Journal of Soil, Plant and Environment
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 22 December 2022
Journal of Soil, Plant and Environment, Volume 1, pp 44-60; https://doi.org/10.56946/jspae.v1i2.71
Managing various organic residues produced from agricultural waste is today's prominent need. The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of integrated, chemical, and organic fertilizers on maize productivity. Initially, vermicompost was prepared using different organic residues viz., paddy straw, neem leaves and dhaincha leaves, each in combination with cow dung in 1:1 ratio. Further, prepared vermicompost along with integrated nutrient and chemical fertilizer treatments, were tested on maize productivity. The experiment was carried out in Randomized Block Design. The average two-year data revealed the increased yield and yield attributes of maize with integrated nutrient management followed by the recommended dose of fertilizers and different vermicompost treatments. The least maize productivity was noted with control treatment. The different vermicompost treatments comparatively improved the organic carbon (0.43 to 0.45%) and micronutrient status of the soil in the second year of application (Fe- 10.85 to 13.32 mg kg-1, Zn- 2.95 to 4.18 mg kg-1, Cu- 0.55 to 0.73 mg kg-1, Mn- 10.37 to 15.24 mg kg-1). The result of vermicompost application can be recorded higher in terms of improvement in yield and soil properties in the later years, as the initial organic carbon and nutrient content of the experimental soil was recorded to be low, and, it takes almost three to four years for the positive response of soil to the applied organic amendments. Therefore, long-term experiments are required to evaluate the effects of vermicompost on soil chemical properties and maize productivity. The investigation revealed that integrated nutrient treatment proved better in terms of improving the yield and nutrient status of the soil.
Published: 15 December 2022
Journal of Soil, Plant and Environment, Volume 1, pp 61-75; https://doi.org/10.56946/jspae.v1i2.68
This research was conducted at the Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture Peshawar during the 2011 growing season of the crop to determine the response of various cultivars of cucumber to different isolates of the downy mildew fungus Pseudoperonspora cubensis under artificial epiphytotic conditions. Five cucumber cultivars (Desi, Long Green, F1 hybrid, Dollar and Khyber) were tested for their response to infection by four different isolates of Pseudoperonospora cubensis. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found among the treated and control plants. F1 Hybrid and Dollar F1 were found to have the least disease severity. Among the isolates, isolate 4 caused the highest disease severity. In control plants, the disease severity was less. The interaction of cultivars and isolates was also significant in disease severity after thirty and forty days of inoculation.
Published: 14 November 2022
Journal of Soil, Plant and Environment, Volume 1, pp 31-43; https://doi.org/10.56946/jspae.v1i2.73
Agriculture has a vital role in the life cycle of an economy. Phytopathogenic microorganisms negatively influence many crops, the economy, and the Environment worldwide. Beneficial plant microbiomes have the immense potential to provide cost-effective and maintainable solutions to existing agricultural challenges. The yield improvement can partly be credited to advanced plant pest and disease management, including better knowledge of phytopathogens and diverse control methods. Well-organized and balanced crop protection is of vast economic and ecological importance for food and feed production. A varied variety of goods made of plastics are utilized in farming which consists of poly-tunnels, plastic reservoirs, mulches, ropes, agrochemical cans, various nets, irrigation systems, packaging bags, nursery pots, anti-bird nets, greenhouses, and their components, wear and tear of these products are hosts of diverse microorganisms in agriculture. However, little investigation has been done to explore plastic microbes' diversity, survival strategies, and interaction mechanisms with plants. Several advanced approaches, including metagenomics, metabolomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and culturomics, are currently available to scrutinize the multiplicity, composition, and functions of the microbiomes in soil and plant habitats such as rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and endosphere. This review highlights the increasing use of plastic, plastic microbiomes, subsequent challenges, and future perspectives in agriculture. It emphasizes using advanced molecular tools and techniques to explore the microbiome diversity and the mechanism of plant-microbe interaction. The analyzed knowledge gaps in the host-pathogen relationship research area will help to redraft better research approaches based on economic thresholds.
Published: 1 October 2022
Journal of Soil, Plant and Environment, Volume 1, pp 16-30; https://doi.org/10.56946/jspae.v1i2.56
In recent years, biochar application to soil has become more popularized due to its potential roles on soil fertility, plant growth, and development. In this review, we discussed the impact of biochar on the relative abundance of soil proteobacteria and its relationship with soil physiochemical properties under different rhizospheres. It was observed that biochar applied to different soil improved proteobacteria, and its lowest and highest relative abundance was ranged from 30-80%, respectively. A positive relationship of soil proteobacteria with soil pH, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, available potassium and total carbon were observed in several studies. Both the relative abundance of proteobacteria and its relationship with soil properties depend on biochar type, soil type, and fertilizers applied to the soil. Most of the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria including nitrogen-fixing bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, cellulose-decomposing bacteria, nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria belong to proteobacteria, which plays a significant role in nitrogen recycling that is beneficial for the plant growth, yield and fruits/seeds quality. Furthermore, a positive relationship between soil proteobacteria and plant yield was also highlighted. In this context, the use of biochar play a potential role to improve the relative abundance of proteobacteria in sustainable agriculture. We highlighted future research guidelines that might benefit the sustainable agricultural system. Moreover, further studies are needed to explore the potential role of biochar application on Proteobaceria families such as Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, and Epsilonproteobacteria.
Published: 20 August 2022
Journal of Soil, Plant and Environment, Volume 1, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.56946/jspae.v1i2.25
This study assessed the heavy metal decontamination potential of bio-enhanced Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis co-culture in used lubricating oil-contaminated soil. The bacterial co-culture was isolated from the soil obtained from Dutse mechanic village, Nigeria. One thousand five hundred(1500) g of sterilized soil was intentionally contaminated with used lubricating oil at three levels. The sterilized soil was biostimulated with processed compost, powdered cocoa pod husk (PCPH), and powdered cattle dung (PCD). Afterward, the mixtures were bio-augmented with the bacterial co-culture (150 mL). The concentrations of Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni) and Lead (Pb) in the used lubricating oil contaminated soil were determined at the commencement, fifth and tenth week of the study. A factorial experiment which was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) was adopted. Results generated from the As decontamination potential of Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis co-culture indicated that all the organic amendments significantly (p<0.05) enhanced its decontamination. At the fifth week, PCPH only enhanced the most Cd decontaminations (0.01020 mg kg-1, 0.00220 mg kg-1 and 0.00150 mg kg-1) compared with other organic amendments on 5%, 10% and 15% used lubricating oil contamination levels, respectively. At the tenth week, PCD only enhanced complete removal of Cd on all used lubricating oil contamination levels compared with compost and PCPH only, which attained complete removal of Cd on 5% and 15% of used lubricating oil contamination levels, respectively. The heavy metal decontamination potential of bio-enhanced Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis co-culture witnessed in this study indicates its suitability in effecting bioremediation of heavy metal impacted environments.
Published: 10 March 2022
Journal of Soil, Plant and Environment, Volume 1, pp 72-88; https://doi.org/10.56946/jspae.v1i1.15
Membrane biofouling is the coverage of membrane surfaces due to undesirable development of biofilms causing a decrease and subsequent loss of productivity in water treatment settings. Continuous use of synthetic chemicals against biofouling is inept as it leads to the emergence of multi-antibiotic resistance. Application of natural products such as plants can be apt in curbing biofouling while checking the resistance challenge. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of Rosmarinus officinalis in the control of membrane biofouling. Bacteria from biofouling environments were subjected to a biofilm confirmation test and identified at cultural, morphological, biochemical and molecular levels. Leaves of R.officinalis were extracted in solvents of varying polarity and activities. These extracts were evaluated against bacterial biofilm formation via minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC), minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) and mesocosm bioassays. Biofilm formation was confirmed in 68% of the isolates identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. The methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of R.officinalis indicated the least MICs (0.313mg/L and 1.25mg/L) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Both extracts recorded the highest MBIC (50.00%) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The peak MBEC (57.88%) was obtained from the methanol extract against Staphylococcus aureus and this same extract inhibited 56.23% density of bacterial biofilms on glass slides.The methanol and ethyl acetate crude extracts of R. officinalis appreciably reduced bacterial biofilms; hence, this plant can be exploited as a natural antifouling agent, with reduced toxicity and low risk of resistance.
Published: 10 March 2022
Journal of Soil, Plant and Environment, Volume 1, pp 89-101; https://doi.org/10.56946/jspae.v1i1.12
Planting patterns and different cultivars play a significant role in forage crops quality and productivity. Therefore, we conducted a field experiment under different planting patterns and cultivars to evaluate sorghum crop yield, yield components, and quality at Agronomic Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan, in 2015. The experiment consists of three sorghum cultivars (Jawar 2002, Sorghum-2011, and JS-2002) with a seed rate of 75 kg ha-1 at different planting patterns (P1=60 cm × 20 cm, P2=50cm × 24 cm, and P3=340 cm × 30 cm). Results showed that sorghum 2011 resulted in higher growth and qualitative attributes than other cultivars. For example, increase in plant height (237.11 cm), dry weight plant-1 (40.61 g), forage yield (57.66 ton ha-1), crude protein contents (6.12 %), fiber contents (32.12 %) and ash contents (8.73%) was observed in sorghum 2011 as compared to other cultivars. Whereas, among planting pattern P3 (40 x 30 cm ) produced maximum plant height (236.33 cm), leaves plant-1( 13.66), stem diameter (1.09 cm), forage yield (55.52 ton ha-1), dry matter yield (18.53 ton ha-1) and crude protein contents (6.06 %) as compared to P1 and P2. This study suggested that the cultivar sorghum 2011 with a planting pattern of 40 x 30 cm is a promising option to improve yield, yield components and quality of sorghum crop.
Published: 5 February 2022
Journal of Soil, Plant and Environment, Volume 1, pp 50-71; https://doi.org/10.56946/jspae.v1i1.11
To investigate the response of wheat to different levels of nitrogen (N), zinc (Zn) and humic acid (HA), an experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, during 2014-15. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design having three replications. Three levels of N (80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1), Zn (6, 12 and18 kg ha-1) and HA (5, 10 and 15 kg ha-1) were used. Results showed that N application at the rate of 160 kg ha-1 manifested maximum days to physiological maturity (164 days), productive tillers m-2 (248), spikes m-2 (258), leaf area tiller-1 (113.6 cm2), spike length (10.4 cm), grains spike-1 (52), 1000-grain weight (47.5 g), biological yield (9260 kg ha-1), grain yield (3723 kg ha-1) and harvest index (40%). Zn treated plots at the rate of 12 kg ha-1 showed maximum days to physiological maturity (162 days), productive tillers m-2 (241), spikes m-2 (252), grains spike-1 (51), 1000-grain weight (45.2 g), biological yield (8843 kg ha-1), grain yield (3375 kg ha-1) and harvest index (39 %). Similarly, HA treated plots at the rate of 12 kg ha-1 revealed maximum days to physiological maturity (162 days), productive tillers m-2 (238), spikes m-2(249), spike length (9.7 cm), 1000-grain weight (45.00 g), biological yield (8649 kg ha-1), grain yield (3342 kg ha-1) and harvest index (39%). The combined application of N, Zn, and HA had significantly affected wheat yield and yield components. It was concluded that N at the rate of 160 kg ha-1, Zn 12 kg ha-1 and HA 10 kg ha-1 significantly increased yield and yield components of wheat.
Published: 23 January 2022
Journal of Soil, Plant and Environment, Volume 1, pp 38-49; https://doi.org/10.56946/jspae.v1i1.10
Mung bean is one of the important Kharif pulses in Pakistan and is grown mainly for its edible seeds; therefore, fertilizers management is an important factor for improving mungbean growth and yield. A field experiment was conducted during the summer of 2013 at Palato Farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Amir Muhammad Khan Campus Mardan, to determine the effect of phosphorus (P) and Zinc (Zn) on the yield and yield component of mungbean. The experiment consisted of four levels of P (0, 25, 50, and 75 kg ha-1) and four levels of Zn (0, 5, 10, and 15 kg ha-1). Data associated with the number of leaves and plant height illustrated that the higher number of leaves plant-1 (8.8) by an average was observed when P was applied at the rate of 75 kg ha-1 followed by 0 kg phosphorous (P) ha-1 (8.7) and Zn (Zn) application at the rate of 10 kg ha-1produced a maximum number of leaves plant-1 (9) followed by 15 kg ha-1(8.8) where 0 kg ZN ha-1 resulted in (7.7). Similarly, Zn significantly affected plant height, while P and interaction between P and Zn levels were non-significant. The higher plant height (95.1 cm) was observed when P was applied at the rate of 75 kg ha-1, followed by 50 kg P ha-1 (93.6 cm). Higher plant height (95.8cm) was recorded when ZN was applied at the 5 kg ha-1 followed by 10 kg ha-1(95.1cm). Higher numbers of nodules (13.1) were observed with the application of 50 kg P ha-1 followed by 75 kg P ha-1 (12.3), while the lowest (10.6) nodules were observed in the control plot. P application at the rate of 25 kg ha-1 produced a higher grain yield than 75 and 50 kg ha-1 and Zn application at the rate of 5 kg ha-1 produced a higher grain yield than 10 and 15 kg ha-1. Therefore, a lower rate of P 25 kg ha-1 and Zn 5 kg ha-1 is recommended for a higher yield of mungbean in the agro-ecological condition of Mardan.
Published: 23 January 2022
Journal of Soil, Plant and Environment, Volume 1, pp 19-37; https://doi.org/10.56946/jspae.v1i1.3
In Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, wheat yield is subjected to availability of water and proper rate of Nano-black carbon in soil. Delay in rain and unsuitable soil health cause severe yield reduction. Therefore this experiment was conducted to compare Irrigation levels in relation to different rate of Nano-black carbon to find out high yielding fact that could enhance wheat productivity and food security. Three different-irrigation-levels (250-mm, 275-mm and 300-mm), were compared in early growth establishment in three repeats with five different rates of Nano-black carbon (5Mg ha-1, 10Mg ha-1, 15Mg ha-1, 20Mg ha-1 and 25Mg ha-1). All the other agronomic practices were kept similar for each replicate. Data was recoded on different growth parameters such as days to emergence, emergence m-2, plant height, spike length, number of spikes m-2, thousand grain weight and grain yield. The study confirmed that almost all Irrigation levels were prominent but significant reduction in different parameters was observed with variation in Nano-black carbon application that could ultimately effect soil health and productivity. From this experiment we concluded that proper rate of Nano-black carbon can significantly enhance the development of roots system which may ultimately increase the shoot growth and final yield. The present study revealed that wheat Irrigation levels (250 mm) can properly save water and increase wheat productivity in combination with Nano-black carbon addition. Different Irrigation levels retorted differently to different Nano-black carbon showing that potential did exist in Nano-black carbon for water storage and improvement of soil health under drought stress condition.