International Journal of Medical Sciences and Pharma Research

Journal Information
EISSN: 23948973
Total articles ≅ 57

Latest articles in this journal

Rajdeep Dutta Gopal Dutta, Gautam Kar, Surya Prakash Shukla
International Journal of Medical Sciences and Pharma Research, Volume 9, pp 21-30;

Protein is one of the building blocks of bone, muscle, and skin. The body needs it to produce hormones, enzymes, and other chemicals. Eating protein-rich foods and taking supplements may help people feel fuller for longer. Feeling full tends to result in smaller portion sizes and less frequent snacking, which can help a person maintain a healthy weight. Due to a hectic lifestyle and poor eating habits, many of us may be lacking the required protein in our everyday diet. Renatus XanthPro is a unique protein supplement formulated with highly essential Vitamins & Minerals to give your body a fulfilling nutritional boost. The primary ingredient of this protein powder is Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana)- a rich source of one of the rarest and most beneficial antioxidant families known as Xanthones. Xanthones have a broad spectrum of therapeutic properties such as- anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral activities. It is a low-fat composition that helps in weight management. It also contains prebiotic fibre and probiotics that enhance digestion and aid in faster absorption. It protects the body from free radical damage while boosting the energy levels and recovery. It also helps to maintain a healthy blood sugar level and increase the count of white Blood Cells (WBCs) in the blood. It is enriched with immunity-enhancing herbs that make it a better choice for complete wellness. These herbs are of ancient origin and are researched till date to extract more valuable properties in order to enhance human well-being. This review addresses the therapeutic importance of five such medicinal herbs which are an important composition of Xanthpro Protein powder. The inscribed herbs are Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus), Aloe-Vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) and Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica). Pharmacological experiments have demonstrated that different extracts and pure compounds from these species exhibit a broad range of biological properties. Therefore, the use of these herbal supplements in XanthPro, makes the protein powder to be used more reliably and widely. Overall, it gives our body nourishment as well as protection. It is not just a protein supplement, but is a volutionary step towards a healthy nation. Keywords: Protein, Renatus XanthPro, Mangosteen, Xanthones, Therapeutic, Immunity-enhancing herbs, Pharmacological, Soy Protein Isolate, Pea Protein Isolate.
Harrison Omokhua, Mathew A Sede, Joan E Enabulele
International Journal of Medical Sciences and Pharma Research, Volume 9, pp 1-6;

Background: The search for a material that will meet the present-day demands for good aesthetics and functionality has continued to generate interest in dental material sciences. Resinous materials, especially composite resins have no doubt been employed in meeting some of these demands. These restorations like the natural teeth are often exposed to the effect of toothbrushing and other oral hygiene practices. Objective: The study aimed to assess the effects of toothbrushing on the clinical performance of Resin-based Composites in posterior teeth. Method: This was a prospective study carried out in the conservative clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Following ethical approval, thirty-five patients who had at least three posterior teeth caries and met the inclusion criteria were recruited into the study. The 35 patients then received three restorations each of Organically modified ceramics (ORMOCER), Nanohybrid, and micro-hybrid Results: Thirty-five participants were recruited for this study. Of the 35 participants, 29 (82.9%) were females while 6 (17.1%) were males, giving a female-to-male ratio of 4:1. Each participant had 3 cavities which were restored with each of the test materials, giving a total of 105 restorations. There was a statistically significant finding with those who brushed using the horizontal technique as well as with those who brushed for a longer duration. Conclusion: The present study showed that oral hygiene habits especially tooth brushing have effects on the clinical performance of Resin-based Composites, though the effects vary depending on the aspect of toothbrushing. Keywords: Effects, Oral hygiene, Clinical Performance, Posterior restorations
Praveen Sekar, Shridharshini Kumar,
International Journal of Medical Sciences and Pharma Research, Volume 9, pp 7-20;

Fused heterocyclic compounds rank among the most significant systems in medicinal chemistry because of their wide-ranging biological effects. Among the various class of compounds, chalcones and their derivatives are found to be one of the important classes in the field of synthetic and pharmaceutical chemistry. These derivatives are mainly synthesized by means of Claisen-Schmidt condensation, Crossed Aldol condensation and Knoevenagel condensation reactions, which provides wider applications in the field of medicine. Due to the broader biological applications like antimicrobial, anticancer, antimalarial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitubercular, antidiabetic, antileishmanial, anti-vitiligo and neuroprotective properties, these derivatives extended their role in coordination chemistry and also act as intermediates for the synthesis of various organic derivatives containing isoxazole, pyrazole, pyrimidine, naphthalene, indole, polyamine and other moieties as hybrid molecules. The present review discusses the biological applications of various chalcone derivatives. Due to their easiest way of synthesis, nowadays, these types of derivatives were tried for various ailments and by means of implementing various greener chemistry approaches, novel and potent derivatives can be synthesized and applied for various applications. Thus, this review will be helpful for the design of potent chalcone derivatives for numerous applications in the future. Keywords: Chalcones, 1,3-diphenyl-2-propene-1-one, microbial properties, anticancer, antioxidant, neuroprotective and biological applications
Tutiany Tutiany, Ghietsa Aqilah Azzah, Hendra Maulana
International Journal of Medical Sciences and Pharma Research, Volume 8, pp 16-21;

Background: Hypertensive Heart Disease (HHD) contributes to the increasing burden of cardiovascular disease worldwide and is associated with an increased risk of death. Globally, the prevalence of HHD increased by 137.91% from 7.82 million in 1990 to 19.60 million in 2019. At the national level, China carries the highest prevalence of HHD, followed by the United States and India. Indonesia is ranked 3rd with the highest number of HHD sufferers in the world after China and India based on the DALY (Disability-Adjusted Life Year) level. Lack of physical activity has long been associated with the incidence of HHD. In Indonesia, 33.5% of the population is included in the low physical activity group. The province with the largest percentage of the population who does not do physical activity is DKI Jakarta, where 47.8% of the population does not do physical activity. Methods: This study used an analytical method with a retrospective cross sectional approach. The populations in this study were all HHD patients at the Cardiology Polyclinic of Pasar Rebo Hospital Jakarta with a total sample of 124 respondents. Results: The results of the univariate analysis in this study showed that as many as 69 respondents (55.6%) had low levels of physical activity, 46 respondents (37.1%) had moderate levels of activity, and 9 respondents (7.3%) had high levels of physical activity. The results of the bivariate analysis in this study using the chi square test showed that there was a relationship between physical activity and the incidence of HHD with p value = 0.000 dengan odd Ratio. Keywords: Hypertensive, Hypertensive Heart Disease, Physical Activity
Arpana Purohit, Lakshmi Soni, Lakshmi Thakur, Jaydev Shrivastava, Khaleel Khan, Karan Shrivastava, Sameeksha Jain
International Journal of Medical Sciences and Pharma Research, Volume 8, pp 1-7;

Cancer is a leading cause of death and poor quality of life globally. Even though several strategies are devised to reduce deaths, reduce chronic pain and improve the quality of life, there remains a shortfall in the adequacies of these cancer therapies. Among the cardinal steps towards ensuring optimal cancer treatment are early detection of cancer cells and drug application with high specificity to reduce toxicities. Due to increased systemic toxicities and refractoriness with conventional cancer diagnostic and therapeutic tools, other strategies including nanotechnology are being employed to improve diagnosis and mitigate disease severity. Over the years, immunotherapeutic agents based on nanotechnology have been used for several cancer types to reduce the invasiveness of cancerous cells while sparing healthy cells at the target site. Nanomaterials including carbon nanotubes, polymeric micelles and liposomes have been used in cancer drug design where they have shown considerable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic benefits in cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we outline the commonly used nanomaterials which are employed in cancer diagnosis and therapy. We have highlighted the suitability of these nanomaterials for cancer management based on their physicochemical and biological properties. We further reviewed the challenges that are associated with the various nanomaterials which limit their uses and hamper their translatability into the clinical setting in certain cancer types. Keywords: Nanomaterials, Nanotechnology, Cancer, Diagnosis, Treatment.
Ujjawal Choudhary, Vikas Kumar, Tripti Dwivedi, Waseem Ahmed, Vishavjeet Vishavjeet, Jagdeesh Rathi, Sonpal Singh Thakur
International Journal of Medical Sciences and Pharma Research, Volume 8, pp 13-15;

Phenytoin is slowly but nearly completely absorbed in the small intestine; oral bioavailability ranges from 70 to 100%. The drug is widely distributed in the body and is almost completely protein-bound, primarily to albumin. Phenytoin is metabolized primarily in the liver by CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 to 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin, which is glucuronidated and excreted. Minor metabolites that are produced include 3,4-dihydrodiol, catechol (3,4-dihyroxyphenyl-phenylhydantoin), and 3-O-methylated catechol. Since hepatic metabolism is a saturable process, small increases in dosage can result in very large increases in serum levels. CYP2C9 also metabolizes warfarin and tolbutamide, which may explain interactions between phenytoin and these drugs. Phenytoin and metabolites may undergo enterohepatic recirculation prior to excretion. Most of the drug is eliminated in the urine as inactive conjugated metabolites, but small amounts of the unchanged drug may be present in the urine (2–4%) and feces (5%). In this study we prepared Phenytoin from Benzil and urea and determined it percentage yield. Keywords: Phenytoin, Benzil, Urea, Percentage yield
Shubhangi Shrivastav, Ravindra Tyagi, Meenakshi Singh, Sudhanshu Jha
International Journal of Medical Sciences and Pharma Research, Volume 8, pp 8-12;

Menstruation is a cycle of oocyte release and preparing uterus for possible pregnancy if fertilization occurs. It begins at puberty and ends at menopause with an average duration of 28 days. Primary menstrual pain is a problem for women throughout the world that can affect daily life. Painful menstruation, also known as dysmenorrhea, is one of the most common women’s problems. Most women begin having dysmenorrhea during adolescence, usually within four to five years of the first menstrual period. Painful periods become less common as women age. For the treatment of dysmenorrheal much herbal medicine are use. Curcumin is one of the best phytochemical which is isolated from Curcuma longa L., is a fat-soluble natural compound which accumulative evidences have demonstrated that it can use to treat dymenorrhea. The objective of this paper is to analyze through literature regarding primary dysmenorrhea and natural herbal used to relieve the pain. Data from previous research show that curcumin and is the best candidates for relieving primary menstrual pain. Keywords: Menstrual cycle, Dysmenorrhea, Curcumin, Curcuma longa
Priya Vishwakarma, Prateek Kumar Jain, Prashant Vishwakarma, Anushree Jain, Basant Khare
International Journal of Medical Sciences and Pharma Research, Volume 8, pp 46-50;

Since their identification nearly 80 years ago, steroids have played a prominent role in the treatment of many disease states. Many of the clinical roles of steroids are related to their potent anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties. Clinically relevant side effects of steroids are common and problematic. Side effects can occur at a wide range of doses and vary depending on the route of administration. The full spectrum of side effects can be present even in patients taking low doses. Practitioners must be aware that these drugs might exacerbate a preexisting condition or present a new medical condition. Knowledge of the clinical implications of prescribing these agents is critical. Steroid withdrawal syndrome can produce a broad array of signs and symptoms, some of which are not well recognized. High fever is among these. Corticosteroids modulate immune function through various effects in the nucleus of numerous cells. When used in pharmacologic doses to suppress allergic responses or inflammation, these agents can cause numerous adverse effects associated with an excess of glucocorticoid activity. Prolonged use (>2 wk) results in suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which requires tapering of doses. Dosing strategies for systemic corticosteroids are designed to minimize the risk for hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis suppression. This review summarizes the basic pharmacology, complications, and practice delivery issues regarding steroids. Keywords: Steroids, Corticosteroids, Adrenal cortex hormones, Glucocorticoids, Medication therapy management, Mineralocorticoids
Nandini Rohit, Bhupendra Thakur, Anushree Jain, Prateek Kumar Jain, Basant Khare, Yashwant Singh Jat
International Journal of Medical Sciences and Pharma Research, Volume 8, pp 39-45;

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory, systemic, progressive, autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system whose major role is to protect the health by attacking foreign bacteria and viruses are mistakenly, attacking the joints resulting in thickened synovium, pannus formation & destruction of bone, cartilage. Many complications can follow such as permanent joint damage requiring arthroplasty, rheumatoid vasculitis and elty’s syndrome requiring splenectomy if it remains unaddressed. Still now researchers are unable to know the exact cause of this disease. However, it is believed that age, gender, genetics and environmental exposure (cigarette smoking, air pollutants and occupational) play a role in development of RA. As there is no cure for RA, the treatment goals are to reduce the pain and stop/slow the further damage. The identification of novel autoantibodies has improved diagnostic accuracy, and newly developed classification criteria facilitate the recognition and study of the disease early in its course. New clinical assessment tools are able to better characterize disease activity states, which are correlated with progression of damage and disability and permit improved follow up. In addition, better understanding of the pathogenesis of RA through recognition of key cells and cytokines has led to the development of targeted disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Altogether, the improved understanding of the pathogenetic processes involved, rational use of established drugs and development of new drugs and reliable assessment tools have drastically altered the lives of individuals with RA over the past 2 decades. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of RA. Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, Pathogenesis, Disease modifying anti-arthritic drugs, Genetics, Environmental, Autoantibodies
Saakshi Magre, Rupesh Kumar Jain, Basant Khare, Vivek Jain, Pushpendra Kumar Khangar
International Journal of Medical Sciences and Pharma Research, Volume 8, pp 22-27;

Topical drug delivery has been used for centuries for the treatment of local skin disorders. Emulgel have emerged as one of the most interesting topical delivery system as it has dual control release system i.e. gel and emulsion. One side the topical applications of the drug offers the potential advantages of delivering the drug directly to the site of action and secondly delivering the drug for extended period of time at the effected site. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSIAD) formulations are designed to deliver therapeutic levels of the active ingredients to the inflamed tissue without elevating serum levels after application on the skin. This route is an attractive alternative to the oral administration of NSAIDS which is associated with high incidence of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) complications and other systemic toxic effects. Flurbiprofen is a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent usually well tolerated as compared to other NSAIDS product. It has analgesic and antipyretic properties. It is used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders such as ankylosing spondilities, oesteoarthritis and intraoperative miosis. It suffers from major GIT disturbances. The aim of the present study was to develop an emulgel formulation of flurbiprofen using water soluble polymer of hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K100M), carbopol 940, carbopol 941 and xanthan gum. Oleic acid and propylene glycol were used as permeation enhancers. The influence of the type of the gelling agent on the drug release from the prepared emulgel was investigated. The prepared emulgels were evaluated for their physical appearance, pH determination, viscosity, spreadability, extrudability, in-vitro drug release, ex-vivo drug release and stability. All the prepared emulgels showed acceptable physical properties, homogeneity, consistency, spreadability, viscosity and pH value. The emulgels were found to be stable with respect to physical appearance, pH, and rheological properties and drug content at all temperature and conditions for one month. Keywords: Emulgel, Topical drug delivery, Flurbiprofen, Carbopol, Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose
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