Annals of Pancreatic Disorders and Treatment
Published by: Peertechz Publications Private Limited
Total articles ≅ 2
Articles in this journal
Published: 6 September 2022
Annals of Pancreatic Disorders and Treatment, Volume 4, pp 021-027; https://doi.org/10.17352/apdt.000009
Approximately 5 to 10% of patients with Acute Pancreatitis (AP) develop necrosis and about 30% of these patients develop an infection, more than doubling the risk of mortality. The treatment of AP has undergone a major revolution in recent decades and recent studies advocate minimally invasive procedures and are based on antibiotic therapy. Underuse of antibiotics can lead to inappropriate treatment, while overuse encourages the emergence of resistant bacterial flora. With the objective to evaluate the profile of patients undergoing antibiotic prescription for acute pancreatitis, the authors carried out a retrospective cross-sectional study in a private hospital in Florianópolis, Brazil. Data collection took place through medical records and the variables were analyzed using simple and relative frequency, measures of central tendency, and their respective measures of variability/dispersion and standard deviation. The present study meets the bioethical principles determined by resolution 466/12 of the National Health Council. Of 91 included patients with acute pancreatitis, 38 (41,7%) received antibiotic therapy. Most were female (58,3%), aged between 40 and 59 years (41,7%). Patients that received antibiotics had more frequently severe presentations according to the Atlanta Revised Classification Criteria (47.4%); of those, in 13 (72.2%) the indication occurred in the presence of pancreatic necrosis or collections. A wide range of antibiotics was used, with Meropenem being the most prescribed (39.5%), followed by the combination of Ampicillin with Sulbactam (28.9%). Positive cultures showed carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 27,3% of those with positive cultures. The authors conclude that clinical presentation was more severe in cases where there was a need to use antimicrobials. Antibiotics are essential components in the treatment of patients with infection associated with acute pancreatitis and the employment of management protocols that take into account the resistance profile of the local flora is important.
Published: 3 June 2022
Annals of Pancreatic Disorders and Treatment, Volume 4, pp 001-020; https://doi.org/10.17352/apdt.000008
Introduction: Several meta-analyses have reported the survival benefits and safety issues of chemotherapy regimens for pancreatic cancer (PC). The aim was to perform an umbrella review to summarize the existing evidence from meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods: EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, and Epistemonikos were searched from inception to October 31st, 2021.Methodological quality was assessed using the A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR-2). The quality of evidence was evaluated using GRADE criteria (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations). Results: A total of 2,732 records were identified with 24 articles corresponding to 168 meta-analyses in resected/metastatic PC. Two (8.3%) studies were found to be of high methodological quality. Eighty (47.6%) meta-analyses reported survival benefits of using combination chemotherapy, while 88 (52.4%) meta-analyses reported safety outcomes. 78 (46.42%; 36-efficacy, 42-safety outcomes) of the 168 meta-analyses were statistically significant (P ≤0.05). No meta-analyses were found to be of high-quality evidence. Twelve meta-analyses reporting the survival benefits of gemcitabine combinations were graded as moderate quality of evidence. Combination regimen FOLFIRINOX, gemcitabine nab-paclitaxel (gem/nab), and gemcitabine capecitabine (gem/cap) compared to gemcitabine monotherapy were found to improve overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) for both resected (OS: HR = 0.78 (0.69-0.89); PFS: HR=0.79 (0.66-0.94)) and advanced PC (OS: HR = 0.76 (0.68-0.85); PFS: HR = 0.68 (0.60 -0.78)). One meta-analysis comparing the gemcitabine combination regimens (with Nab/Paclitaxel or Capecitabine) versus monotherapy among metastatic PC patients was upgraded to high quality after a sensitivity analysis excluding small-sized studies (PFS; HR = 0.78 (95% CI, 0.69-0.88)). The remaining meta-analyses were either low or very low quality of evidence. Conclusion: Our review showed that the use of combination chemotherapy regimens demonstrated survival benefits over gemcitabine monotherapy, which were supported by moderate to high-quality evidence. Gemcitabine combined with taxanes particularly showed high benefits for overall survival but only a modest benefit for progression free survival for metastatic PC. SWOG-1505 study compared perioperative FOLFIRINOX vs gem/nab in patients with resectable PC but no differences in survival was found. To date, FOLFIRINOX and gem/nab have been compared in the perioperative setting but no phase III trials have performed direct head-to-head comparisons for FOLFIRINOX against gemcitabine-based combination treatments in the metastatic setting. In future, head-to-head clinical trials comparing safety and efficacy for FOLFIRINOX vs gemcitabine-based combinations regimens (specifically gem/nab and gem/cap) in the metastatic setting are required.