Latest articles in this journal
Georgian Scientists, Volume 5, pp 101-106; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2023.05.01.08
The purpose of this work is to identify, describe and compare the figurative semantics of ornithonyms in the Russian and Georgian languages. Russian Russian and Georgian linguocultures have not been the subject of special consideration and the comparison of ornithonyms with a figurative meaning is relevant and useful in teaching Russian as a foreign language. The following research methods were used: analysis of dictionary definitions of ornithonyms in Russian and Georgian languages; The method of continuous sampling, analytical, descriptive, classification, and comparative methods The contrastive analysis of Russian and Georgian ornithonyms used in a figurative sense showed both cases of coincidence, complete or partial, and cases of discrepancy in values.
Georgian Scientists, Volume 5, pp 81-85; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2023.05.01.06
The article provides general statistics of accidents that occurred due to improper compliance with labor protection requirements, presents significant risks of harm to health when performing hazardous activities in the construction industry and the consequences of their occurrence. Along with this, unfavorable, but generally recognized real cases of attitudes towards labor protection during the construction or rehabilitation of roads are discussed. Recommendations are presented on changing the regulations of the current situation in accordance with the requirements
Georgian Scientists, Volume 5, pp 86-100; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2023.05.01.07
The article presents results of the research undertaken within the framework of the project #PHD-21-403 financed by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia (SRNSFG). Revival of the modern Georgian icon painting started from the seventh decade of the 20th c. From the very beginning, national artistic form was a priority both in visual and musical ecclesiastic art; however, on the turn of the 20th to the 21st cc., general attitude towards national form proved to be quite critical. The problem emerged – which chanting and what icon painting is canonical for the Orthodox Church. Holy Synod of the Church of Georgia sanctioned Georgian polyphonic chanting. From the 17th c. onwards, canonical norms of the Georgian icon painting were influenced by the Church of Russia. Norms established there were obligatory for Georgian icon painting, as well as the norms of Russian church service. At present, widespread practice links norms of the canonical icon painting with the particular Russian and Byzantine style. Such an approach hinders development of the icon painting and, in its own turn, does not correspond to the world church law. As decreed by the Seventh Ecumenical Council, the main purpose of the icon painting is visualisation of the Gospel truth in such a way that the represented is perceptible, can serve as a model and should be venerated. Viewpoint of various famous icon painters concerning this issue coincides with that expressed in Georgia – development of modern icon painting requires establishment of the true criteria of the canonical norms; they should be linked with the theological purpose and not with any particular artistic style. This is the attitude of the Orthodox Church and the goal of the icon painting is striving for the modern ecclesiastical artistic language.
Georgian Scientists, Volume 5, pp 72-80; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2023.05.01.05
Bentonite clays are broadly employed in the design of varied drug delivery systems due to their characteristic feature such as adsorption, swelling ability and biocompatibility. Combination polymers with clay particles considerably improve mechanical and physical properties, drug - encapsulation efficiency and controlled release behavior of hybrids comparing with the starting components. One of the priority research areas at the I. Kutateladze Institute of Pharmacochemistry is extension the usage potential of Georgian bentonite clay in pharmacy, medicine, veterinary and cosmetics. Numerous semisolid dosage forms and dry ointments were proposed by the Institute on the bases of preparation Tikha Ascane, obtained from the clay of Askana Deposit (Ozurgeti region of Georgia). The aim of this study was to examine the suitability of Tikha Ascane as a substrate for the obtaining hybrid material with Sodium alginate (SA) and develop and characterize drug loaded clay/ polymer hydrogel. Optimized formulation for Tikha Ascane/SA hybrids was selected and Nitrofurazone (NFZ) as a model drug was incorporated. The samples were characterized by examining FTIR spectra, morphology, viscosity, pH, homogeneity and appearance. Content of NFZ in hydrogel was determined by HPLC. FTIR analysis revealed that Tikha Ascane and SA act as a simply physical mixture. Infrared spectra showed that NFZ did not bind strongly to the hybrid material. Microscopic analyses allowed verification of homogeneity of samples. Optimal clay / polymer composites contained Tikha Ascane - SA at the ration of 1:3 (w/w) and 0.2 % w/w incorporated NFZ. From this work it is cleared that Georgian bentonite clay preparation - Tikha Ascane can be successfully used as a substrate for clay / polymer hybrid material; formulated complex exhibits promising characteristics that allows considering it as a potential drug delivery system. Further studies are on-going for the preparation of TA hybrid material with different polymers.
Georgian Scientists, Volume 5, pp 59-71; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2023.05.01.04
Adenomyosis is a benign lesion of the uterus, which is characterized by the presence and pathological growth of endometrial glands and stroma in the myometrium. During adenomyosis, endometrial tissue abnormally grown in the myometrium is called ectopic endometrium, and endometrial tissue in the uterine cavity is called eutopic endometrium. Women with adenomyosis may experience abnormal uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and infertility, although, in one-third of women, the lesion is asymptomatic. Adenomyosis is the most frequently diagnosed pathology after hysterectomy in perimenopausal women due to heavy bleeding or pain. AgNOR is used as an aid for evaluating the proliferative activity of cells. Certain types of studies have demonstrated their effectiveness in differentiating various benign or malignant processes, as well as in determining the histological grade of intraepithelial neoplastic processes. Within the framework of this study, the proliferative activity of the eutopic and ectopic endometrium, as well as their stroma and normal myometrium, was evaluated on archival blocks fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin (FFPE), diagnosed in cases of adenomyosis, using AgNOR technology. In the studied system, eutopic endometrium - basal endometrium - in both the glandular and stromal components of ectopic endometrium, the highest proliferative activity is manifested in ectopic endometrium, which is why it can probably represent a risk for the development of neoplasms.
Georgian Scientists, Volume 5, pp 51-58; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2023.05.01.03
The use of orthodontic fixed systems is often accompanied by physical discomfort, pain of varying intensity, psycho-emotional stress, and sleep disturbances. Treatment also affects salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase, magnesium, calcium, and inorganic phosphorus concentrations, although data are conflicting and scarce. The aim of our study was to compare of electrolytes and alkaline phosphatase concentrations in oral fluid after 2 months of treatment (conventional and self-ligating braces respectively). In total40 patients (20 in each group) were studied. According to the obtained results, the concentrations of calcium and alkaline phosphatase differ significantly between standard and self-ligating treatments, while magnesium and phosphorus ions do not change. Based on the results of the study, calcium and alkaline phosphatase indicators can be used to prevent expected side effects of treatment.
Georgian Scientists, Volume 5, pp 1-23; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2023.05.01.01
The article is devoted to the methodological aspects of the urgent need to preserve the continuous evolution of the tree heritage and its cultural values over time. This is based on international conventions, recommendations, and cultural heritage conservation standards related to the fundamental tasks of the International Council of Monuments and Sites of Interest (ICOMOS). This article is intended for specialists and students interested in conservation-restoration chemistry. The paper presents regulatory documents of the field, as well as technical terminology, for their adequate interpretation and qualified use.
Georgian Scientists, Volume 4, pp 394-397; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2022.04.05.43
In cement and clinker production energy consumption reduction, specific emissions reduction and quality stable increase always has been daily challenge which was addressed in many studies. Nowadays, CO2 emissions are under special focus since the gas is a main contributor in global warming and many other environmental topics. Considering existing challenges, the PhD study is addressing following: Clinker production process change from wet process to dry process was performed the way that clinker quality was at least the same but grindability of the clinker was increased with relatively lower lime saturation factor. Of course by avoiding drying wet slurry and making heat exchange process more efficient due to more dispersive, powderous material the heat consumption was reduced twice and capacity of the kiln line was doubled. The difficulties caused by switching the Kavtishkevi quarry were solved by using Saskhori limestone as a main source and Dedopsitskaro limestone was used as a sweetener, which contains more than 95% calcium carbonate. This substitution took place in such a way that it did not have a negative impact on the quality of the clinker and on the contrary made it more stable and active. After reducing coal and thus ash by 2 times, raw flour chemistry was recalculated so that the quality of clinker was the same or increased. Appropriate recalculation was done at all stages of trials. The clinker process burning with a new method was studied and optimized. As a result of 20 industrial experiments of raw material and fuel distribution, the best mixes were determined, by means of which the quality of clinker increases or remains the same, while the thermal consumption was reduced as was CO2 emissions from fuel and from raw meal. The most important achievement was the thermal activation of Tuff (Zeolite), which was successfully completed not only in the laboratory but also in the industrial experiment. The origin of the innovative idea was that the drying out of physically bound water makes the puzzolanic material much more active due to created pores. The material usage (with clinker) up to 10% in relation to clinker not only preserves but also increases the strength of this mix compared to clinker. The method of activation of existing puzzolanic material has been studied since the ancient Roman period. However, the activation of the puzzolanic additive requires less thermal energy than the clinker, and therefore also emits additional CO2 emissions. Therefore, the puzzolanic material activated by the standard approach reduces emissions, thermal and other costs relatively less, and also requires an investment of at least 10 million and an installation period of at least 6 months. Based on a complete study of the clinker production processes, a section was identified where the temperature ranges from 600°C to 1200°C and we use ambient air to reduce it. This section is a clinker cooler, where clinker heated at temperatures 1200-1300°C is coming out of from the rotary kiln. The clinker is passing a 30-meter cooler and cools down to about 100°C. The temperatures we wanted were 5 to 10 meters from the hot side. 10 meters away from the hot end, a material discharge chute was arranged, where tuff is supplied with transport conveyors and hopper. The production experiment with a dose of 5% was successful, but it is also possible to increase the proportions to 10% in the following trials. Also, the feeding point on the clinker cooler roof can be moved to the hotter side, which will further activate the tuff and allow us to increase its percentage in the clinker. The most important is that this experiment allowed us to produce 100% clinker with 90% emissions and thermal consumption, which is an incredible result globally, especially for CO2 reduction. The project was implemented with minimal costs (200,000 GEL) and, most importantly, does not include the thermal energy obtained with fuel, which almost cancels the operating costs and emissions. This section of the clinker cooler can be studied to use for drying and heating any other cement additive material.
Georgian Scientists, Volume 4, pp 383-393; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2022.04.05.42
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological cancers worldwide. In Georgia, ovarian cancer ranks fourth in terms of prevalence, and third in terms of mortality rate. According to the latest epidemiological data, there will be 21,421 new cases of ovarian cancer and 13,770 deaths from ovarian cancer in the United States in 2021. Due to the lack of early screening methods and asymptomatic clinical courses, most ovarian cancer is diagnosed at an advanced stage, when the prognosis of the disease is already poor. Despite the advances in modern medical treatment and surgery, ovarian carcinoma remains the most lethal gynaecological cancer. The 5-year survival rate is 46% for all stages combined. The microenvironment of ovarian carcinomas is mainly represented by macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes. Epithelial ovarian carcinoma-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) have attracted much interest in the last five years. Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease concerning tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and TILs. In terms of histological subtypes, most studies include only high-grade serous carcinomas of the ovary, and studies on other histological types are scarce. The results of our study show that the quantitative evaluation of T lymphocytes and their subpopulations does not show a statistically reliable correlation between different histological types of tumours, which may be due to the intratumoral heterogeneity and individual specificity of tumours.
Georgian Scientists, Volume 4, pp 369-382; https://doi.org/10.52340/gs.2022.04.05.41
In the paper are discussed the issues of research of the colors used in Georgian ornament. In the Georgian ethnography, the ornaments are represented in a various way as in secular so in the church clothes, shoes, carpet products, weapons, jewelry, stone carpentry, pottery and etc. The ornaments are presented with a rich palette of colors in pictorial iconography, manuscripts and miniatures. Ornament, as one of the important monuments of Georgian cultural heritage, is the representation of national identity and indigenousity. The development of tourism in Georgia was accompanied by the commercialization of ethnographic items and as a matter of fact, we find gross inaccuracies - in terms of forms, origin, dominant colors and decorations. As a result, often, neither the shape nor the combination of colors of the ornaments have anything to do with the old Georgian ornament. There is a danger that the stylization will continue and lack of information will lead to its complete confusion and even to oblivion. In the Georgian sciences ornaments are studied as in the artistic so in the symbolic ways. In spite of existing situation with studies, systemization of the Georgian ornaments is not conducted according to form, color and symbolic peculiarities and their rational usage in the various technologies sustaining and protecting the original forms and colors.