Advances in Geological and Geotechnical Engineering Research

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EISSN: 28109384
Total articles ≅ 15

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Esho Oluwaseyi Olatubosun, Osisanya Olajuwon Wasiu, Ibitoye Taiwo Abel, Ajibade Femi Zephaniah, Tokunbo Sanmi Fagbemigun
Advances in Geological and Geotechnical Engineering Research, Volume 4, pp 22-40;

The research of an analysis of aeromagnetic data collected in the middle Benue Trough in north-central Nigeria is presented. A detailed analysis of basement structures is conducted in order to identify regions with high hydrocarbon potential that is different from those discovered by earlier researchers. Aeromagnetic data were filtered by using the Butterworth and Gaussian filters, transformed by engaging the reduction to the equator technique, and subsequently enhanced. To estimate magnetic basement depths at various places throughout the basin, the Euler deconvolution depth weighting approach was used. Eleven (11) sub-basins with depths ranging from –2000 m to –8000 m were also identified by Euler’s findings. The sub-basins trend in the NE-SW direction while the average sediment thickness is found to be more than 3 km. The extracted structural features indicate areas like Kadi Blam and Kado areas in the southeastern part and Ogoja and Obudu in the southern part of the study area as regions with high structural densities. These areas coincide with the areas delineated as the sub-basins. The cross-sections generated reveal depressions caused by the action of some tectonic activities in the area. This study identified undulating basement topography believed to be due to tectonic activities as well as five areas that are possible targets for hydrocarbon exploration.
Simon D. Christopher, Onimisi A. Jimoh, Onimisi A. Martins
Advances in Geological and Geotechnical Engineering Research, Volume 4, pp 14-21;

The geology of the Zango-Daji area was investigated petrographically and geochemically to determine the study area’s rock types and mineralization potential. The study area is underlain by rocks of the basement complex characterized by hilly and undulating rocks, which include granitic gneiss, migmatite gneiss, biotite hornblende granite gneiss, and pegmatites. Observation from the field shows that the study area is dominantly underlain by granitic gneiss. The granitic gneiss is dark grey, medium-coarse-grained, and characterized by weak foliation defined by the alignment of a streak of light and dark coloured minerals. They are widespread in the area constituting about 70% of rock types found in the study area. The average modal percentage of minerals in the rocks from petrographic studies shows that granitic gneiss had quartz 45%, plagioclase 10%, microcline 20%, hornblende 2%, biotite 10%, muscovite 5%, kyanite 8% and other minerals 5%. Also, the pegmatite of the study area has no evidence of mineralization; it contains minerals like quartz, feldspars (microcline and orthoclase), and micas (mostly muscovite). Geochemical analysis of the granitic gneiss of the study area shows that silica is by far the most abundant with a value of 53.5%, Na2 O value of 32.5%, Al2 O3, and k2 O of 6.1% and 4.0%, respectively. CaO value of 2.630% accounts for plagioclase feldspar in the granitic gneiss. The QAP diagram was used to determine the petrogenesis of the granitic gneiss. The plot shows the parent rock was a monzogranite with a low percentage of plagioclase in a thin section with a high percentage of quartz and alkali feldspar. The pegmatites of the study area are barren, as confirmed by the XRD result.
Zeinab Najafi, Gholam Hossein Karami
Advances in Geological and Geotechnical Engineering Research, Volume 4, pp 1-13;

Estimating and studying groundwater recharge is necessary and important for the management of water resources. The main aim of this work is to estimate the value of the annual recharge in some parts of the Kermanshah and Kurdistan province located in the west of Iran. There are many approaches available for estimation of the recharge, but RS (remote sensing) and GIS (geographic information system) have provided and combined a lot of effective spatial and temporal data of large areas within a short time. For this purpose, nine information layers including the slope, aspect of slope, lithology, lineament density, drainage density, precipitation, vegetation density, soil cover, and karst features were prepared and imported to the ArcMap software. After preparing the information layers, they have to weigh based on their effects on the value of the recharge. In order to be weighted the different parameters, methods of judgment expert, reciprocal influences of parameters, and AHP were used. Using GIS, the results obtained from the final map indicated the average value for the recharge based on the average calculated coefficient of recharge. The annual recharge coefficient in the study area was estimated to be between 30% and 80%.
R. G. Oladimeji, O. J. Ojo
Advances in Geological and Geotechnical Engineering Research, Volume 4, pp 32-48;

Sandstones sampled from Patti Formation, Southern Bida Basin, were studied geochemically using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-AES) and an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique to evaluate their weathering and tectonic setting as well as to deduce the paleo-climatic conditions that existed during their deposition. Geochemically, SiO2 range from 73.9% to 86.2%, Al2O3 (6.7%~17.1%), Fe2O3 (1.1%~1.9%), K2O (0.1%~0.7%) while MgO, CaO, Na2O, P2O5, MnO and TiO2 were 80%) for indices like chemical index of alteration, chemical index of weathering, plagioclase index of alteration, mineralogical index of alteration and relatively lower values for weathering index of parker, recently used alpha indices (αAl E) of sodium (326.17αΑl Na<344.40), magnesium (100.54αΑl mg<398.55), calcium (12.07αΑl Ca<198.99), potassium (4.43αΑl K<64.33), strontium (0.84αΑl E<21.40), barium (0.45 αΑl Ba<10.52) and rubidium (0.0008αΑl Rb80) indicates a steady-state of weathering under a warm/humid climate as confirmed by the SiO2 vs. Al2O3+ K2O + Na2O plot. High average SiO2 (75.41wt%) with K2O/Na2O ratio >1 (15.63), low Fe2O3 (1.27wt %), Al2O3 (15.82wt%) and TiO2 (0.46) suggest passive margin tectonic setting. This is supported by enriched ΣREE (209.64 ppm), ΣLREE (195.78), LREE/HREE (27.78) and negative Eu/Eu* (0.68), plots of log (K2O/Na2O) vs. SiO2 and SiO2/Al2O3 vs. K2O/Na2O. Major elements discriminant-function multi-dimensional diagram, DF1 (arcrift-col) vs. DF2 (arc-rift-col), for high-silica sediments revealed a continental rift tectonic setting. Thus, the Patti Formation sandstone underwent a high degree of weathering under a humid climatic condition within a continental rift tectonic setting.
O. Andre-Obayanju, A. J. Edegbai, O. J. Imarhiagbe
Advances in Geological and Geotechnical Engineering Research, Volume 4, pp 49-61;

Twenty-two clay samples from Oduna, Okada, and Etsako clay deposits in Southwestern Nigeria were subjected to Geotechnical analysis to evaluate their impact on engineering, especially on construction. The results revealed that the clays deposits were majorly fine-grained texture (<60%), with Plasticity ranging from 23% to 121%, Liquid Limit (25%~205%) having plasticity of medium to very high with a specific gravity from 1.93 to 2.58. Using the American association of state highway and ransportation office (AASHTO) and Unified system classification scheme (USCS), the samples fell within A-7-6 (clayey soil) indicating a subgrade that is fair to poor and within the CL-CH category of fine-grained soil with medium to very high plasticity. Compaction having maximum dry density (MDD) to optimum moisture content (OMC) ranges from 0.94 g/cm3 ~1.68 g/cm3 to 11.9%~44.5%, Triaxial result with cohesion between 0.33~35 and shear strength from 44~120 and California bearing ratio for unsoaked bottom 7.52~40, top 4.82~39.18 and soaked bottom 2.89~30.41, top 4.21~33.53. The geotechnical properties of the clay deposits do not meet the standard requirement hence the implication in engineering might be susceptibility to construction failures.
Philip Obasi, Awara Ekinya, Chibuike Akpa, Emmanuel Edene
Advances in Geological and Geotechnical Engineering Research, Volume 4, pp 12-31;

Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) using Schlumberger array was carried out at fifteen (15) different points to evaluate aquifer characteristics within Igbo-Imabana, Abi L.G.A of Cross River State. Resistivity meter and its accessories were used for data acquisition. The maximum current and potential electrode distance were 400 m and 20 m respectively. The field data were interpreted using Interpex software and three to five geo-electric layers encountered within the study area. The dominant curve type was H followed by K. From the result, geo-electric layers delineated were sandstone, clay, saturated sandstone, sandy shale, clayey shale, and shale with average apparent resistivity values of 2249.94 Ωm, 2.86 Ωm, 365.28 Ωm, 222.69 Ωm, 14.60 Ωm and 59.02 Ωm respectively. The top geoelectric layer was dominantly lateritic topsoil, with variation in degrees of compaction and having an average resistivity of 876.33 Ωm with depth and thickness generally less than 5 m. The calculated aquifer parameters hydraulic conductivity (Kc), transmissivity, longitudinal conductance, and transverse resistance from the VES results show ranges values; 3.86×10–4 to 4.69×10–2 m/day, 2.95×10–3 to 2.82 m2 /day, 2.95×10–3 to 2.81 Ωm and 484.33 to 19444.83 Ω2 m respectively. The aquifer thickness and depth values range from 3.60 m to 68.05 m and 5.20 m to 76 m respectively. The study reviewed that the area is made of heterolithic/heterogenou lithofacies, confined aquifer(s), shallow and deep aquifer. Also, from the models and aquifer parameters, the area is characterized by semipervious materials. This integrally explains why the area have have low transmissivity and majority of boreholes drilled in the area failed.
A. M. Nasr, W. R. Azzam, K. E. Ebeed
Advances in Geological and Geotechnical Engineering Research, Volume 4, pp 1-11;

Concrete piles that were poorly constructed or analyzed in their soil analyses may have structural or geotechnical defects. To examine such defects, an experimental study was conducted to investigate how a defective reinforced concrete pile behaved. These piles were installed and subjected to a compression axial load in the sand that had relative densities of 30%,60%, and 80%. The tests were performed using four concrete model piles: one intact pile and the other three piles had a structural defect (necking) at three different positions of the pile at (0.25 L from the top, center, and 0.25 L bottom). Geotechnical defect (soft layer or debris) was studied using Styrofoam layer at various vertical distances under the pile toe with Y/D = (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5) D. The test results showed that the bearing capacity of the structural defect was the most in the case of a neck at 0.25 L from the bottom, followed by a neck at the center, and finally a neck at 0.25 L from the top. In the case of a geotechnical defect, the bearing capacity of the pile decreased with the decrease of the vertical distance between the soft layer and the pile toe.
Nguihdama Dagwai, Kamgang Pierre, Mbowou Gbambié Isaac Bertrand, Chazot Gilles, Ngounouno Ismaïla
Advances in Geological and Geotechnical Engineering Research, Volume 4, pp 48-57;

Peridotite xenoliths, raised to the surface by alkaline basalts or kimberlites,provide us direct information on the processes and composition of the upper mantle. They are the major source of information on the state of stress,pressure and temperature in the deep mantle. They are thus a source of petrological and geochemical information that is generally not available on the Earth’s surface. Fresh spinel-lherzolite xenoliths exhibit a protogranular components of the Tello volcano. The Tello is the continental sector of the Cameroon Line, located in the South East of the town of Ngaoundéré at 75 km approximately between (N7° 13’, N7° 14’) and (E13° 40’ and E13° 60’). Minerals’ composition of the xenoliths is ~64% olivine, ~24% orthopyroxene, ~11% clinopyroxene and ~1% spinel. Significant variation in (Cr/Cr + Al) of the system shows the reciprocal nature of the spinel solution.The Tello spinel lherzolites show internal chemical homogeneity and represent a normal upper mantle. Their mineral chemistries suggest equilibrium condition of 830° - 925° and 1.4 GPa-2.3 GPa. These data suggest that there is good correlation bracket between increasing activity of Al2O3 and decreasing of practionning of TiO2 into spinel. The AlIV and AlVI contents vary by 0.05-0.2 and 0.03-0.2 respectively. The majority of samples caracterise the lithospheric mantle.
L.K. Abidoye, H.B. Oladipo
Advances in Geological and Geotechnical Engineering Research, Volume 4, pp 31-36;

The roles played by divalent cations (calcium, magnesium and iron) of rock minerals in the efficiency of mineral carbonation have been investigated. Statistical modeling with Artificial Neural Network (ANN) having configuration ANN[17-4-1] shows that carbonation efficiency largely increases as the quantity of calcium content increases. Averagely,there is approximately 5% rise in the original efficiency for 10% increase in the quantity of calcium. This changes to 3.4% and 1.6% increases in efficiency, relative to the original efficiency for 20% and 30% increases in calcium content, respectively. Iron content of minerals offers clear positive correlation to the carbonation efficiency. From the global average, there is approximately 17% rise in the original efficiency for 10% increase in the quantity of iron. This increases to 29% and 41% over the original efficiency for 20% and 30% increases in iron content, respectively.. The influence of magnesium was found to be mainly negatively correlated to carbonation efficiency, after exceeding an unknown threshold. The global average of the efficiency changes with magnesium content results in original efficiency rising by 2% at 10% quantity increase and then reduces by 3% and 9% for 20% and 30% increase in magnesium quantity, respectively, relative to the original efficiency. Thus, iron compounds are found to be most potent of the divalent cations in carbonation reaction while calcium and magnesium content should maintain a threshold ratio with silica content for improved efficiency.
Sumaira Asif Khan, Adnan Khan
Advances in Geological and Geotechnical Engineering Research, Volume 4, pp 37-47;

Present study is aimed at assessment of geotechnical properties of Laki limestone as coarse aggregate which is being quarried in Nooriabad area, Sindh, Pakistan. Coarse aggregate samples (n=20) of limestone were collected for the evaluation of physico-mechanical properties of the aggregate. Petrographic analysis revealed that the aggregate comprises of hard, compact, massive, crystalline and fossiliferous limestone. It is devoid of any reactive silica (chert, chalcedony) and other harmful constituents like clays or organic matter. Average values of specific gravity, absorption,bulk density, void content and combined index (EI + FI) of collected samples are 2.5, 2.1%, 1.54 g/cc, 38.55% and 13.04% respectively. The values of specific gravity (2.3-2.9), absorption (0-8%), bulk density (1.28 g/cc-1.92 g/cc) and void content (30%-45%) are varying within the range of normal weight aggregate as per American concrete institute (ACI)specifications. On the other hand, absorption values of aggregate samples are slightly higher (2.1%) than the reference range (2%) but meet other requirements. Mechanical properties including aggregate impact value (8.58%), aggregate crushing value (26.66%), Loss Angeles abrasion value (24.77%), sodium sulfate soundness (4.72%), water soluble sulfate (0.006%) and water soluble chloride (0.005%) are found to be within corresponding guidelines set by ASTM. On the other hand, average carbonate content is found to be 89.64% indicating that Laki limestone is of slightly low purity. Except absorption, all physical and mechanical properties lie within specified ranges. It is concluded that Laki limestone is suitable for use as road aggregate and concrete mix design.
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