Medical Science Journal for Advance Research

Journal Information
EISSN: 27744892
Total articles ≅ 42

Latest articles in this journal

Ali Rashid, Abid Ali, Taiba Zulfiqar
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 129-133; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i3.53

Abstract:
Aim/Objective:To determine the normal liver size in adults without suspicion of liver disease analyzing the variable (age, weight, & height) that has good correlation. Methods: The study was undertaken in Department of Radiology in Services Hospital (SHL)/ Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS) Lahore. It was hospital based study and normal healthy adult without liver disease in the age range from 18 years to 78 years were selected for this study. 207 healthy adults without liver disease & without specification of gender were selected. Non- randomized or consecutive sampling technique was used due to limited time of 3 months from 1st December 2016 to 1st March 2016. Results: The mean age of total subjects was 34.85±14.67 years. The mean age of male was 35.6± 14.47 years and 33.8±14.95 years for female. There were 83 (40%) subjects in the age range of 18-27 years, 51 (24.6%) subjects in the age range of 28-37 years, 29 (14.1%) subjects in the age range of 38-47 years, 24 (11.6%) subjects in the age range of 48-57 years, 13 (6.3%) subjects in the age range of 58-67 years, 7 (3.4%) subjects in the age range of 68-77 years.The mean longitudinal diameter of liver of total subjects was 14.34±0.79cm (p=0.001). The mean longitudinal diameter of liver was 14.50±0.71cm & 14.1±0.84cm in male and female respectively. The mean height of total subjects was 163.56±6.7cm. The mean height was 165.74±6.0cm for male & 160.72±6.6 for female respectively. The distribution of liver sizes in the various age groups is shown in table 3. The result demonstrates that liver sizes increases with age. The results also show that males had larger liver size than females. The size of the liver was correlated with age, weight, and height showed positive and significant correlation with liver size. Conclusion:Ultrasound has been found to be both accurate and wide spread in clinical use and has no proven health hazard. The sonographic measurement of liver at the midclavicular line was shown to be an easy and practical method for routine use. Sex and body height are the most important factors associated with the diameter of the liver measured at the midclavicular line.
Abdul Haris, Taiba Zulfiqar, Abid Ali
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 143-148; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i3.55

Abstract:
Background: Upper extremity fractures are the most common musculoskeletal injury seen in the emergency/trauma center. Upper extremity fractures (UEFs) may result in long-term disability. AIM AND OBJECTIVE The aim of our study was to assess the frequency of fractures in patients with road traffic accident and its association with age. Methodology: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at X-Ray unit in Aziz Bhatti Trauma Center Gujrat, Pakistan. A total of 200 patients with the history of road traffic accident were enrolled in present study. The duration of this research work was from February 2022 to May 2022. All RTA patients visited us were included. Patients who were admitted in the wards were excluded. Predesigned questionnaire form was used to collect the data. SPSS was used to analyze the data. Frequency of different findings and their associations were found out using the chi square test. These were then graphically portrayed in the form of tables and graphs. P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: We observed 102(51%) fractures in a total of 200 patients. Higher percentage 98(49%) was found in the age group 16-30 years with male predominance. Injuries due to motorcycle fall 110(55%) were the main cause of upper extremity fractures in case of RTA. Radius and humerus were the most frequently fractured bone 21(10.5%) and 20(10%) respectively. Conclusion: Our study showed that the frequencies of upper extremity fractures occur mostly in males and mostly due to the motorcycles fall. Our study established the frequency of upper extremity fractures and it can be considered as a useful guide to determine its occurrence in case of RTAs.
Adrash Naeem, Taiba Zulfiqar, Abid Ali, Khadija Zafar
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 134-142; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i3.54

Abstract:
Background: Sonography is a significant noninvasive imaging modality to diagnose types of abdominal wall hernias. Ultrasound imaging could be effective in creating a diagnosis as well as determining the type of hernia and providing additional details like the contents of the hernia and how much of it can be reduced. These findings may influence surgical procedures and reconstruction. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to identify the frequency of anterior abdominal wall hernias in Gujrat, Pakistan. Material And Method: A retrospective study was conducted at the diagnostic clinical setup Azeem ultrasound & digital X-Ray center Gujrat. . A total of 377 female patients who meet the inclusion criteria were enrolled in present study. The duration of the study was 4 months i.e. September 2021 to December 2021. Results: We observed 377 patients, among these participants age ranged from 1 year as minimum age and 70 years as maximum with mean age was 39±15.7. The maximum frequency of patients 111(29.4%) was found in the age range of 31-40 years following 79(21%) in 21-30 years. Out of these, there were 109 males (28.9%), and 268 females (71.1%). Among 377 patients, there were 59 (15.6%) positive cases who showed anterior wall abdominal hernia where paraumblical hernias and umbilical hernias were the most frequently occurring hernia 20(5.3%) and 19 (5%) patients respectively. Conclusion: According to the current study, there were more females than men , male dominance was demonstrated in inguinal hernias and female dominance in paraumbilical hernias. In the management plan for patients in whom the diagnosis of an abdominal wall hernia is uncertain, abdominal wall ultrasonography is a useful tool. The ultrasound results can have an impact on treatment choices, allowing for a more rapid and cost-effective clinical procedure.
Mustafa H. Salem, Ferdous A. Jabir
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 107-115; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i3.50

Abstract:
Introduction: COVID-19 is a new type of coronavirus that infects humans and causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Isolated in Wuhan City, China, in December 2019. Similar to discoveries relating to the coronaviruses that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Levels of cytokines (Interleukin-6, Interleukin-1 β ), iron and hemoglobin changed during COVID-19 disease. Hepcidin is an iron regulatory protein that is encoded by the HAMP gene . Material and Methods : Serum IL-6, IL-1 β , Hepcidin are measured by an ELISA kit and Iron ,UIBC , TIBC are measured by colorimetric methods. The genotyping was done by the ARM-PCR technique with a specific set of primers. Results : The difference in Hb and serum iron levels, UIBC, TIBC, IL-1, IL-6, and Hepcidin conc. between the patient and recovery groups is statistically significant at P≤ 0.05 . No significant difference between the two groups in hepcidin gene polymorphism because of Polymorphisms of the hepcidin gene appeared in the two groups (in most samples). Conclusions: The persons involved in this study are (most of them) heterozygous, and this indicates the presence of the mutation allele in the two groups , and it may be one of the reasons for the deficiency in hepcidin that appeared in this study.
Mahnoor Islam, Rehan Afsar, Abid Ali, Faizan Haider Naqvi
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 75-80; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i3.46

Abstract:
Background : The purpose of this study is to evaluate if ultrasonography may be used as an useful addition to clinical and radiology profiles in diagnosing dengue fever and predicting virus severity by comparing imaging findings. The difference in sonographic characteristics observed in patients of various ages was also investigated. Objective : The goal of this study is to determine role of ultrasound for diagnosis of complications of dengue fever in Gujrat Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study. From October and December 2021, 79 patients who were serologically confirmed with dengue fever were referred for ultrasound scanning of the abdomen at Aziz bhatti shaheed hospital Gujrat, and the imaging data were evaluated. The statistical kit for social science (spss) is used for data analysis. Results: out of 76 positive dengue patients there are 71(89.9%) male and 8(10%) are female .48 (60.8%) patients showed splenomegaly, 24(30%) patients showed ascites in which 8 (10%) have pelvic ascites and 16 (20.3%) abdominal ascites, 63 (79.7%) patients showed edematous GB wall thickening, 21(26.6%) showed pleural effusion while 18 (22.8 %) have bilateral pleural effusion and 3 (3.8%) have right sided. Conclusion: In patients presenting with fever and concomitant symptoms, sonographic signs of thickening GB wall, pleural effusion (bilateral or right side), ascites, and splenomegaly should strongly help in early diagnosis of dengue fever, especially during an outbreak.
Burhan Ahmad Mubashar, Taiba Zulfiqar, Abid Ali, Ali Rashid
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 123-128; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i3.52

Abstract:
Background: Infertility is a gynecological illness which has clinical, financial and psychological consequences that affects 1.3% to 25.7% of couples throughout the world. Hysterosalpingography is a typical imaging technique used in gynecological practice to diagnose infertility in women. Aim And Objective: The objective of our study was to evaluate the frequency of Hysterosalpingography findings in females presenting with infertility in Gujrat. Methodology: The prospective cross sectional study was carried out at X-Ray unit in Azeem Ultrasound & Digital X-Rays center, Gujrat, Pakistan. A total of 90 females patients with infertility were enrolled in present study. The duration of this research work was from February 2022 to May 2022. The data was gathered using a predesigned questionnaire form.. Statistical Package of Social Sciences was used to analyze the data. Frequency of different findings was found out. These were then graphically portrayed in the form of tables and graphs. Results : We observed 90 female patients out of which 72 (80%) patients found to be normal. In 18 (20%) patients fallopian tube blockage was diagnosed. Out of 18 patients, 8 (8.9%) were having right sided fallopian tube blockage, 8(8.9%) were having bilateral tubal blockage while only 2 (2.2%) showed left sided tube block. Hydrosalpinx was found in 4(4.4%) patients and uterine anomaly in 2(2.2%) patients. Conclusion: Fallopian tube blockage and hydrosalpinx were common factors of infertility in our study. Hysterosalpingography provides an easy and affordable source for evaluation of infertility factors.
Atika Hasan, Muhammad Ahmad Naeem, Abid Ali, Nosheen Arshad, Syed Naqi Abbas, Hassan Mumtaz
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 90-98; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i3.48

Abstract:
Introduction: A congenital abnormality is referred to as a congenital illness or deformity. In the first four weeks of life, 276,000 newborns die from congenital impairments, giving birth to a total of around 3 million fetuses and babies; these fetuses and infants are affected by abdominal fetal deformities. Each demographic has a different prevalence of birth defects. Using standard ultrasonography, we set out to find out how often it is to see congenital fetal abdominal abnormalities in Gujrat District of Pakistan. Methods: From January 2022 to June 2022, researchers will conduct cross-sectional study at the Azeem Diagnostic Center Gujrat. 397 This research included pregnant women in the first, second, and third trimesters. Statistical analysis of prenatal ultrasound findings was carried out via the use of a structured questionnaire. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant when using the Chi-square test to look for a relationship. Odds Ratio was used to calculate illness risk. Results: Twenty separate pregnant women who had ultrasounds had fetal congenital impairments discovered. Patients with Atresia or Renal Agenesis are nine times more likely to have an Omphalocele than those without (odds ratio = 0.994, 95 percent confidence range = 0.986-1.002). Conclusion: It is a noninvasive imaging technique that is incredibly sensitive and accurate while also being quite affordable in the hands of a skilled professional. At least during the second trimester, obstetricians should encourage their patients to get regular ultrasounds.
Amna Athar, Nosheen Arshad, Abid Ali, Akash John, Rehan Asfar
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 116-122; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i3.51

Abstract:
Background: with the increasing numbers of elected caesarean the cases of abnormal placental implantation such as previa is also increasing. Mortality and morbidity of mother increase with placenta previa due to increase in the incidence of bleeding during pregnancy. Objective: this study was performed to evaluate the prevalence between repeated elective caesarean section and abnormal implantation of plancenta / previa. Material and Patients: It is a cross-sectional study conducted over a period of 4 months from February 2022 to May 2022. A sample size of 35 patients was collected using purposive sampling technique. Data was collected from Lady Atchison Hospital Lahore and Christian Memorial Hospital. Patients with history of elected caesarean without any medical emergency were included in the current study. Patients with multiple gestations, patients with placental abruption, female with gestational age less than 28 weeks, smoker, diabetic patients and hypertensive patients were excluded. Data was analyzed using SPSS 20 Results: In the present study 35 patients were selected .Out of total 35 participants females aged 30yrs were more prevalent.. Regarding gestational age most femalesin this study had gestational age 28weeks In total 35 participants Placenta Previa was seen in 20 participates. Most cases of placenta Previa are seen in females who are gravida4 and para3. Conclusion: The study concluded that elected C-section and placenta previa are closely linked. It showed that pregnancies at the gestational age of 28 – 29 weeks have high privilege of placenta previa.
, Reynold Siburian
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 99-106; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i3.49

Abstract:
Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the cause of undergoing pandemic. Molecular testing in the form of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is considered as the diagnostic standard for detecting COVID-19. However, there are still certain issues with its application. We sought this study is to systematically review and summarize studies pertaining blood laboratory biomarkers for diagnosing COVID-19. Methods: The systematic review was conducted by following the PRISMA 2020 recommendations. We searched published articles in four databases (EbscoHost, Pubmed, Science Direct, and Scopus).that assessed the implementation of routine laboratory tests examination for diagnosing COVID-19 patients from March 2020 through September 2021. Results: Three studies were selected to be reviewed, with the number of participants ranging from 100 to 485 (total: 792). Peripheral blood count parameters were assessed in all studies. The monocyte-lymphocyte ratio had the highest accuracy. Several abnormalities of laboratory indicators such as white blood cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte, eosinophil, NLR, MLR, LDH, AST, ALT, and CRP were significantly different between COVID-19 positive patients to negative controls,. Conclusion: No single test could identify or distinguish COVID-19 from other pneumonia causes. However, laboratory biomarkers can be used as a complement to the COVID-19 diagnostic approach.
Uswah Batool, Rehan Afsar, Abid Ali, Maryam Jameel
Medical Science Journal for Advance Research, Volume 3, pp 81-89; https://doi.org/10.46966/msjar.v3i3.47

Abstract:
Background: Knee arthritis is one of the most prevalent orthopedic conditions that affect people of all ages and genders. The changes in height of the medial longitudinal arch is one of the causes of knee arthritis. There is evidence that knee arthritis may be caused by flat feet. However, there isn't enough proof to support the link between knee OA and cavus foot. Objectives: The major goal of this study is to explain the association between foot arch height and knee arthritis. The other objective is to find the incidence of pes planus and pes cavus in people who have knee arthritis. Methodology: 76 individuals of middle age who had knee arthritis were included, excluded people with any surgery or fracture of the lower extremity. Footprints were taken through inkpads for measurement of the medial longitudinal arch. The feet are classified into three types on the basis of the Staheli arch index. Data on knee and foot arthritis were collected through X-Ray, proforma, and footprints. Data were analyzed by SPSS. Descriptive Analysis Cross tabulation was used to assess the association between knee arthritis and foot arches. Results: The findings of this study suggest an insignificant link between foot arch height and knee arthritis. Pes rectus was present in 56.6 percent of knee OA patients. Comparing pes planus and pes cavus, pes cavus was more common than pes planus among participants. Regardless of the height of the foot arch, the majority (57.9%) had Grade 3 knee arthritis. Conclusions: It was concluded that arch height had little to no effect on age-related knee OA. Regardless of arch height, knee arthritis was quite common in females aged 41 to 50. The majority of patients had both knees affected by OA. Patients with knee arthritis were shown to have more pes cavus than pes planus in terms of foot type but that percentage was still less than normal foot type.
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