Green Energy and Environmental Technology

Journal Information
EISSN: 27546314
Published by: IntechOpen
Total articles ≅ 12

Latest articles in this journal

Jigneshkumar Desai
Published: 16 December 2022
Green Energy and Environmental Technology, Volume 2022, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.5772/geet.14

Abstract:
The mitigation of future electricity demand is highly dependent upon the integration of green energy technology. Most countries realise the importance of green energy and are given support policies for the encouragement of power integration from green energy sources (GES). The effect of bulk power integration from GES causes stability issues in the power system. The solar and wind energy technologies have been discussed in this paper. Issues relating to integration of GES in the distribution system have also been highlighted. It also describes the desired protection of the distribution network with GES. The coordination issue of auto recloser has been explained in depth. The paper narrates the challenges to green energy technology implementation in the distribution system. Finally, a solution for protection coordination is formulated and solved using a genetic algorithm between auto recloser and fuse using test system. Also, coordination with grid-side relay and fuse is validated. The results give optimised values of plug setting multiplier (PSM), time dial settings (TDS), and constants such as A, B, and x. The optimised values give the correct operating times of auto recloser (t1) and fuse (t2) and a coordinated time interval (CTI).
Yoshihisa Namiki
Published: 12 December 2022
Green Energy and Environmental Technology, Volume 2022, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.5772/geet.13

Abstract:
Global warming is one of the most serious threats to the global environment ever faced by humans. Therefore, a decarboxylation system is urgently required to help reduce carbon dioxide emmisions and mitigate the effects of global warming. In this study, we demonstrated the potential of a novel glucomannan hydrogel containing Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina) to be both a carbon dioxide absorber and an oxygen generator. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the air-tight space (1.3 L) reduced from 0.72% to 0.07% after 8 h of starting of light irradiation on 10 g of the hydrogel. We combined this hydrogel with phosphorescent pigment, magnetic powder, or inert gas. In a dark space after 10 min light-irradiation using 3.5 g of hydrogel and 30 mL of SOT medium, the amount of dissolved oxygen decreased by 11.2%Sat in the regular hydrogel group and increased by 10.2%Sat in the phosphorescent hydrogel group. Hydrogel containing magnetic powder and that containing inert gas could be easily collected via magnetic adsorption (magnetic separation) and low specific gravity-based separation (floatation separation), respectively. Our findings also demonstrated a useful method for quantification of decarboxylation and oxygenation in a compact space using only small amounts of hydrogel.
, Augusta Anuli Nwachukwu, Toochukwu Ekwutosi Ogbulie, Ernest Anayochukwu Anyalogbu
Published: 9 December 2022
Green Energy and Environmental Technology, Volume 2022, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.5772/geet.12

Abstract:
Biogas technology as an alternative energy source illuminates the need for less dependence on fossil fuel. This study highlights the importance of bacteria and alkaline augmentation on lignocellulose-rich biomass for enhanced biogas production. Three different plant substrates namely: maize cob (MC), rice straw (RS), water hyacinth (WH), were augmented with 10% alkaline (NaOH) and 1000 ml broth culture of isolated bacteria (Bacillus sp), while cow rumen (CR) waste served as inoculum. They were formed into three batches as Batch A (maize cob), Batch B (rice straw) and Batch C (water hyacinth). Hydraulic retention time, temperature and pH were monitored during the experiment while biogas production was obtained daily. The results showed that the highest biogas yield was obtained in bacteria augmented MC (626.265 ml/kg TS) at 28 °C and alkaline augmented WH (498.265 ml/kg) at 25 °C. The least biogas production yield was observed in bacteria augmented WH (290.398 ml/kg TS) and untreated MC (311.939 ml/kg TS) at 35 °C and 38 °C respectively. The methane concentrations of the biogas produced were highest in untreated WH and bacteria augmented RS at 3849 ppm and 8558 ppm, the least was observed in bacteria augmented WH at 1130 ppm. The pH of the slurry were within range as the least was 5.4 and the highest recorded was 7.4. The performance of the substrates indicates that plant substrates are impacted by augmentation. However, characteristics and operational conditions are vital irrespective of the required augmentation utilized to enhance production efficiency.
Published: 7 December 2022
Green Energy and Environmental Technology, Volume 2022, pp 1-26; https://doi.org/10.5772/geet.10

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current implementation status of renewable energy projects, analyzing not only the five country leaders during the last decade, in terms of their installed capacity, but also a set of emerging countries playing an important role at regional levels (the who of energy transitions), the sources of green energy that they have chosen (how the transitions are being done), and the trends in greenhouse gas reduction that they have achieved (how far the transitions have progressed). Calculations based on various statistical sources—mainly the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)—show that, while renewable energy installed capacity and implementation of renewable energy (RE) projects have grown in China, they have decreased to differing extents during the last ten years in the four other countries among the top five leaders in renewables (the US, Brazil, Germany and Canada). On the other hand, some non-industrialized countries have emerged in the regional renewable energy scene, and although they still do not stand out globally, they do play a significant role. In fact, in terms of transition toward a renewable energy matrix, the data shows that industrialized/high-GDP countries have made less progress at the national level than emerging ones. Regarding CO2 emissions, there are contrasting trends among the latter set of countries; however, the data analysis also shows that although economic growth negatively affects the decrease of CO2 emissions, individual energy consumption patterns might have an even greater positive impact in reducing emissions; current data from the US, China, Iran and the United Arab Emirates are good examples.
Published: 29 November 2022
Green Energy and Environmental Technology, Volume 2022, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.5772/geet.11

Abstract:
The great contamination caused by organic waste in the process of sale and production has generated great governmental problems; mainly due to the lack of an adequate system for collecting waste. This research reveals the great potential of organic waste, mainly fruit waste, as fuel for the generation of electrical energy through the use of microbial fuel cell technology, due to the high content of chemical substances for chemical oxidation-reduction reactions. This research reveals the reason and the fundamental role for microorganisms in the process of generating electricity; as well as the advances revealed by researchers on the use of certain waste as fuel.
Nan Chen, Yunshui Chen, He Zhao
Published: 9 September 2022
Green Energy and Environmental Technology, Volume 2022, pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.5772/geet.09

Abstract:
Data centers’ electricity energy consumption accounts for 1% of global electricity demand and 0.3% of all global CO2 emissions. Energy reuse as a core of a net zero carbon data center, as a macro goal benefiting to mankind, needs micro innovations from thermal engineers to reclaim the distributed and low-grade thermal energy from diversified electronic equipment. This article presents the attempt to combine the advantages of high-density heat transferring technology by two-phase microchannels and the agility of Additive Manufacturing (A.M.) technology into a heat sink by which thermal energy can be collected in premium quantity and quality. The heat sink prototype adopted the two-layer microchannel design by leveraging the unique capability of A.M. technology to form complicated spatial geometric features, such as the functional channel profiles with diverged cross-sections along the flow direction, intermittent channels, and curved channels. It was fabricated at one-time processing by AlSi10Mg powder SLS/SLM, had an exterior base area of 25 cm2, and interior micro-fins with a minimal thickness of 0.2 mm and fin pitch of 0.38 mm. A test rig had been built to validate the thermal dynamic and hydraulic performance of this microchannel heat exchanger working with HFE 7100 as the coolant. The heat flux under certain wall superheat and pressure drop catches the equivalent grade of microchannels made by conventional micro-cutting approaches on copper or aluminum. The maximum inlet coolant temperature could be elevated up to 60.0 °C with less than 90.0 °C CPU case temperature, which provides the feasibility of high-grade heat recovery. The test results present the promising prospects of this design and A.M. technology in the field of two-phase microchannel heat exchanging, by which the electronic devices in megawatt hyperscale data center can be changed from energy consumers to energy generators for the greenhouse, district heating, and hot water system.
, Mara Alves Soares
Published: 8 June 2022
Green Energy and Environmental Technology, Volume 2022, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.5772/geet.08

Abstract:
This study develops an economic relationship between public health and sanitation with the aim to provide arguments for environmental decisions on the most efficient allocation of available funds. The analysis addresses the specific case of illnesses originating from lack of sanitation. With data from a sample town in Brazil, it produces cost values for the competing systems of medical care and sewage collection, both of which being candidates to combat illnesses. The calculations assume that the existence of sanitary coverage is sufficient to eliminate illnesses, and are carried out with relative monetary units in order to make the procedure generally applicable. An illustrative numerical example shows, with the aid of opportunity cost accounting, how the relationship can be presented on a yearly basis to overcome the difficulty of comparing perpetual medical to sporadic sanitation expenditures. In conclusion, the proactive measure of investing in sanitation is shown to be economically preferable to the reactive provision of medical care for the kind of illnesses addressed.
, Minato Takesawa
Published: 28 March 2022
Green Energy and Environmental Technology, Volume 2022, pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.5772/geet.02

Abstract:
Theoretical limit of solar cell conversion efficiency given by Shockley and Queisser is calculated for the case that the cell is illuminated by solar radiation. If the input radiation is monochromatic, the efficiency can exceed the limit. The aim of our study is to experimentally demonstrate this theoretical prediction and to obtain the experimental results of spectral dependence of photovoltaic cell conversion efficiency. Conversion efficiencies of two types of Si photodiodes (equivalent to solar cells) are determined through the measurements of current–voltage characteristics as a function of the wavelength and the incident radiant power. As the theory predicts, it has been confirmed that the conversion efficiency is almost proportional to the wavelength and also to the logarithm of the incident radiant power. Also, it has been experimentally confirmed that the power conversion efficiency for long wavelength monochromatic radiation is higher than that for white radiation.
, Godfred Ohemeng-Boahen, Lawrence Darkwah, Yen Adams Sokama-Neuyam, Eugene Appiah-Effah, Sampson Oduro-Kwarteng, Barnabas Asamoah Osei, , Seung Han Woo
Published: 28 March 2022
Green Energy and Environmental Technology, Volume 2022, pp 1-25; https://doi.org/10.5772/geet.05

Abstract:
This paper highlights some of the commonly used bio-based materials studied for their applicability as adsorbents in wastewater treatment. Additionally, few processing techniques employed to enhance the ability and or affinity of the adsorbents for wastewater treatment have been discussed. More so, some of the commonly used characterization techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy among others often employed in a bid to elucidate the properties and morphologies of the adsorbents as well as the potential mechanism(s) underlying the adsorbate-adsorbent interaction(s) has also been extensively conferred. The potential draw-backs, recommendations and future perspectives on the use of bio-based materials as adsorbents in wastewater treatment has also been discussed in the concluding section of this paper.
Michael Wildy,
Published: 28 March 2022
Green Energy and Environmental Technology, Volume 2022, pp 1-25; https://doi.org/10.5772/geet.03

Abstract:
Electrospinning is a straightforward technique for the fabrication of nanofibers with the potential for various applications. Thermal energy storage systems using electrospun nanofibers have gained researchers’ attention due to its desirable properties such as nanoscale diameter, large surface area, excellent thermal conductivity, and high loading and thermal energy storage capacity. The encapsulation of phase change materials (PCMs) in electrospun nanofibers for storing renewable thermal energy can be achieved by uniaxial electrospinning of a blend of PCM and polymer, coaxial electrospinning of a PCM core and a polymer sheath, or post-electrospinning absorption. The PCM content and thermal energy storage capacity of different PCM composite nanofibers are compared in this chapter. The drawbacks of traditional electrospinning PCM encapsulation techniques and benefits of post-electrospinning encapsulation methods are discussed.
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