Health Sciences Quarterly
Latest articles in this journal
Health Sciences Quarterly, Volume 3, pp 127-137; https://doi.org/10.26900/hsq.1942
In this study, thiol/disulfide homeostasis in the liver tissues of high-fructose-fed rats was investigated in conjunction with the changes in the main hepatic detoxification enzyme, glutathione S-transferase (GST). Additionally, the effects of well-known probiotics namely Kefir, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Lactobacillus plantarum supplementation on the thiol/disulfate contents and GST activity and gene expression levels were analyzed. Fructose, administered as a 20% solution in drinking water for 15 weeks, developed an animal model of metabolic syndrome in male Wistar rats. Kefir, L. helveticus, and L. plantarum supplementations were given by gastric gavage once a day during the final 6-weeks. The changes in hepatic GST were determined with kinetic-optimized spectrophotometric enzyme assays and qRT-PCR. Total thiol, native thiol, and disulfide levels were analyzed using (5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as a chromogenic agent. High-fructose consumption reduced total and native thiol contents while increasing disulfide levels in the liver tissues of rats. Kefir and L. plantarum normalized the thiol levels and all probiotics reduced disulfide contents. High fructose augmented total GST activity but reduced the GST-Mu isoform. L. helveticus and L. plantarum normalized the total and GST-Mu activity, respectively. These results demonstrated a shift toward disulfide formation in the hepatic tissues of rats fed with high fructose. A possible reason would be the increase in total GST activity that uses the free glutathione, the main native thiol source in cells, as a substrate. Besides, probiotics such as Kefir, L. helveticus, and L. plantarum have an improving effect on thiol/disulfide homeostasis as well as main detoxification enzymes.
Health Sciences Quarterly, Volume 3, pp 95-104; https://doi.org/10.26900/hsq.1892
Examining the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination rates and associated factors for acceptance of vaccination in pregnant women during the pandemic. The present study has a cross-sectional survey-based design that evaluated 448 pregnant women, and data were collected between October 1 and December 31, 2021. A composite questionnaire with an instrument was utilized in the survey to examine vaccine rates, including socio demographic data, maternal characteristics, vaccination history, and reasons for not vaccinating. The vaccination rate was 48% (n=216). The main concerns and barriers to non-vaccination were: (i) concerns about pregnancy (82.9%), (ii) possible vaccine side effects (76.3%), and (iii) insufficient trust in the reliability of the vaccine (20.3%). A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that following factors affect COVID-19 vaccination rate: first trimester of pregnancy (Odds ratio (OR): 3.40 (95% confidence interval (CI):1.84-6.27), p < 0.001), age 35 and over (OR: 2.96 (95% CI:1.40-6.27), p=0.004), active working status (OR: 4.88 (95% CI:2.57-9.23), p < 0.001). Our study indicated that rates of COVID-19 vaccination are still low in pregnant women. Pregnant females constitute a special vulnerable part of the community. Therefore, targeted communication is needed to raise awareness of vaccine safety in healthcare professionals and pregnant women, and strategies to solve vaccine hesitation. In addition, post-vaccination monitoring is required to collect additional data.
Health Sciences Quarterly, Volume 3, pp 69-74; https://doi.org/10.26900/hsq.1886
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of monocyte/high-density lipoprotein (MHR), which is associated with systemic inflammation: on prolonged hospitalization in patients with mild acute pancreatitis. Patients hospitalized for acute edematous pancreatitis between 01.01.2021 and 31.12.2021 were retrospectively screened. Arrival Ranson scores of the patients were calculated. Those with a Ranson score <3 were considered as mild acute pancreatitis and were included in the study. Patients with mild acute pancreatitis were divided into 2 groups with a hospital stay of <8 days and ≥8 days. Monocyte/HDL, biochemical and metabolic parameters were compared between the groups. The study was conducted with a total of 39 patients, 23 male (59%) and 16 female (41%). While 28 (71.8%) of the patients were discharged within <8 days, 11 (28.2%) were hospitalized for ≥8 days. Group ≥8 days was considered as prolonged hospitalization. It was determined that the monocyte/HDL ratio was significantly higher in the group with prolonged hospitalization between the groups. In univariate analyzes, it was determined that the presence of Diabetes Mellitus and MHR increased the risk of prolonged hospitalization by 5.25 times and 1.085 times, respectively. In the multivariate analysis of these two parameters, MHR was found to be an independent risk factor for prolonged hospitalization. It was concluded that monocyte/HDL can be used as a simple and reliable parameter to predict the duration of hospitalization in patients with mild acute pancreatitis.
Health Sciences Quarterly, Volume 3, pp 105-115; https://doi.org/10.26900/hsq.1916
This study aims to determine the attitudes of nurses towards medical errors and related factors. The study was designed as a descriptive and cross-sectional study. A total of 119 nurses completed a questionnaire on personal information and Medical Errors Attitude Scale. It was determined that nurses’ attitudes towards medical errors were positive. It was found that nurses’ awareness of medical errors and reporting errors was high. The medical error perception of nurses with less years of work experience in the unit was found to be more negative. Many medical errors are actually caused by preventable conditions. At this point, the best way to prevent medical errors is to create an institutional culture based on patient safety. Within the scope of quality control studies in health institutions, the development of patient safety culture and development of nurses’ attitudes towards medical errors should be supported.
Health Sciences Quarterly, Volume 3, pp 117-125; https://doi.org/10.26900/hsq.2032
The elderly face very challenging situations due to their mental and physical conditions. Like the other country in the world, Bangladesh Government has enacted laws to protect the elderly rights. However, the law does not seem to represent what the elderly actually needs. Therefore, 385 elderly people, aged between 60 and 90 years were surveyed to understand their expectations from family, society, and government. There were 57.1% men and 42.9% women. Most of the elderly (80%) were educated. Just over half (53.5%) had ordinary mental and physical health, while a quarter (31.4%) had good status. More than half (53%) of the participants required 2000–5000 BDTK (Bangladeshi Taka) equivalent to $20-50 to cover monthly treatment expenditures. The majority (67.3%) felt government Old Age Allowance should be increased to BDT 5,000 ($50). Of 13.8% of individuals experienced harsh discourse from family because of the cost of therapy. However, 16.9% of people choose not to respond to this question. More than half (57.4%) of the respondents’ thought caregivers were insufficient. One-third felt that legislation should be changed to take care of parents (33.5%) and One-third felt that children should take care of more (33.5%). Some (3.6%) thought that children should act as they did in their childhood respectively. Almost half (44.2%) of respondents did not know that the elderly should receive a separate senior citizen card for preferential treatment, yet 51.9% thought this. Some (44.7%) felt the elderly should get priority in any queue and discounts in Bus/Uber/Rickshaw. Results also showed that expectation is more than the service provided. Further, a one-stop elderly care clinic is required to provide integrated care and support for the quality of life of the elderly.
Health Sciences Quarterly, Volume 3, pp 75-94; https://doi.org/10.26900/hsq.1925
Telemedicine has been appreciated as a smart solution to bridge the gaps in the delivery and coverage of healthcare worldwide. With the great impetus to integrate this service into primary healthcare facilities, evaluating its usability should be an ongoing process. This study aimed to quantitatively evaluate the usability of telemedicine from the primary healthcare physicians’ perspective in Oman. The evaluation was conducted using a cross-sectional study design. A self-administered online questionnaire was developed and validated as a scale to evaluate the usability of telemedicine as a safe and useful communication channel and outpatient record. Following a pilot study, the questionnaire was distributed to a sample of primary healthcare physicians who ran telemedicine clinics in Oman during 2020-2022. The questionnaire was completed by 143 primary healthcare physicians from different governorates. The total mean scale and subscale scores were computed. In addition, the frequency distribution of responses to each question was presented. The results showed that the total mean scale score of the usability of telemedicine in our clinics was 3.43/5.00. The subscale scores of the usability of telemedicine as a safe and useful service, the usability of telemedicine as a communication channel, and the usability of telemedicine as an outpatient record were 3.42/5.00, 3.23/5.00, and 3.99/5.00, respectively. In conclusion, the current telemedicine service in Oman’s primary healthcare facilities has some usability features, but there is still much room for improvement. With logical reasoning, a framework of potential determinants was inferred and proposed to improve the usability of telemedicine services in the future and comply with the principles of biomedical ethics.
Health Sciences Quarterly, Volume 3, pp 27-33; https://doi.org/10.26900/hsq.1868
It is known that the risk of suicide increases in professionals who are frequently exposed to intensive and stressful working conditions. Health professionals may be susceptible to depression and suicide due to occupational stressors besides risk factors such as violence against healthcare professionals, mobbing and burnout. However, it is noteworthy that there is no institutional data or statistics regarding suicides of healthcare professionals, in Türkiye. In this context, we aimed to reveal sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors related to suicides of health workers by evaluation cases subjected to media. Due to the lack of detailed institutional data, we investigated national media releases and reports between 01/01/2010 and 31/12/2020 in order to extract data regarding suicides of healthcare professionals. Obtained data was discussed in the light of the related literature. During the study period, a total of 138 healthcare professionals were reported to have committed suicide, out of which 69 (50%) were male and 69 (50%) were female. The mean age of the presented cases was 34.79 years. It was determined that 68 (48.28%) victims were medical doctors, and the most frequent suicide method was drug intoxication with a rate of 36.23% (n=50). Health workers’ suicides and dynamics have not been fully revealed and have not been studied sufficiently. In this regard, health policies and a professional approach need to be developed in the light of the information obtained through joint studies by Ministry of Health and Associations/Organizations of Healthcare professionals.
Health Sciences Quarterly, Volume 3, pp 35-41; https://doi.org/10.26900/hsq.1922
We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of flexible bronchoscopy-guided tracheal intubation during difficult airways. We retrospectively evaluated the hospital records of intubated patients with the assistance of a flexible bronchoscope during 5 years-period, (between January 2015 to 2020). All patients were intubated under general anesthesia. A total of 67 patients were enrolled in the study. The majority of the patients were male (n=42, 62.7%). The mean age was 55.5±15.3 years. Mallampati classification was revealed frequently in class IV in 76.1% of cases. Only one patient with class II is evaluated as having a difficult airway because of obesity. The most frequent 3 indications for endotracheal tube (ETT) insertion (intubation) with the help of a bronchoscope were limitation of the mouth opening (40.3%), obesity (20.9%), and cervical-vertebrate fracture (11.9%). The intubation route was preferred as the oral way in 53 patients and the nasal way in 14 patients. The mean duration for ETT intubation via bronchoscopy guidance was 3.38 minutes. There was no severe complication other than transient oxygen desaturation (SaO2) below 90% (n=8, 11.9%) and epistaxis (n=2, 3%) in the complication records of all patients. Intubation with the help of a flexible bronchoscope is an effective, practical, and safe method in patients with a difficult airway.
Health Sciences Quarterly, Volume 3, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.26900/hsq.1721
This study was conducted to find out the effects of cultural intelligence, which is one of the strategies used in managing intercultural differences, and emotional intelligence which enables individuals to understand and manage their own emotions, to understand others’ emotions and develop their self-confidence, on care behaviour, which is the basis of the nursing profession. This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in a city hospital between 01.09.2019 and 01.03.2020. The data were collected from nurses in the hospital who volunteered to participate in the study within the dates above. The sample was not selected, and 225 nurses who volunteered to participate in the study were included in the study. The total mean score of the participants from the cultural intelligence scale was 47.558±12.092, while the full scores from the factors were 7.9208±2.857 (min 4-max 20) for metacognitive factor, 15.963±4.89 (min 6-max 30) for cognitive aspect, 12.004±3.656 (min 5-max 25) for motivational factor and as 11.821±3.493 (min 5-max 25) for behavioural factor. The total mean score of the participants from the Caring Behaviors Inventory was 5.053±0.819, while the total scores from the factors were 5.045±0.823 for the assurance factor, 5.208±1.240 for the knowledge and skill factor, 4.994±0.831 for respectful factor and 4.949±0.842 for connectedness factor. The total mean score of the participants from the Emotional Intelligence Scale was 141.367±18.656, while the full scores from the factors were 44.563±5.96 for optimism/mood regulation, 18.940±4.15 for the use of emotions and 33.493±7.565 for evaluation of emotions. Cultural intelligence and emotional intelligence were found to have an effect on caring behaviours of nurses. Although there was no direct significant correlation between cultural intelligence total score and caring behaviours total score, there was a significant correlation between cultural intelligence factors and caring behaviours. There was a significant correlation between caring behaviours of nurses with high emotional intelligence.
Health Sciences Quarterly, Volume 3, pp 43-47; https://doi.org/10.26900/hsq.1908
Surgical prophylaxis is one of the areas where antibiotics are used commonly. In this study it is aimed surgical prophylaxis appropriateness and determination of cost analysis in our hospital. The study was performed November 30-15, 2018. 108 patients who underwent surgery in general surgery, orthopedics and neurosurgery clinics have been included in this prospective study. Patient selection was based on the classification of clean and cleancontaminated. Demographics, features of the surgery, applied prophylactic antibiotics and surgical prophylaxis appropriateness were recorded in the forms. All patient information forms were evaluated by infectious disease specialists using the surgical prophylaxis guide. The costs of unnecessary antibiotics were determined. Mean age of 108 patients who underwent a surgical procedure was 52.4 years and 39.8% of the patients were male and 60.2% were female. Of the surgery procedures 75.9% (n:82) were clean and 24.1% (n:26) clean-contaminated. Preoperative 58.3% (63) unnecessary antibiotic prophylaxis was detected. Continuing prophylaxis at a prolonged time were used in 99 (91.7%) patients in the postoperative period. Cefazolin is the most commonly used agent for surgical prophylaxis. The cost of unnecessary and long-term antibiotic use was determined as ₺6983,69. In this study, the time of antibiotic prophylaxis were to be a big problem. Prophylaxis often starts very early and continues for days. The wrong practices in surgical prophylaxis lead to unnecessary antibiotics treatment to the patients and also burden to the budget of the country.