ISSN / EISSN: 00368504 / 20477163
Published by: SAGE Publications
Total articles ≅ 1,635
Latest articles in this journal
Science Progress, Volume 106; https://doi.org/10.1177/00368504231152740
Background: Telemedicine support virtual consultations and evaluations in hand surgery for patients in remote areas during the COVID-19 era. However, traditional physical examination is challenging in telemedicine and it is inconvenient to manually measure the hand range of motion (ROM) from images or videos. Here, we propose an automatic method using the hand pose estimation technique, aiming to measure the hand ROM from smartphone images. Methods: Twenty-eight healthy volunteers participated in the study. An eight-hand gestures measurement protocol and the Google MediaPipe Hands were used to analyze images and calculate the ROM automatically. Manual goniometry was also performed according to the guideline of the American Medical Association. The correlation between the automatic and manual methods was analyzed by the intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson correlation coefficient. The clinical acceptance was testified using Bland-Altman plots. Results: A total of 32 parameters of each hand were measured by both methods, and 1792 measurement results were compared. The mean difference between automatic and manual methods is −2.21 ± 9.29° in the angle measurement and 0.48 ± 0.48 cm in the distance measurement. The intraclass correlation coefficient of 75% of parameters was higher than 0.75, the Pearson correlation coefficient of 84% of parameters was over 0.6, and 40.6% of parameters reached well-accepted clinical agreements. Conclusions: The proposed method provides a helpful protocol for automatic hand ROM measurement based on smartphone images and the MediaPipe Hands pose estimation technique. The automatic measurement is acceptable and comparable with existing methods, showing a possible application in the telemedicine examination of hand surgery.
Science Progress, Volume 106; https://doi.org/10.1177/00368504231153489
Environmental quality is a sustainability issue influenced by economic realities. To understand their relationships and influence, a comparative study of economic factors that affect pollution in Iwo and Ibadan metropolia was carried out. Data for the study was generated by administering 1067 structured questionnaires at both locations out of which 215 and 658 were, respectively, retrieved from Iwo and Ibadan. Demographic features of the respondents assessed as female gender, married status, tertiary education, a Christian sect, and household size of two to five, were 52%, 67%,79%, 67%, and 55% in that order for Iwo; while for Ibadan, the figures were 67%, 61%, 86%, 69%, and 58% in the same order. The six economic factors evaluated were; (1) income, (2) accommodation & living standards, (3) waste & noise management regimen, (4) energy utilization (5), inclination toward a green economy, and (6) waste sorting technology and adoption. KMO (74.8%) and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity showed that the data were factorable at p < 0.005. Results considered three of the economic variables as significant enough to explain 59.3% of the pollution state in Iwo and 60.2% in Ibadan. Of major importance for Iwo were waste & noise management regime (22.5%), accommodation & living standards (18.7%), and inclination towards a green economy (18.3%). In Ibadan, the three extracted factors also explained 60.2% of all economic variables affecting pollution. These were accommodation and living standards (24.4%), inclination towards a green economy (18.8%), and waste & noise management regime (17.0%). That means the strong economic influencers of pollution were common to both cities, even though, their order of importance varied. In other words, their degree of influence on pollution may be location dependent. Conclusively, the people's standard of living and inclination towards a green economy are compelling determinants of environmental pollution and so should be considered by stakeholders in formulating associated policies.
Science Progress, Volume 106; https://doi.org/10.1177/00368504221147173
Colorectal cancer (CRC) can be resistant to platinum drugs, possibly through ferroptosis suppression, albeit the need for further work to completely understand this mechanism. This work aimed to sum up current findings pertaining to oxaliplatin resistance (OR) or resistance to ascertain the potential of ferroptosis to regulate oxaliplatin effects. In this review, tumor development relating to iron homeostasis, which includes levels of iron that ascertain cells’ sensitivity to ferroptosis, oxidative stress, or lipid peroxidation in colorectal tumor cells that are connected with ferroptosis initiation, especially the role of c-Myc/NRF2 signaling in regulating iron homeostasis, coupled with NRF2/GPX4-mediated ferroptosis are discussed. Importantly, ferroptosis plays a key role in OR and ferroptotic induction may substantially reverse OR in CRC cells, which in turn could inhibit the imbalance of intracellular redox induced by oxaliplatin and ferroptosis, as well as cause chemotherapeutic resistance in CRC. Furthermore, fundamental research of small molecules, ferroptosis inducers, GPX4 inhibitors, or natural products for OR coupled with their clinical applications in CRC have also been summarized. Also, potential molecular targets and mechanisms of small molecules or drugs are discussed as well. Suggestively, OR of CRC cells could significantly be reversed by ferroptosis induction, wherein this result is discussed in the current review. Prospectively, the existing literature discussed in this review will provide a solid foundation for scientists to research the potential use of combined anticancer drugs which can overcome OR via targeting various mechanisms of ferroptosis. Especially, promising therapeutic strategies, challenges ,and opportunities for CRC therapy will be discussed.
Science Progress, Volume 106; https://doi.org/10.1177/00368504221145541
This study assesses the extent to which the association between erythrocyte sedimentation rate, a marker of inflammation, and cognitive function is explained by shared familial factors using within-sibling analyses. Men who were born in Sweden between 1950 and 1965 and recorded in the Swedish Military Conscription Register between 1969 and 1983 were included ( N = 632,396). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and cognitive function were measured at the conscription assessment (median age = 18.3 years, with a range from 15.5 to 28.5 years). Conventional linear regression and multilevel linear regression with a hybrid modeling approach were used, with the latter to obtain within-effect estimation in which unmeasured familial confounding shared by siblings was controlled for. We found that the association between erythrocyte sedimentation rate and cognitive function at conscription assessment was partly accounted for by, but remained independent of, shared familial factors.
Science Progress, Volume 106; https://doi.org/10.1177/00368504221146060
The press and sinter method remains the standard among powder metallurgy processes for powdered stainless-steel materials. It delivers low cost, low oxidation rate, and adequate corrosion resistance. Furthermore, 17-4PH is a martensitic stainless-steel that is commonly used for high-strength and medium-ductility stainless steel parts. However, a few studies have investigated the press and sinter method for producing 17-4PH parts. This shortage is due to the high hardness (low compressibility) of 17-4PH powder. Thus, the main objective of this study is to evaluate the press and sinter method in terms of the manufacturing process, the influencing factors, and the theoretical basis of press and sinter methods in conjunction with metal injection molding technology for the production of 17-4PH parts. First, the literature and monographs are examined and summarized to cover the previous results, research progress, development trends, and applications of press and sinter method 17-4PH parts. Following the theoretical analysis, the practical investigation was conducted by producing parts with cold pressing from 800 to 1600 MPa, followed by sintering: the sintering temperature was 1200 °C for one hour under a protective vacuum atmosphere. ImageJ analysis was performed to measure the sinter density. The results showed an increase in relative sinter density from 84.43% to 96.43% for 800 and 1600 MPa, respectively, while the earlier results reached 93.47%. Overall, the press and sinter method enables the production of high-hardness 17-4PH parts with a high density, without using additives like lubricants, wax, or alloying elements.
Science Progress, Volume 106; https://doi.org/10.1177/00368504231152747
Green production, which reduces hazardous industrial discharges per unit output, is promoted throughout China. The Environmental Kuznets Curve suggests a negative correlation between hazardous industrial discharge and economic growth due to green innovation. This study expanded the EKC framework by including heterogeneity in evaluating the relationship between hazardous industrial discharges and economic growth to reflect green transformation. Administrative ranking disparity is identified as one of the fundamental driving forces of green production transition in a developing country. Building on an enriched EKC framework, we used a spatial estimation model to exclude spatial effects and obtained accurate estimates of the classified regions. The modified research method was used to examine whether industrial pollution has been reduced in 267 cities and towns in China from 2007 to 2021. Environmental protection performance was examined to estimate whether there is a switch to green manufacturing. As industrial hazards are of different types, the author sought to determine whether there was a decrease in industrial sulphur dioxide emissions, wastewater, solid waste, or dust, even though more industrial hazards were recycled than before. The spatial estimates indicated that (a) the national level of pollution remains positively linked with the total output, and every percentage of output growth increases sulphur dioxide emissions by 444.573 tons; (b) a positive relationship between economic growth and wastewater is altered by environmental protection in cities, while the general decoupling between economic growth and other types of industrial pollution, such as solid waste and industrial dust, was not observed; (c) growth in the southeast was decoupled from sulphur emissions, and its sulphur dioxide production per unit of output increased to 0.021 tons. Sulphur dioxide emissions per unit of economic growth along the southeast coast were 379. 048 tons, which was well below the overall average of 444.573 tons. High-income towns along the southeast coast have achieved clean production breakthroughs, realising a 15% reduction in industrial sulphur dioxide emissions by 2021. Although there were signs of a shift toward clean manufacturing in high administrative ranking cities, most regions of China are transitioning to environmentally friendly manufacturing and suffer from the hardships of green production transformation.
Science Progress, Volume 106; https://doi.org/10.1177/00368504231152741
Science Progress, Volume 106; https://doi.org/10.1177/00368504231152770
Cities are vulnerable to a range of disasters that can occur simultaneously due to their complexity. Therefore, an effective disaster response plan is needed to reduce the disaster vulnerability of cities. In particular, evacuation route management is important for reducing the losses from a disaster. Efficient disaster response can be realized by searching for suitable evacuation routes and effective road network management. In this paper, we propose a disaster response framework based on a multilayered road network structure and evacuation routes based on our road network. The suggested road structure consists of three layers for the effective management of the network. An A* algorithm-based search for multiple evacuation routes under different conditions in response to an individual disaster on the configured road map provides a safe route for evacuees. As a result, the damage caused by disasters in urban areas can be ameliorated.
Science Progress, Volume 106; https://doi.org/10.1177/00368504221150430
Nanoplastic pollution is an emerging environmental threat to the critical zone. The transport of nanoplastic particles in subsurface environments can be determined mainly by soil minerals because they provide surfaces that interact with nanoplastic particles. However, the interactions between mineral surfaces and nanoplastics are poorly understood. In this study, the deposition kinetics of polystyrene-nanoplastic particles onto representative oxide surfaces SiO2 and Al2O3 at circumneutral pH were investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance, with variations in the ionic strength (0.1–100 mM) of the well-dispersed nanoplastic particles suspension. While polystyrene-nanoplastic particles deposited minimally on the SiO2 surface at an ionic strength of < 100 mM (∼10 ng/cm2), substantial deposition occurred at 100 mM (3.7 ± 0.4 μg/cm2). On the Al2O3 surface, a significant amount of polystyrene-nanoplastic particle was deposited from the lowest ionic strength (4.5 ± 0.8 μg/cm2). The deposition mass at 100 mM NaCl was two times higher (7.2 ± 0.2 μg/cm2) than on the SiO2 surface, while the deposition rates were similar between the two surfaces (10–15 Hz/min). Our results indicate that alumina most likely exerts a stronger influence than quartz on the transport of nanoplastic particles in soils and groundwater aquifers. The deposition kinetics strongly depends on the mineral surface and solution ionic strength, and these quantitative results can serve as validation data in developing transport modeling of nanoplastic in subsurface environments.
Science Progress, Volume 106; https://doi.org/10.1177/00368504221150071
In this paper, we describe the results of an online survey consisting of 23 questions created to evaluate the knowledge and interest on animal welfare by students attending 15 different scientific, medical, and biomedical courses at University of Sassari, Italy. The survey collected students’ demographic data, level of knowledge both on animal welfare and 3Rs, as well as their opinions on animal experimentation. The majority of the cohort was female and over 24 years of age. About a third of the students responded that their graduate programme included subjects that taught science, ethics, and animal welfare legislation. Just 21.2% of respondents had heard about the concept of 3Rs. About a quarter of the students believed that animal models can be replaced by in vitro and in silico methods while half believed that both are needed. However, 70% of the participants did not know the existence of an Ethics and Animal Welfare Committee. The result showed the importance of an Animal Welfare Course for the professional future of a larger number of students and underlined the key role of veterinary medicine in promoting ethics and animal experimentation.