Environmental Engineering Science

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN: 10928758 / 15579018
Total articles ≅ 2,467

Latest articles in this journal

Richard J. Weisman, Kirin E. Furst, Celso M. Ferreira
Published: 1 February 2023
Environmental Engineering Science; https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2022.0256

Watersheds with relatively higher concentrations of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors are of concern for public water systems (PWSs) seeking to control DBP exposure risk. In this study, the occurrence of bromide and total organic carbon (TOC), which are important DBP precursors, was evaluated in PWS source waters on a watershed basis at the hydrologic unit code 2 (HUC2) level. Variations were examined across source water type (e.g., surface water or groundwater) and watershed, and temporally based on seasonality as well as differences between the late 1990s and the years 2018–2020. The median bromide concentrations were higher in groundwater systems compared with surface water (by 25 μg/L), whereas the median TOC concentrations were higher in surface water systems compared with groundwater (by 1.7 mg/L). Surface water sources in multiple midwestern and western watersheds had a combination of elevated bromide and TOC (relative to median values of 21 μg/L and 2.5 mg/L, respectively), which was especially pronounced in the Texas-Gulf and Rio Grande watersheds. None of the HUC2 watersheds had elevated levels of both bromide and TOC in groundwater sources (median values of 50 μg/L and 1.0 mg/L, respectively). Source water bromide median watershed concentrations for very large systems were ∼20% lower in 2018–2020 than in 1998, however, more than 40% higher at the 90th percentile, whereas source water TOC median watershed concentrations for very large systems were ∼25% higher in 2018–2020 than in 1998 but less than 10% higher at the 90th percentile. These temporal differences may be related to the influence of climate change and other anthropogenic effects. In addition, many individual PWSs showed substantial change in bromide and TOC concentrations between those time periods. For example, about 7% of the PWSs had at least double the bromide concentrations, and 5% at least double the TOC concentrations, in 2018–2020 than in 1998.
Fen Xu, Xiaoxia He, Hong Wang, Rui Yang, Yaoming Li,
Published: 1 February 2023
Environmental Engineering Science; https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2022.0306

Sediments play an important role in regulating the phosphorus concentration of the overlying water, especially for the agricultural reservoirs with the persistent input of external phosphorus by agricultural activities. Therefore, the sediment can significantly affect the process of reservoirs' eutrophication. In this study, an agricultural reservoir (Huanghezhen Reservoir) in Neijiang City, southeast of Sichuan Basin, China, was conducted to investigate the phosphorus fraction, adsorption, and release characteristics in sediments through field investigation and experimental studies. Results revealed significant enrichment of phosphorus in reservoir sediments, especially in the upstream and midstream, the sediment P contents vastly exceed the stander of heavy pollution (>650 mg/kg). Inorganic phosphorus accounted for 64.5% to 93.2% of total phosphorus, and calcium-bound phosphorus was the most significant fraction of Inorganic phosphorus, while the content of Fe/Al-bound phosphorus is fewer in a ratio of 3.5% to 32.4%. The results of the adsorption–desorption of phosphorus indicated that the adsorption capacity in sediments was weak, the phosphorus from agricultural activities was less adsorbed after entering the reservoir, and the sediment was a source of phosphorus in the Huanghezhen Reservoir. In addition, the content of released phosphorus in sediments positively agrees with the concentration of Fe/Al-bound phosphorus, showing that Fe/Al-bound phosphorus plays an effective indicator in the sediment phosphorus release potential. Moreover, the high water temperature and reduced environment would promote the release of sediment phosphorus. This study provided findings regarding sediment phosphorus fractions and adsorption–release characteristics, showing that the sediment phosphorus fractions, regional climate, and hydrogeological conditions should be comprehensively considered in establishing effective measures of prevention and controlling of eutrophication in agricultural reservoirs.
Zhengcheng Wen, Jieli Jin, Zhihua Wang, Qunxing Huang
Published: 27 January 2023
Environmental Engineering Science; https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2022.0166

Wet scrubbing is an economical and effective denitration method in low-temperature flue gas. ClO2 is a highly efficient oxidant and is economical. Using ClO2 to remove NO can be expected to become a more ideal method. A detailed study of using ClO2 to remove nitrogen oxides (NOx) in low-temperature flue gas is performed, and meaningful results have been obtained. With the increase of the molar ratio of ClO2:NO, from 0.5 to 1.0, the oxidation efficiency of NO increases linearly, from 55% to 90%. With the increase of moisture concentration, from 0.5% to 9%, the NO oxidation efficiency increases slowly, from 75% to 90%. With the increase of flue gas temperature, NO oxidation efficiency and the denitration efficiency decrease slowly. The presence of SO2 improves the denitration efficiency, from 75% to 80% with 20 ppm SO2. The acidic absorbent is beneficial to denitration, but will also aggravate the escape of HCl, ∼20 ppm. NOx is converted into nitrate in the sorbent when the supply of ClO2 is sufficient, otherwise nitrite will be produced. The NOx in the outlet gas is almost NO2. Through experimental research, a new idea for denitration by ClO2 is proposed, using acid sorbent to oxidize NO and alkali sorbent to absorb NO2. This study is of great help to the subsequent engineering application.
Nan Zhao, Yixin Tan, Xue Zhang, Zhansheng Zhen, Quanwei Song, ,
Published: 18 January 2023
Environmental Engineering Science; https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2022.0190

The role of soil clay minerals is often ignored in studying the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorption in soil. In this work, Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the adsorption of PAHs on several typical soil clay mineral surfaces, such as (0 0 1) and (0 0 − 1) of kaolinite, pyrophyllite, mica, and montmorillonite. Results show that van der Waals and cation-π interactions dominate the interactions between PAHs and mineral surfaces. Bridging oxygen atom on the mineral surface structure is the main site of hydrophobic interaction with PAHs. The cation-π effect can significantly enhance the PAHs adsorption energy. In addition, the adsorption on clay minerals is enhanced with the increase in the number of PAHs aromatic rings. In the presence of water, different minerals exhibit different adsorption properties. A layer of water molecules is formed close to the kaolinite (0 0 1) surface, reducing PAHs adsorption. The self-diffusion coefficient (D) of PAHs in Ca2+-montmorillonite is more significant than that in K+-mica, due to the different hydration properties of mineral cations. These findings reveal the adsorption mechanism of PAHs on the surfaces of typical clay minerals at a molecular scale and provide a new perspective for soil adsorption of PAHs.
, Shuang Li, Chaoxiao Deng, Wei Ma
Published: 17 January 2023
Environmental Engineering Science; https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2022.0186

In the oil and gas industry, sulfonated drilling fluid, as a water-based drilling fluid, is applied on a large scale. The waste fluid mixed with drilling cuttings forms solid waste-sulfonated drilling waste (SW-SDM). Considering the water-soluble refractory organic matter in SW-SDM and the possible leaching of soil organic matter, processing SW-SDM to protect soil and groundwater from pollution is urgent. The present article systematically investigated the degradation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in SW-SDM by iron (Fe) activated persulfate (PS) oxidation with special attention to revealing the influence of background Fe on degradation. The experimental results demonstrated that BaP in SW-SDM could be partly degraded by the activated PS oxidation system. Parameters such as the pH and dosages of PS and Fe may greatly influence the experimental results. A higher dosage of Fe inhibits degradation, whereas the addition of a small amount of Fe or even no Fe may facilitate the degradation of BaP. Naturally present Fe(II), Fe(III), and dissolved Fe from SW-SDM itself may activate PS for BaP degradation. The feasibility of the SW-SDM treatment was evaluated. Finally, the degradation intermediates of BaP by Fe and PS oxidation in soil were enriched by solid phase extraction and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to propose a transformed pathway.
Lingling Zhang, Wei Shang, Miao Gu, Yongli Sun, Yu Zhang, Yi Chen
Published: 12 January 2023
Environmental Engineering Science; https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2022.0175

This study investigated two different hybrid processes for the treatment of municipal secondary-treated biological effluents to meet the reuse of recycled water requirements for organic matter and color. The two hybrid treatment approaches were an oxidation-based treatment process (coagulation–sedimentation–deep-bed filtration [CSDF]–ozone oxidation) and an adsorption-based treatment process (CSDF-granular activated carbon [GAC] adsorption). The efficiencies of ozonation and GAC adsorption in removing chemical organic demand (COD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and color intensity were evaluated. The effect of CSDF as the pretreatment was also studied. Ozonation showed a much higher color removal efficiency (88%, 4.7 mg/L ozone dose) than GAC adsorption (23%). Organic matter with an apparent molecular weight of 2–3 kDa, being humus-like, might be the colored fraction in the secondary and CSDF effluents. Ozonation had a stronger ability to remove these substances than GAC adsorption, resulting in a visibly higher color removal efficiency. In addition, higher COD and DOC removal were achieved by ozonation when the average ozone dose was increased to 9.1 mg/L. Although both hybrid processes were reliable for reducing organic matter and color, the results show that ozonation is more suitable for simultaneously removing refractory organic matter and color.
Yongpeng Ma, Wentao Gu, , Zhuangzhuang Lv, Yunxia Ma, Yichen Huang, Yakun Li, Hongzhong Zhang
Published: 10 January 2023
Environmental Engineering Science; https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2022.0281

Heterogeneous absorption is a potential technology for Hg0 contamination control in flue gas, in which the gas-liquid mass transfer of Hg0 (GLMT-Hg0) is a key problem that needs to be solved. In this work, an alcohol-enhanced MoS2/H2O system was proposed and investigated for Hg0 removal. The results showed that adding alcohol can improve Hg0 removal efficiency. Especially, adding 60 mM butanol can reach 94% of Hg0 removal efficiency. In addition, the effect of adding long carbon chains and monohydric alcohols is better than adding short carbon chains and polyhydric alcohols. The kinetics of Hg0 removal revealed that adding butanol increases E and KG(Hg0)/kG(Hg0), which can enhance GLMT-Hg0. The fate of Hg0 and the mechanism of its removal were revealed as Hg0 first being oxidized by Mo4+ to form a [Hg-Mo] complex, which reacts with an adjacent S site to form stable HgS. Most of the removed Hg was absorbed on MoS2, which is more favorable to be separated from the solution for recycle and reuse.
Published: 1 January 2023
Environmental Engineering Science, Volume 40, pp 38-39; https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2022.29004.ack

Environmental Engineering Science
Lianghe Gao, , Jun Cai, Fengqin Shen, Jianbin Gu
Published: 1 January 2023
Environmental Engineering Science, Volume 40, pp 29-37; https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2021.0555

A ruthenium (II) photosensitizer, [Ru(bpy)2(phen)][PF6]2 (RuPS), was synthesized and its structure was confirmed by UV–Vis and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Under visible light, RuPS could efficiently promote the degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride (TC·HCl) in the presence of oxygen (O2). Its degradation rate could reach 94.6% in 5 h under 20°C, 50 mW/cm2 of radiation intensity, 20 mg/L of TC·HCl, 5 mg/L of RuPS, and pH 10.0. Its degradation pathways were complex and involved both direct and indirect photolysis. For both pathways, the degradation rate of TC increased with the increase of pH value. In acidic environment, the degradation of TC mainly depended on the sensitization of photosensitizer. Under alkaline conditions, the photodegradation of TC itself played a major role as well. For the indirect photolysis, it involved the oxidative degradation of exited TC (TC*) by triplet oxygen (3O2) and the oxidative degradation of TC by singlet oxygen (1O2). 1O2 was mainly generated by RuPS under light. In conclusion, aerobic photodegradation under alkaline conditions was a feasible and convenient method to remove TC from water.
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