Geopolitical issues in health and biosecurity concerning gain-of-function research, emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases
There are global concerns in the dissemination and transmission dynamics of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases and the underlying features of gain-of-function research and geopolitics within and across borders. These concerns have become pertinent in the management of local and global health because the disease is perspicuously a geopolitical issue ostensibly linked to gain-of-function research where health diplomacy focuses on the present and future global emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases, pandemics, and microbiome variants. These have generated vehement reactions with a propensity for extreme geopolitics and gain-of-function natural and anthropogenic activities. Geopolitical parameters and gain-of-function issues impact the social determinants of health and vice versa. The convening and convergence of countries for unprecedented epidemic or pandemic treaty settings or other formulations to confront emerging and reemerging infectious diseases will afford considerable opportunities concerning challenges in action, preparedness, and response. Provisions are pertinent for legal instruments, effective and efficient systems to curb future threats and outbreaks of infectious diseases.
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