Latest articles in this journal
Published: 30 October 2022
Albus Scientia, Volume 2022, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.56512/as.2022.2.e221030
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory and genetic disease that mainly involves skin with some complicated forms extending to other body systems. The disease is fairly common with genetic predisposition as one of the major etiology. It is known to occur as a result of immune system aberration involving helper T cells mainly and is thus treated on similar lines with most of the drugs belonging to immunomodulator class like steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, methotrexate and various others like retinoids. Disease pathology has a new area of research advancement focused on oxidative stress. It has been suggested that reactive oxygen species have a considerable role in the cascade of pathological features. The disease shows relapses and remissions seldom showing a remarkable or complete recovery. A therapy which can completely resolve the cosmetic and other important symptoms is still a food for research. The dimensions of research have also been inclined to nano particles as treatment options over past few years. In this review, our key objective is to highlight the complexity and clinical diversity of this multifaceted disorder, its pathogenesis and the potential of state of the art treatment options.
Published: 3 October 2022
Albus Scientia, Volume 2022, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.56512/as.2022.2.e221003
Background: Dengue virus (DENV) is a most prevalent arbovirus with about 100 million infections worldwide every year. It is endemic in the subtropical and tropical areas in the world, an emerging public health threat. Serum lipidome is a key player in the immune system response of the patient for the period of dengue fever. This study was aimed to assess the lipids deviations in serum of patients with dengue fever. Materials and Methods: Three For this case-control study blood samples of N=65 dengue patients of age ≥18 year were collected from the Mayo Hospital, Lahore. Whereas samples of 45 healthy individuals were collected from the University of the Punjab, Lahore. Blood samples from subjects were collected to analyze serum lipidome. Results: Significantly (P < 0.001) increased serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and very low-density lipoprotein while a significant (P < 0.001) reduction in high density lipoprotein was observed in the dengue patient’s serum in contrast to the control. Conclusion: We can conclude that DENV infection can contribute to dyslipidemia with subsequent cardiovascular disorder symptoms. Therefore, patients infected with DENV should monitor their serum lipid profiles to deal with DENV induced effects to the cardiovascular physiology.
Albus Scientia, Volume 2022, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.56512/as.2022.2.e221115
Collagen, a structural protein, prevalent in animals, especially in skin, bones, and joints, responsible for providing fundamental structural support, is being used extensively in cosmetics. Mammalian and fish skin are the most common sources of collagen. Collagen's unique qualities, such as its role as a natural humectant and moisturizer for the skin, have piqued the curiosity of both academics and the cosmetic industry. In this review study, collagen biosynthesis, collagen sources used in the cosmetic industry, and collagen's function in cosmetics are discussed along with future aspects of collagen-based materials in cosmetics.
Albus Scientia, Volume 2022, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.56512/as.2022.2.e220915
Background: Sodium metabisulfite (SM) is commonly used with varying concentrations as a preservative, sewage treatment chemical, and in other commercial consumer products etc. It is reported to pose series of health hazards affecting various vital organs. The current study was aimed to find histological alterations in the intestine with sub-chronic exposure of SM in albino mice. Materials and Methods: Ten mice were orally given SM (1.2 mg/kg mixed in 0.1 ml corn oil) for 21 days while ten mice were kept in the control group (no SM). All the mice were dissected, and small intestine pieces were excised and processed for histological sectioning and staining. Results: SM disrupts the outer wall of villi and microvilli of the small intestine. Moreover, a narrow lumen and few mitotic figures were seen in the intestinal glands. Conclusion: The results concludes that SM is a potential source of major organ’s defects and hence its usage should be lessened to improve the health status.
Albus Scientia, Volume 2022, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.56512/as.2022.2.e221025
Background: Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) are exceedingly common reproductive neoplasms with foremost public health impact. A cross-sectional study was performed to systematically investigate the marker enzymes, clinicopathological correlations, and electrolyte profile in myoma Method: This study enrolled 44 control and 46 leiomyoma subjects, aged 21- 50 years. Anthropometric parameters, detailed history of disease and clinicopathological outcomes were documented via a standardized questionnaire followed by uterine ultrasound investigation. Venous blood samples were taken for the measurement of marker enzymes and serum electrolyte concentration with commercially accessible kits Results: In the age group between 30-40 years high incidence of myoma (43.5%) was found. Majority of fibroids were observed single (52%) and Intramural uterine fibroids were found more common type (61%) of leiomyomas. Menorrhagia was frequent clinical demonstration with 63% leiomyoma cases. In 26% myoma women positive family history of leiomyomas was also observed. A significant increase in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and body mass index (BMI) while in parity a significant decrease was recorded in leiomyoma patients in comparison with controls. Serum electrolytes investigation revealed a substantial increase in the calcium (Ca2+) as well as chloride (Cl–) concentration and significant drop in potassium (K+) concentration in myoma subjects when compared to the controls. While for serum sodium (Na+) concentration, a non-significant difference was documented between comparable groups. Analysis of marker enzymes manifested a significant increase in the serum concentration of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and acid phosphatase (ACP) in fibroid patients in comparison to controls whereas non-significant variations were recorded for serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentration. Conclusion: A reduced serum K+ concentrations and raised Ca2+, Cl–and Na+ levels in the leiomyoma patients illustrate increased estrogen concentration, that may be responsible for fibroid growth and serum concentration of AST, ACP and ALP are sustainable diagnostic markers of uterine fibroids.
Published: 29 June 2022
Albus Scientia, Volume 2022, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.56512/as.2022.1.e220629
Background: The cryptic diversity of bat fauna in Pakistan demands to incorporate an efficient and reliable approach for morphological species identification. The traditional taxonomic approaches are effective in exploring variations of characters but have proved to be less efficient in quantifying the interspecific and intraspecific differences. Geometric morphometric method has recently act as an efficient tool to analyze the overall changes in shape and size of biological features. The present study is therefore conducted to exploit the use of geometric morphometric methods along with traditional morphological measurements to examine the size and shape differences among four geographically isolated population groups of insectivorous bat species (Pipistrellus coromandra). Methods: Specimens were collected from different locations of Punjab, Pakistan. Twelve well-defined landmarks to quantify the variation in right wing of bats were analyzed using geometric morphometric tools and wing measurements of 5 selected parameters were also taken using traditional morphological measurements. Results: The results of external measurements for wing overlapped for most part among the different studied population groups. Fur colour photographs displayed in the inter-population had shown visible change from dark brown to light brown giving an indication of more morphological differences. Regarding the geometric morphometric results, wing-shape differences were found to dominate in inter-population as compared to intra-population for bats species (Pipistrellus coromandra) which clearly reflects the effects of habitat factors on different populations phenotypically. The wireframe for the first two PCs indicated an overall shape change trend with the displacement of landmark points representing the expansion along the upper wing margins in PC1 compared to PC2. Conclusion: The current study has successfully explored the power of geometric morphometric in reflecting the variations in wing shape among different populations of bats species (Pipistrellus coromandra).
Published: 28 June 2022
Albus Scientia, Volume 2022, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.56512/as.2022.1.e220628
Background: Migraine is a severe neurovascular disease with some temporary symptoms like unilateral headache attacks associated with sensory and autonomic disturbances. It affects 12% of the general population worldwide. Females are more susceptible to migraine than males. The genetic and environmental factors contribute as a causative agent to its symptomatology. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter plays a potential role in migraine pathophysiology that prompted us to evaluate the association between gamma-aminobutyric acid type a receptor gamma two subunit gene (GABRG2) polymorphisms and the risk of a migraine attack. Methods The present case-control study included 220 subjects (100 control; 120 patients). Blood samples were taken from all the participants and DNA was isolated. The selected SNPs (rs211037, rs121909672, and T813C) of exons 5, 7, and 8 of the GABRG2 gene were genotyped for cases and controls. Results: A silent polymorphism was found at the rs211037 polymorphic site, while no variation was found on other targeted sites either in the case or control population. Statistical analysis indicated significant differences in genotypic (p=<0.05) and allelic frequencies (p = <0.001; OR 2.039; 95% CI 1.346-3.089) and for dominant model (p = <0.001; OR 2.836; 95% CI 1.618-4.970). Conclusion: The result of our study showed that rs211037 polymorphism of the GABRG2 gene was significantly associated with migraines in the Pakistani population.
Published: 24 June 2022
Albus Scientia, Volume 2022, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.56512/as.2022.1.e220624
Background: The present study purports to check and validate the potential of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) alone being a suitable and cost-effective lysis buffer for maximum and efficient protein extraction from various muscle tissues of broiler chicken and mammalian liver. Materials and Methods: Three different muscle tissues (I; chest, II; wing and III; leg) were extracted from randomly selected commercial broilers (n=4) while mice (n=3) were dissected for the extraction of liver tissue samples. 1:1 ratio (w/v) of SDS; 10 and 1.0 & 1.5% was used for muscles and liver tissues, respectively for its best time optimization for protein extraction. After incubation, respective tissues were homogenized followed by centrifugation. The supernatant was then processed for crude protein (CP) extraction by Bromocresol Green (BCG) method. Results: SDS (10%) achieved a maximum yield of CP after 1 hour of incubation. When checked the co-dependence of SDS-reagent on muscle-tissue type and time of incubation, tissue I (chest) was found to give maximum CP contents after 1 hour of incubation, tissue II (wing) extracted more CP after 3 hours while tissue III (leg) rendered equal amounts of CP after 1, 2 and 3 hours of incubation, respectively. From the mammalian liver tissue maximum yield of CP (6.9 g/dl), and albumin (ALB) (1.6 g/dl) was obtained with 1.5% of SDS. While the CP and albumin (Alb) content was not detected after homogenization with 1.0% SDS. Significance was checked at (P< 0.05). Conclusion: It is concluded from the above findings that 10% SDS is the best lysis buffer concentration to extract crude protein from all the studied broiler muscle tissues while from mice liver samples we found 1.5% SDS lysis reagent seems good than 1.0%. Furthermore, this simple and cheapest procedure and ease of preparation this reagent may be suitable for extraction of important tissue protein fractions.
Published: 30 May 2022
Albus Scientia, Volume 2022, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.56512/as.2022.1.e220530
Background: Amongst the industrial hubs in Pakistan, Wazirabad is renowned for its cutlery industry. Cutlery industry generates heaps of multi-metallic dust in whetting units during the processing of stain fewer steel tools. This dust comprises certain potentially toxic and even carcinogenic constituents, thus pose a serious health threat to the workers involved in its processing. Laborers health and safety is something quite non-seriously considered in most of the developing countries, no different is Pakistan. Present exploration was aimed at searching for the differences, in blood profile and quantitative serum protein profile of a group of laborers in cutlery industry that are directly and regularly exposed to multi-metallic dust. Materials and Methods: After taking written consent from the participants, blood samples were drawn for hematological analysis and serum analysis. Hematological analysis was performed with hematological analyzer and serum was subjected to SDS gel electrophoresis for protein profiling. Results: Statistically significant changes were observed in the number of RBCs, MCV, HCT and RDW, whereas platelet count was decreased in experimental groups when compared to control group. Serum protein profiling using SDS-PAGE revealed the protein fractions ranging from 73 to 287 kDa. Densitometric analysis has shown changes in the serum proteins of the subjects exposed to metal dust. Conclusion: Chronic exposure to the metal dust induce changes in the hematological parameters as well as serum proteins. The industrial workers should ensure the use of industry specific personal safety equipment. Key words: Health hazard, Hematology, Metals, Metal dust, Proteins, SDS-PAGE.
Published: 30 April 2022
Albus Scientia, Volume 2022; https://doi.org/10.56512/as.2022.1.e220430
Dear Editor, According to WHO, there have been 209,876,613 confirmed cases of COVID-19, and 4,400,284 total deaths to date (https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019, retrieved on 22nd August 2021, 17:09 PST). Pakistan documented the first confirmed case of COVID-19 on February 26, 2020 (Waris et al. 2020). There were 1,123,812 confirmed cases and 24,923 deaths reported with Sindh being the most affected province with 419,810 confirmed cases followed by Punjab with 379, 574 confirmed cases (http://covid.gov.pk/ retrieved on 22nd August 2021, 17:09 PST). Effective strategy and strict steps taken by the Government of Pakistan have confined the active cases to 89,334 only (http://covid.gov.pk/, retrieved on 22nd August 2021, 17:09 PST). Federal and Provincial Governments of Pakistan took various measures to control its spread well in advance. These measures include a strict screening of travelers, the installation of scanners at exchange routes (airport and land routes), closure of every single educational institute all over Pakistan, and awareness campaigns via public and private media and social platforms (Waris et al., 2020). Pakistan had reported the second-highest cases in the last seven days (4th-10th August 2021) in the Eastern Mediterranean region with 24127 cumulative deaths, which is alarming (https://covid19.who.int/table). Experts have already warned that the second wave of COVID-19 will strike more badly than the first one. They urged on the continuity of lockdown until the number of cases starts to decrease as developed countries did. WHO has also expressed its concerns that if Pakistan does not take strict measures, then it may become the next epicenter of this pandemic after Europe. In the present letter, we provide a short-term toll of reported cases, deaths, and recoveries of COVID-19 to forecast the situation in upcoming months under the prevailing circumstances of easing lockdown. The daily-updated data of the COVID-19 epidemic across all provinces of Pakistan have been extracted at (8:25 am PST) between 17th October 2020 to 15th December 2020 from the official website (http://covid.gov.pk/) developed to provide the exact statistics of the COVID-19 pandemic. We generated a bimonthly cumulative record of COVID-19 from 17th October 2020 to 15th December 2020. Regarding 17th October, 32062 tests were performed out of which 567 cases were reported positive with a mortality rate of 2.12%. From 17th October to 15th November, out of 908,599 total tests performed 36,580 cases were reported positive with 522 deaths. By the mid of November, testing capacity was increased to find out more affected patients and to reduce the transmission rate. On 16th November out of 29378 tests performed on that day, there were 2140 positive cases, 33 deaths, and 1010 recoveries. From 16th November to 15th December, 1,185238 tests were performed, 86,945 cases were positive with 1,850 total deaths, and 64,774 recoveries. Pakistan has witnessed its highest death toll from COVID-19 on 18th November amid the second wave of SARS-CoV-2, claiming 295 deaths in a day with a 2.25% death rate. The current study highlighted the stats of COVID-19 during the second wave of infection in the country. Following mid-October to mid-December, a gradual surge in the COVID-19 infection rate and death toll have been recorded all across Pakistan. Over these two months, COVID-19 active cases have been increased from 9,296 (October 17, 2020) to 48,369 (December 15, 2020) with a prominent increase of 420%. On the other hand, the total number of positive cases reported from 16-Oct-2020 to 15-Nov-2020 were 36,580 and this number increase to 86941 from 16-Nov-2020 to 15- Dec-2020 so the rise of 138% in the total number of positive cases was recorded in two months whereas the increase in the death toll was 254%. The positivity rate of COVID-19 increased from 3.99% as reported in the first month to 5.02% in the 2nd month of study (http://covid.gov.pk/stats/pakistan). Probably, imposing smart lockdown and closure of educational institutions immediately amid the second wave of COVID-19 were proved to be effective prevention strategies against the exponential spread of COVID-19. Therefore, the increase in active cases and the total number of deaths is alarming. Similarly, an increase in the positivity rate of tests is a serious concern for Pakistan as it is a direct indicator of the increase in infection rate. The burden of the COVID-19 active cases on hospitals poses serious threats to the lives of healthcare workers due to the unavailability of sufficient personal protective equipment (PPEs) (Armaan et al., 2020). Besides this, patients suffering from other diseases, especially from chronic health conditions like epilepsy also got affected as they are deprived of basic health facilities (Saleem et al., 2020). Collectively, several new strains of corona virus have also been identified in different parts of the World; countries like Pakistan should strictly monitor the situation and design the policies to contain the pandemic accordingly.