Digital Medicine and Healthcare Technology

Journal Information
EISSN: 27546306
Published by: IntechOpen
Total articles ≅ 11

Latest articles in this journal

Simon Bergsma, Efthymios Poulios, Nikolaos Charalampogiannis, Odetta Andraws,
Published: 15 December 2022
Digital Medicine and Healthcare Technology, Volume 2022, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.5772/dmht.11

Abstract:
The cation-𝜋 interaction is a non-covalent interaction with significant role in healthcare such as biochemical systems or molecular neurobiology. The cation-𝜋 interaction is regarded as a strong non-covalent interaction in aqueous solutions essential for ligand–protein interfaces and delivery of chemical drugs. Limited knowledge is available regarding the manufacturing of synthetic functional materials (i.e. self-healing hydrogels) by availing the cation-𝜋 interaction. This mini-review aims to provide a brief summary on the importance of the cation-𝜋 interaction for protein stability and describes the impact on the secondary structure of proteins. Furthermore, it examines the cation-𝜋 interaction in medical applications and its impact in a receptor ligand that applies to neurobiology.
, Oscar J. Pellicer-Valero
Published: 3 November 2022
Digital Medicine and Healthcare Technology, Volume 2022, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.5772/dmht.10

Abstract:
We all live in a hybrid world of both online and offline experiences. Especially since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, we are now more connected than ever. The aim of the metaverse, which is made up of the terms “meta” which means “beyond”, and “verse” which comes from the word “universe”, is to simplify these means of communication by minimising inconveniences and improving experiences in the physical world. Simultaneously, the multitude of data that is part of our lives is moving us towards an irreversibly digital future. Data are the raw material that feeds machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms, which allow us to make decisions based on the analysis of historical events, and to predict future behaviour. In addition to this, 6G, the sixth generation of hyper-speed mobile connectivity, together with new models of cloud computing, will allow for disruptive developments economy, machine learning, social analytics, blockchain, and health, among many others. Digital transformation is already part of our lives, and the health sector and the therapeutic field of ophthalmology are no exceptions. New technologies based on metaverse are emerging to improve medical education and training as well as processes and procedures in all stages of patient journey from diagnosis, monitoring, surgical procedures and adherence to medical treatment. We are facing a “virtual life” that is evolving amidst social and ethical challenges. Will the metaverse really allow the virtual and physical space to come together? Will it improve patient healthcare in the field of ophthalmology?
Tehreem Tahir
Published: 27 October 2022
Digital Medicine and Healthcare Technology, Volume 2022, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.5772/dmht.09

Abstract:
Ras-associated binding (Rab) GTPases control diverse stages of endo and exocytic pathways. Functional impairments of Rabs and its associated proteins have been implicated in many hereditary and neurological diseases. Although Rabs are not classically considered as oncoproteins, many Rabs have been involved in tumor progression/proliferation and its aggressiveness. Rabs contribute to tumor cell migration, invasion of cancer cell to extracellular matrix (ECM) and modification of tumor microenvironment through modulation in integrin trafficking, exosomal and protease secretions. In the present review, current knowledge about the pathogenesis and tumor progression of some Rabs (Rab27, 25 & 21) has been discussed.
Published: 25 August 2022
Digital Medicine and Healthcare Technology, Volume 2022, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.5772/dmht.08

Abstract:
Breast cancer treatment is experiencing a groundswell transformation directed by a better understanding of tumour cell metabolism. Observation of metabolic tumor cell variations led to precision medicine. In addition, a “new wave” of rapid drug development spurred by the 2016 U.S. government’s Moonshot program is in the backdrop and, in part, placed an overwhelming burden on clinical oncologists and patients. In 2016, the U.S. government announced the Cancer Moonshot intending to make ten years’ worth of progress in cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in just five years. In the 5-year interval 2017–2021, the FDA issued an unprecedented 161 new approvals of therapeutic agents for various indications in adult patients with solid tumors. Cancer chemotherapy now involves a complex balance between new drug development, clinical trial observations, FDA drug approvals, next-generation sequencing of tumour and blood samples, and “consensus opinion” between medical, surgical, and radiation oncologists. New “precision” medicine selects precise treatment options that benefit patients based on the genomic makeup of their tumour. Genomic profiling provides information about a diagnosis and prognosis and often predicts response or resistance to therapy, years before routine imaging studies change. New technologies, including liquid biopsy and next-generation sequencing (NGS), have identified oncogenic drivers and unique drugs capable of targeting and inhibiting/modifying newly discovered oncogenic driver pathways. Herein is presented a helpful method for keeping track of and rapidly updating physicians on newly developed effective treatments and therapeutic consensus opinion, which often lacks contemporary harmonization between official oncology societies. Physicians and supporting healthcare workers contribute the most to patients when equipped with knowledge of the newest, least toxic, and most effective therapies.
Jane Anastassopoulou, Andreas F. Mavrogenis,
Published: 28 March 2022
Digital Medicine and Healthcare Technology, Volume 2022, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.5772/dmht.05

Abstract:
Scientists today are pursuing the development of non-destructive and non-invasive methods for rapid and reliable diagnosis of diseases in digital form and reduction in the need for biopsies. In this paper we review the most recent studies supporting the application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and infrared thermography or medical thermography. Both are non-destructive digital techniques, which are promising to record and discriminate the local biochemical changes that are induced by the diseases, while the examined samples do not need any special preparation. The reflected infrared radiation from the affected areas of the body strongly depends on the metabolic steps of the cancer/or any other disease, which is also related to the structural changes at a molecular level of the biological molecules during enzymatic or non-enzymatic steps of the disease. The detection of the FT-IR spectral digital “marker bands” of the obtained changes of cell, liquids or tissue components are derived from the disease in the check point. Furthermore, ImageJ analysis of the thermal imaging in cancerous area showed aggregate formation upon cancer development as it was also indicated from the FT-IR spectra.
Mohsen Navari, Maryam Etebari, Francesca Ricci, Pier Luigi Tazzari, Claudio Agostinelli, Philip Went, Davide Gibellini,
Published: 28 March 2022
Digital Medicine and Healthcare Technology, Volume 2022, pp 1-28; https://doi.org/10.5772/dmht.04

Abstract:
Peripheral T-cell lymphomas not otherwise specified (PTCL/NOS) is the commonest subtype of PTCL. NF–kB related molecules have been found to be variably expressed in PTCL/NOS, suggesting a potential involvement of the NF–kB system in their pathogenesis. However, the actual contribution of NF–kB molecular programs to the PTCL/NOS landscape has not been investigated yet. In this study, we assessed in a large series of PTCL/NOS, the activation status of NF–kB programs and investigated the prognostic impact of such NF–kB expression. Moreover, we explored the possible role of NF–kB inhibitors. We studied the gene expression profiles of 180 PTCL cases and tested two different drugs, the IKK inhibitor BMS-345541 and the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib, in four PTCL cell lines. We found that most cases (84%) presented with some degree of NF–kB activation, based on the expression of REL and RELA. Functionally, the latter was strictly related with TCR signaling activation, while REL was at least partially TCR independent. We also identified genes related with NF–kB activation in this setting that were mainly involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis inhibition. Further, by reverse engineering we defined the transcriptional network of both REL and RELA in PTCLs that only partially overlapped. On the clinical ground, we found that RELA expression was related to a significantly poorer overall survival, with similar trends for REL. However, most remarkably, when all the three genes were considered together, cases with at least one gene over-expressed, showed a dramatically inferior overall survival (28.67 vs. 56.018 months; p = 0.004). Finally, we showed that NF–kB pharmacological inhibition was associated with cell cycle arrest and cell death in NF–kB positive PTCL cells. In conclusion, we extensively explored NF–kB activation in PTCL/NOS, documenting its negative prognostic role. Further, we showed that NF–kB inhibition might represent a rational therapeutic approach in selected cases.
Precious Onyeachu,
Published: 28 March 2022
Digital Medicine and Healthcare Technology, Volume 2022, pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.5772/dmht.02

Abstract:
Population aging is a global phenomenon, with the proportion of the population over the age of 60 increasingly rapidly. It is essential to gain an understanding of the factors that influence acceptance of technologies when they are introduced as part of the monitoring and management of clinical conditions. This study undertakes semi-structured interviews of elderly patients being monitored for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) or diabetes to determine the factors they deemed most important for acceptance of the technology. 18 women and 12 men with age range 65–90 and mean 77 years were interviewed. Nine main themes emerged; attitude to aging and illness, coping strategy, relationship and support, patient-doctor interaction, incorporating patients, self-efficacy, personality, personal meaning, and knowledge. The themes were grouped to three constructs; age/illness, patient, and healthcare practitioner, that were considered as the basis of a framework for a patient technology acceptance model (PTAM).
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