.2699-2704
Background and Aim: Methicillin-resistant globally, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of disease in both humans and animals. Several studies have documented the presence of MRSA in healthy and infected animals. However, there is less information on MRSA occurrence in exotic pets, especially healthy rabbits. This study aimed to look into the antimicrobial resistance profile, hidden antimicrobial-resistant genes in isolated bacteria, and to estimate prevalence of MRSA in healthy rabbits. Materials and Methods: Two-hundreds and eighteen samples, including 42 eyes, 44 ears, 44 oral, 44 ventral thoracic, and 44 perineal swabs, were taken from 44 healthy rabbits that visited the Prasu-Arthorn Animal Hospital, in Nakornpathom, Thailand, from January 2015 to March 2016. The traditional methods of Gram stain, mannitol fermentation, hemolysis on blood agar, catalase test, and coagulase production were used to confirm the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in all specimens. All bacterial isolates were determined by antimicrobial susceptibility test by the disk diffusion method. The polymerase chain reaction was used to identify the antimicrobial-resistant genes (blaZ, mecA, aacA-aphD, msrA, tetK, gyrA, grlA, and dfrG) in isolates of MRSA with a cefoxitin-resistant phenotype. Results: From 218 specimens, 185 S. aureus were isolated, with the majority of these being found in the oral cavity (29.73%) and ventral thoracic area (22.7%), respectively. Forty-seven (25.41%) MRSAs were found in S. aureus isolates, with the majority of these being found in the perineum (16, 34.04%) and ventral thoracic area (13, 27.66%) specimens. Among MRSAs, 29 (61.7%) isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. Most of MRSA isolates were resistant to penicillin (100%), followed by ceftriaxone (44.68%) and azithromycin (44.68%). In addition, these bacteria contained the most drug-resistance genes, blaZ (47.83%), followed by gyrA (36.17%) and tetK (23.4%). Conclusion: This study revealed that MRSA could be found even in healthy rabbits. Some MRSAs strains were MDR–MRSA, which means that when an infection occurs, the available antibiotics were not effective in treating it. To prevent the spread of MDR–MRSA from pets to owners, it may be helpful to educate owners about effective prevention and hygiene measures.
Veterinary World; https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2022.2693-2698
Background and Aim: In the past, the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in both humans and animals has increased across Thailand. Staphylococcus argenteus has been associated with infections among humans, exotic pets, and livestock. Both species have been identified in non-human primate species from geographically diverse locations but not from non-human primates in Thailand. This study aimed to determine the presence of MRSA/ methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and S. argenteus isolates collected from buccal swab samples in Macaca fascicularis at Kosumpee Forest Park (KFP), Maha Sarakham, Northeast Thailand. Materials and Methods: Aseptic buccal swab samples were collected from 30 free-ranging macaques in November 2018. All isolates were tested using multiple biochemical tests and S. aureus latex slide agglutination test. Presumptive S. aureus isolates were tested for the presence of the mecA gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The isolates were phenotypically determined to be resistant to a β-lactam antibiotic using the disk diffusion method with a 30 μg cefoxitin disk. The isolates were analyzed by PCR for the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene to distinguish S. argenteus from S. aureus. Results: Fifteen macaques (50%) were colonized with S. aureus and 21 isolates were characterized. Three of the macaques carried both the MRSA and MSSA isolate. One animal carried both MRSA and S. argenteus isolate, and one animal carried only S. argenteus. The NRPS gene analysis confirmed that 2 isolates (9.52%) were S. argenteus and 19 isolates (90.48%) were S. aureus [five MSSA and 14 MRSA]. Conclusion: This study is the first to identify MRSA/MSSA and S. argenteus in wild free-ranging M. fascicularis from Thailand at the KFP in Maha Sarakham. This study is also the first report on the occurrence of S. argenteus carriage in M. fascicularis from Thailand.
Veterinary World; https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2022.2681-2692
Background and Aim: Fowl adenovirus (FAdV) 8b causes inclusion body hepatitis, resulting in major economic losses globally among chickens. The objectives were to inactivate FAdV 8b isolate propagated in chicken embryo liver (CEL) cells using a stirred tank bioreactor (UPM08136P5B1) and determine the humoral and cell-mediated immune response, efficacy, and virus shedding in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: The FAdV 8b isolate UPM08136P5B1 was inactivated using binary ethyleneimine, adjuvanted with Montanide 71VG, inoculated into day-old broiler chickens in a booster group (BG) and non-booster group (NBG), and challenged with a pathogenic FAdV 8b strain. Clinical signs, gross lesions, body weight (BW), liver: body weight ratio, FAdV antibody titer using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and histopathological changes were recorded. The CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-lymphocyte profiles of the liver, spleen, and thymus using flow cytometry, and viral load in liver and cloacal shedding using quantitative polymerase chain reaction were evaluated. Results: Chickens in the challenged control group (CCG) exhibited mild clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological changes, which were absent in the inoculated groups, and had lower BW and higher liver BW ratio than chickens in the unchallenged control group (UCG); BG and NBG on 35- and 42-days post-inoculation (DPI). Chickens in NBG and BG had higher antibodies than UCG on 7, 21, 35, and 42 DPI. The challenged BG and NBG produced higher antibodies than the CCG on 35 DPI. T-lymphocytes were higher among the inoculated groups than UCG in the liver, spleen, and thymus. Inoculated challenged groups recorded higher CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-lymphocytes on 35 and 42 DPI than CCG. The challenged control group had a significantly higher viral load in the liver than challenged that in BG on 35 DPI and BG and NBG on 42 DPI. The challenged control group had significantly higher challenge FAdV shedding than challenged inoculated groups on 35 and NBG on 42 DPI. Conclusion: UPM08136P5B1 was successfully inactivated and mixed with Montanide 71VG. The inactivated vaccine candidate that induced humoral and cellular immunity was effective, reduced FAdV load in the liver, and shedding in the cloaca, and could be useful against FAdV 8b infections in chickens.
Veterinary World; https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2022.2673-2680
Background and Aim: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a significant threat to global health and development. Inappropriate antimicrobial drug use in animals cause AMR, and most studies focus on livestock because of the widespread use of antimicrobial medicines. There is a lack of studies on sports animals and AMR issues. This study aimed to characterize the AMR profile of E. coli found in sports animals (fighting cocks, fighting bulls, and sport horses) and soils from their environment. Materials and Methods: Bacterial isolation and identification were conducted to identify E. coli isolates recovered from fresh feces that were obtained from fighting cocks (n = 32), fighting bulls (n = 57), sport horses (n = 33), and soils from those farms (n = 32) at Nakhon Si Thammarat. Antimicrobial resistance was determined using 15 tested antimicrobial agents - ampicillin (AM), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalexin (CN), cefalotin (CF), cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cefquinome, gentamicin, neomycin, flumequine (UB), enrofloxacin, marbofloaxacin, polymyxin B, tetracycline (TE), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT). The virulence genes, AMR genes, and phylogenetic groups were also examined. Five virulence genes, iroN, ompT, hlyF, iss, and iutA, are genes determining the phylogenetic groups, chuA, cjaA, and tspE4C2, were identified. The AMR genes selected for detection were blaTEM and blaSHV for the beta-lactamase group; cml-A for phenicol; dhfrV for trimethoprim; sul1 and sul2 for sulfonamides; tetA, tetB, and tetC for TEs; and qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS for quinolones. Results: The E. coli derived from sports animals were resistant at different levels to AM, CF, CN, UB, SXT, and TE. The AMR rate was overall higher in fighting cocks than in other animals, with significantly higher resistance to AM, CF, and TE. The highest AMR was found in fighting cocks, where 62.5% of their isolates were AM resistant. In addition, multidrug resistance was highest in fighting cocks (12.5%). One extended-spectrum beta-lactamase E. coli isolate was found in the soils, but none from animal feces. The phylogenetic analysis showed that most E. coli isolates were in Group B1. The E. coli isolates from fighting cocks had more virulence and AMR genes than other sources. The AMR genes found in 20% or more of the isolates were blaTEM (71.9%), qnrB (25%), qnrS (46.9%), and tetA (56.25%), whereas in the E. coli isolates collected from soils, the only resistance genes found in 20% or more of the isolates were blaTEM (30.8%), and tetA (23.1%). Conclusion: Escherichia coli from fighting cock feces had significantly higher resistance to AM, CF, and TE than isolates from other sporting animals. Hence, fighting cocks may be a reservoir of resistant E. coli that can transfer to the environment and other animals and humans in direct contact with the birds or the birds' habitat. Programs for antimicrobial monitoring should also target sports animals and their environment.
Veterinary World; https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2022.2665-2672
Background and Aim: The multivariate discriminant (MVD) analysis was a successful statistical tool with a discriminatory capacity for tracing sheep breeds based on meat characteristics. Thus, this study aimed to identify three Saudi sheep breeds based on the physical and histochemical aspects of meat using MVD analysis. Materials and Methods: Eight male lambs from each breed, Najdi, Neami, and Harri, were selected randomly at 90 days of age and allocated into three groups for breeding in a completely randomized design. The feeding and rearing management were similar for an experimental period of 90 days. The experimental diet consisted of a concentrated mixture with identical amounts of calories and nitrogen. Fifty-one meat characteristics were measured in the preliminary MVD, representing hot and cold carcass weight, meat cuts and quality measures, body component weights, fat deposit weights, and histochemical characteristics. Results: Out of the total meat characteristics measured, only 19 characteristics had significant discriminant power. The most powerful characteristics were temperature, empty intestinal weight, pH24, external carcass length, heart weight, and L1, based on partial R-square and Wilks' lambda values. The phenotypic associations between the characteristics had strong associations. The obtained principal components efficiently classified the eight individuals of each breed into distinct groups using robust discriminant characteristics. Conclusion: This method allowed us to determine the breed of sheep carcasses and cuts by considering the physical characteristics of the meat. Therefore, butchers and consumers should use scientific techniques for assigning carcasses and meat to their sheep breed after slaughtering.
Veterinary world; https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2022.2658-2664
Background and Aim: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. It has a serious impact on the health of humans and animals, along with a negative impact on the economy. This study aimed to prepare and evaluate the diagnostic performance of a lateral flow immunochromatographic test (LFIT) nanogold diagnostic kit for detecting brucellosis in sheep. Materials and Methods: A rapidly developed LFIT, in which lipopolysaccharide conjugates with nanogold molecules, was placed on the conjugate pad. One hundred ovine serum samples were tested to detect Brucella antibodies (Ab) using the prepared lateral flow immunochromatography assay (LFA) kit and Rose Bengal test. The evaluation of specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy for LFIT and Rose Bengal plate test was conducted using the P04310-10 IDEXX brucellosis ovine/ caprine Ab enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test (gold standard). Results: The lower amount of Brucella Ab in the ovine serum samples was detected and was 1.58 S/P ratio ELISA titer/100 μL using LFIT and with Rose Bengal to detect 1.86 S/P ratio ELISA. The results showed that the developed LFIT had high specificity with no cross-reactivity with other tested bacteria. The calculated sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of LFIT and Rose Bengal test using the P04310-10 IDEXX brucellosis ovine/caprine Ab ELISA test (gold standard) were 74% and 89%, 81% and 59%, and 76.9% and 66%, respectively. Conclusion: The present results showed interesting results implying that the LFIA strip test could be used as a substantial diagnostic tool for field screening ovine Brucella as an essential step in the control of brucellosis. However, further studies for the validation of the present findings are necessary.
Veterinary world; https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2022.2623-2657
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has become a valuable laboratory tool for rapid diagnostics, research, and exploration in veterinary medicine. While instrument acquisition costs are high for the technology, cost per sample is very low, the method requires minimal sample preparation, and analysis is easily conducted by end-users requiring minimal training. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS has found widespread application for the rapid identification of microorganisms, diagnosis of dermatophytes and parasites, protein/lipid profiling, molecular diagnostics, and the technique demonstrates significant promise for 2D chemical mapping of tissue sections collected postmortem. In this review, an overview of the MALDI-TOF technique will be reported and manuscripts outlining current uses of the technology for veterinary science since 2019 will be summarized. The article concludes by discussing gaps in knowledge and areas of future growth.
Veterinary world; https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2022.2617-2622
Background and Aim: Dairy cow mortality and culling are important parameters reflecting on cow health, productivity, and welfare as well as important determinants of herd sustainability, growth, and profitability. There are no published reports on the causes and rates of mortality and culling of dairy cows in Jordan. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the most common causes and rates of mortality and culling of adult dairy cows in Jordan using a single well-managed dairy farm as a model over 3 years. Materials and Methods: Data extracted from the farm management record software over 3 years (January 2016–December 2018) were used in this study. Cow-specific data included the date and month of sale, death or euthanasia, age, parity, reproductive status, and daily milk yield. Cow health-specific data included physical examination findings, presumptive diagnosis, medical or surgical treatments, postmortem findings, and any available laboratory findings. Descriptive analysis was performed to determine means (± standard deviation) and frequencies of various variables using Excel Spreadsheets of Microsoft Word 10. Results: The 3-year rolling cow population in the farm used in the study was 500 ± 35. The overall mortality and culling rates were 5.9% and 28.5%, respectively. The mean age of died and culled cows was 3 ± 1.2 and 4 ± 1.5 years, respectively. The mortality rates were highest in the colder months (January through April). The most frequent causes of mortality were infectious diseases (28%), followed by non-infectious gastrointestinal diseases (25%), udder and teat diseases (mastitis 22%), and other diseases/accidents (25%). Of the infectious diseases, the most frequently diagnosed were enterotoxemia (12%), tuberculosis (TB) (8%), enteric salmonellosis (7%), and paratuberculosis (1%). The most frequently diagnosed non-infectious gastrointestinal diseases were traumatic reticulitis (11%), vagal indigestion (9%), and abomasal ulcer (5%). The most frequently diagnosed diseases causing mortality involving other body systems were reproductive diseases (acute puerperal metritis 6%), respiratory diseases (pneumonia 5% and pulmonary embolism 1%), metabolic diseases (fatty liver 3%), musculoskeletal diseases (septic arthritis 3% and downer cow syndrome 4%), neurologic diseases (unspecified causes 2%), and finally accidents (electrocution 1%). The most frequent causes of culling were old age/low milk production (39%), followed by the poor reproductive performance (31%), diseases/accidents (24%), and unidentified causes (6%). The most frequent diseases/accidents causing culling were udder diseases (mastitis 32%), followed by non-infectious gastrointestinal diseases (28%) (vagal indigestion [15%], rumen tympany [7%], and abomasal ulcer [6%]), musculoskeletal diseases (23%) (foot and claw diseases [7%], downer cow syndrome [7%], hip luxation [5%], septic arthritis [2%], and gastrocnemius rupture [2%]), respiratory diseases (pneumonia 10%), and finally infectious diseases (9%) (paratuberculosis [3%], hemorrhagic bowel syndrome [2%], and TB [2%]). Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the majority of deaths and culling of dairy cows in Jordan are due to infectious diseases followed by non-infectious gastrointestinal diseases and mastitis. More efforts aiming at improving biosecurity standards, nutritional management, and mastitis prevention measures are required to limit the impact of disease on farm economy, animal health and productivity, and animal welfare in Jordan.
Veterinary world; https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2022.2611-2616
Background and Aim: Activation of breathing, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and plasma antioxidant defense are adaptive mechanisms in lactating dairy goats fed during the summer season. However, an excess of these responses can interfere with the gas exchange. This study aimed to investigate the effect of natural high ambient temperature (HTa) on blood gas parameters and their relation to the HPA axis and antioxidant defense. Materials and Methods: Six mid-lactating goats were included in this study and were fed in individual pens for 2 weeks. The data on ambient conditions, physiological responses, and blood chemistry were measured for two sampling days (D7 and D14), 1 week apart during the late summer season. On this two-sampling day, the main physiological responses to HTa, including respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (Tr), blood gas, and blood chemistry, were measured in the morning and afternoon. Results: Goats from both D7 and D14 increased RR and Tr significantly according to morning and afternoon periods. In addition, goats were at the hypocapnia stage during afternoon panting without a change in blood pH and bicarbonate levels. Interestingly, HTa-induced hypocapnia was not accompanied by an increase in plasma cortisol levels. Finally, ΔTa was negatively correlated with changes in glutathione peroxidase activity. Conclusion: The natural HTa (ΔTa; 5–8°C) in this study activated evaporative heat dissipation and was high enough to induce respiratory hypocapnia. Importantly, this ΔTa did not activate the HPA axis but was correlated with a change in antioxidant defense. Therefore, under natural HTa in tropical conditions, respiratory hypocapnia is the first line of physiological response in goats within a specific range of natural ΔTa (5–8°C).
Veterinary world; https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2022.2603-2610
Background and Aim: The mortality rate of perinatal calves is high, particularly in dystocia cases. Besides detectable conditions such as trauma or amniotic fluid aspiration, the potential salience of cardiological diseases in neonatal bovine deaths has received little attention. This study aimed to compare the electrocardiographic parameters of calves born under conditions of dystocia and eutocia. Materials and Methods: Electrocardiographic, clinical, and laboratory diagnostic examinations were performed during the first 5 days of life on 40 calves. Of them, 20 calves were born under conditions of dystocia and 20 of eutocia. Results: Electrocardiograms (ECGs) did not show detectable arrhythmias in all calves. Both groups exhibited tachycardia on their first ECGs. The QT and ST interval durations developed differently over time in both groups, suggesting that these may be related to conditions of birth. Conclusion: The electrocardiographic differences between calves born of dystocia and eutocia could be a factor in the increased mortality rate of calves born of dystocia.